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6000929277 


'« 


ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 


AXD  OF 


SPELLING. 


4  • 


\, 


0 
* 


ERRORS   OF  SPEECH 


Ajsj>  or 


SPELLING. 


BT  THB  BIT. 

E.   COBHAM   BREWER,    LL.D. 

(fit  Vtiidtv  |$rQ»  CRinbxQigt)* 

AUTBOB  OF 

"ChUde  to  SHenee"  (iOO.OWHh}; 

"History  of  France"  {brought  down  to  the  preteni  year); 

"  Dictionary  qf  Phraee  and  Fable  **  ( 8rd  edition); 

"  Lee  Ph^nomhies  de  Tone  leeJoure"  (dedicated  by  authority  to  Napoleon  III., 

and  eanetioned  by  Mgnr.  Sibour,  Abp.  of  Parie); 

Jte.,^bo, 


yOLITME  I. 


ILontion  x 

WILLIAM    TEGG    AND    CO., 

PANOBIS  LANS,  OHEAPBISl. 

1877. 


/  • 


•»,  ■ 


•   1 


P&nraxD  ET  HoCosQuoDALa  aud  Go., 
Basotohaiji  Sxebkb. 


FREFACE. 


— ♦" 


Objzot  m  View. 

The  olj ect  of  thiB  Dietionttry  is  not  to  eoUeet  together  all  the 
words  employed  in  the  language,  nor  to  ftmuah  an  ezhaustiye 
list  ai  the  several  meanings  of  each  Woi:d,-*fcnt  simply  to  call 
iftfc^tion  to  errcnrs  of  speech  and  ispelling  made,  not  by  the 
oneduoated,  hM  by  those  who  Wsh  to  speak  ahd  spell  correctly. 

In  pursuance  of  these  oliJM^  the  {dan  adopted  is — 

1.  To  omit  all  words  wfaidi  Are  to  obvious  as  to  present  no 
difficulty  of  meanings,  spelling,  ot  pronunciation.* 

2.  To  supply  the  correct  spelling  and  pronunciation  of  every 
word  likely  to  be  looked  for  in  such  si^manual  as  this. 

3.  Xo  point  out  those  errors  in  spelling,  pronunciaty)n,  or 
nBe,  iSs  he  especially  guarded  against. 

4.  To  give  so  much  c^  the  meaning  of  each  Word  as  may 
suffice  to  identify  it  and  explain  its  general  use. 

5.  To  set  side  by  side  homonyms,  paronyms,  and  synonyms, 
that  they  may  be  readily  compared  aiid  correctly  applied. 

6.  The  plural  of  every  word  (except  those  which  add  s  or  -es) 
is  given,  the  feminine  of  evei^  masculine,  the  past  tense  and 
past  participle  of  every  verb,  the  degrees  of  comparison,  the 
changes  of  -y  into  4eSj  the  doubling  of  consonants,  and  every 
other  variation  which  a  word  in  its  different  phases  undergoes. 

In  carrying  out  the  scheme  some  repetition  has  been  made, 
with  a  vi0w  of  saving  the  searcher  that  tedious  and  most  un- 
satisfiEustory  task  of  turning  to  a  word  which  he  does  not  want, 
after  he  has  been  at  the  pains  of  finding  the  one  which  he 
requires.  As  a  dictionary  is  read  piece-meal  and  not  Consecu- 
tively, the  only  fault  of  these  repetitions  is  that  it  somewhat 
enlarges  the  bulk  of  the  book* 

*  Hie  eailier  letten  of  the  bt)6k  are  not  so  full  as  the  litter.  The 
origiiiid  intention  was  to  lindt  the  sLae  of  the  book  to  about  800  pagea. 


W  PREFACE. 

7.  Attention  is  called  to  all  outrages  of  spelling  and  c(ft^' 
bination;  but,  that  the  corrections  suggested  may  in  no  wi^ 
interfere  with  the  received  spelling  or  pronunciatLon,  fhej  8^ 
invariably  added  as  notes  in  a  smaller  Ijpe.  Thus  equerry  i^ 
pointed  out  as  indefensible  in  spelling,  rhyme  (meaning  tb^ 
clink  of  words  in  poetry),  indelihlet  inngUus  (from  the  German 
*'  hausenblase,"  a  sturgeon's  bladder),  impoathume  for  "  aposteme,*' 
infusible  (both  positive  and  negative),  pedometer  for  "podo' 
meter,"  defence  and  offence  for  "defense"  and  "offense,"  letUf 
and  lettuce t  marry  and  marriage^  manacles  for  "mamclee,"  mar- 
malade for  "  marmelade,"  ospray  for  "  osfiray  "  (the  bone-breakerX 
poMcnger  and  messenger,  with  scores  of  others.  Some  of  then 
errors  may  probably  get  corrected  after  attention  has  been  called 
to  them,  others  may  afford  amnsemeDt  or  gratify  literaiy  curiosity. 

8.  All  hybrids  are  noticed,  all  abnormal  derivations,  all  per- 
versions, all  blunders  of  philology,  all  inconsistencies:  fbr 
ezanipie—pro-ceed  with  -ceed,  and  pre-eede  with  -cede;  primo- 
geniture and  primo-genitor  for  "primi."  (Latin  "  prind-genitos,* 
&c.);  the  introduction  of  ^  in  the  middle  of  some  Greak  com- 
pounds and  its  omission  in  others,  as  philharmonie,  aphelion, 
diarrhaa,  philhellenist,  enhydrous,  &c.,  on  the  one  side,  and 
pan[h]oply,  ex[h}odus,  paTt[h}9rama,  anlh^omaly,  peri[h}od,  Ac, 
on  the  other.  In  some  instances  the  h  is  omitted  even  at  the 
beginning  of  a  word,  as  udometert  although  we  have  fiAy  other 
compounds  of  hudor  with  the  "h"  affixed,  apse  for  "hapse," 
erpetology  for  "herpetdogy,"  endeeagon  for  "hendecagon,"  and 
that  much  abused  word  eurika,  which  ought  to  be  "heurdka." 

Amongst  the  many  instances  of  perversion,  take  the  following 
from  the  French :'  connoisseurt  dishevel,  frontispiece,  lutestring, 
encore,  epergne,  furnish  (for  "  gamir"),  and  furniture  (for  **  mea- 
bles").  Some  of  these  perversions  are  too  well  established  to 
be  disturbed,  but  it  cannot  £eu1  to  amuse  the  curious  to  pry  into 
these  oddities. 

Our  hybrids  are  above  dOO  words  in  common  use:  witness 
octopus  (Latin  and  Greek),  grandson  (English-French  and 
English),  grand-father  (French  and  English),  Jn-monthly  (Latin 
and  English),  demisemi-quaver  (French,  Latin,  and  Spanish). 
In  regard  to  "grandfather"  and  "great-grandfiftther"  we  have 


I 


130  exeme,  as  «Ke6llent  irftds  existed  Ibr  those  relstionsIiipB 
before  the  oonqneet;  '*hi-m<mth]y''  If  retj  ofajeetionahle,  and 
"  oetopos*  IB  a  biHiider. 

BxziiosAev  ijn>  Dbbivatidh. 

Etymology  is  tito  tnusing  of  a  word  back  to  its  original  aonree, 
«od  sherwing  the  ethnologieal  ehanges  it  has  gone  through  in 
its  trarels  thenee  to  its  setdemeni  in  the  langaage  imdw  eon- 
BidelaaoB. 

DeriratieB  is  simply  showing  item  wh«t  sooree  a  peo^  came 
by  a  oertain  word,  regardleeB  of  any  more  remote  origin. 

Take  two  Tery  simple  iHastratioDS.  A  man  offers  me  some 
diannas,  snd  I  ask  him  wivare  they  oome  from,  he  replies  item 
his  own  garden.  TbaH  woidd  be  *' derivation''  if  aj^Hed  to 
langaage;  bat  if  he  wteilt  ialothe  tale  abont  lAonnas  and  the 
Mithridatic  war,  showinfg  that  the  Bomsn  general  transplanted 
tfaem  from  Oerasas  to  his  own  garden  at  Borne;  that  the 
Bomaoff  imp(»ted  the  tree  into  I^Niin,  where  the  word  was 
modzfted  into  eereza;  that  the  French  obtained  the  tree  ftt>m 
their  neighbours,  and,  hadng  the  letter  ir,  changed  the  word  to 
cm$e;  that  we  bonrowed  it  from  the  French,  and  called  the 
word  cherrUB:  this  wocdd  be  etymology,  more  or  less  raluable 
M  each  stage  of  the  process  eouH  be  prored  to  be  an  historical 
fMt;  but  for  everyday  life  the  sim|^  answer,  ^tbey  came  from 
my  own  garden,"  would  be  quite  sufficient,  and  the  learned 
disquisitbn  about  LaeoUus  and  his  wars  would  be  tedious  and 
out  of  place. 

So,  again,  a  labourer  named  Hetty  setfies  in  our  village,  and 
I  ask  a  neighbour  where  the  man  came  from. '  He  replies  from 
Singietcm,  the  other  side  of  the  Downs.  That  is  all  I  require. 
But  another  infi^ms  me  that  the  original  &mi3y  came  from  the 
terra  incognita  called  Arya,  somewhere  near  the  ancient  garden 
of  Eden,  and  that  the  word  may  be  distinctly  traced  in  all  the 
Aryan  family  <^  languages.  Thus  we  have  the  Gothic  hath, 
the  High  German  hadt  the  old  FranMsh  chad,  the  Celtic  ctxth 
in  Gathmor,  the  Scandinavian  Hoedhr  (according  to  Grimm). 
We  have  the  Catti,  a  warlike  tribe  of  Teutonic  origin,  Goto  and 
C(UitUu8  in  Latin,  Cadwalha  in  Welsh,  Chahot  in  French,  from 

b 


vi  PREFACE. 

the  Aryan  word  eod,  meaning  "war."  This,  again,  may  be  very 
well  in  its  place :  "  Fortasse  cnpressum  scis  simolare :  qnid  hoc, 
si  fractds  enatat  expes  naTibns  aero  dato  qui  pingitnr?"  This 
learned  parade  is  too  lengthy  and  too  emdite  for  the  purpose  in 
hand,  and  the  simple  answer,  "the  man  oomes  from  Singleton," 
is  all-safBicient. 

In  this  manual  no  attempt  has  been  made  to  trace  cherries  to 
Pontos,  or  the  name  of  the  ploughman  to  the  hypothetical 
Aryan  word  meaning  ''war;"  bat  to  give  a  fair  idea  of  the 
heterogeneous  character  of  our  language,  and  to  show  the  mean- 
ing of  words,  their  deriyation  is  given.  When  the  French  is 
a  modified  Latin  word,  or  the  Latin  a  modified  Ghreek  word, 
the  earlier  form  is  added  also;  but  no  unravelling  of  etymology 
proper  has  been  attempted,  except  indeed  when  the  change  of  a 
word  (as  sir  from  aruix,  a 'king)  tells  a  tale  startling  to  the  eye, 
but  obvious  the  moment  it  is  pointed  out. 

It  may,  however,  be  mentioned,  that  not  one  sin^e  derivation 
has  been  taken  on  trust,  everyone  has  been  verified  by  personal 
reference  to  some  well-established  dictionary  of  the  language 
referred  to,  be  it  French,  Spanish,  Danish,  Anglo-Saxon,  Latin, 
Greek,  or  what  not.  The  necessity  of  this  precaution  is  fax 
more  important  than  many  would  suppose;  for  not  only  have 
printers'  errors,  manuscript  *'  slips,"  and  authors'  blunders  been 
handed  down  from  dictionary  to  dictionary  in  a  most  incredible 
manner,  but  scores  of  words  have  been  coined  for  the  nonce, 
scores  of  others  have  been  tortured  in  spelling  and  meaning,  or 
dressed  up  so  as  to  make  Jacob  look  like  Esau,  while  not  a  few 
have  been  deemed  foreigners  which  belong  to  our  own  Anglo- 
Saxon  medley  of  words. 

Opening  the  first  English  dictionary  of  established  reputation 
at  hand,  a  dictionary  especially  praised  by  one  of  our  most 
reputed  Reviews  "for  its  accurate  and  very  excellent  deriva- 
tions," we  meet  in  one  page  taken  at  random  the  following 
specimens :  Gale  (Danish  paZui,  a  blast),  whereas  the  Danish 
verb  is  kuU  (to  blow),  and  no  such  word  as  "  galm"  exists  in  the 
language.  Gall  (to  fret)  is  said  to  be  the  French  gaUer,  but  the 
French  verb  is  gaUr  (to  scratch).  Gallon  is  given  (French 
0aUm)t  which  means  "  galoon,*'  and  should  be  galUm  with  double 


PREFACE.  vii 


2  as  in  English.  Oalley,  we  are  told  by  the  same  authority, 
is  Latin  gdleida,  a  word  most  certainly  not  Latin  at  all. 
Game  is  said  to  be  Anglo-Saxon  gan^an  (sport),  which  ought  to 
be  gamen.  Gaol  (Italian  gaiola),  a  word  contained  in  no  Italian 
dictionary,  the  nearest  to  it  is  gdio  (gay).  Garret  (French  garite); 
Bot  to  be  found,  bat  gaUta$  may  be  intended.  These  all  occur 
in  one  page.  Turning  over  the  leaves,  and  taking  the  words  at 
liap-bazard,  we  light  on  the  following :  Gloom  (German  gVumrn) ; 
but  no  snoh  word  exists  in  any  of  my  four  German  dictionaries, 
and  if  it  did,  the  obvious  derivation  is  our  own  gl6m.  Spigot 
(Italian  <pi^o,  a  spigot) ;  now,  it  is  very  true  there  is  an  Italian 
wozdfpi^,  but  it  means  "  lavander  "  or  "nard,"  and  the  word 
^  spigot  is  zipolo.  Lease  (French  laUaement);  no  such  word 
to  be  found,  the  nearest  to  it  is  lm8$e  (a  leash).  Loch  (Welsh 
Uwch,  a  lake) ;  but  the  Welsh  Uwch  means  "  dust,"  and  the  word 
oonesponding  to  "  loch  "  is  Uoc  (a  dam).  Quire  (French  quaier) ; 
no  snch  word  exists,  but  eahier  means  a  quire. 

It  would  be  mere  predantiy  to  go  further.  I  pledge  my  word 
that  these  extracts  are  copied  literaUy  and  exactly,  and  that 
BmOar  examples  may  be  taken  from  any  page  of  the  book.  Of 
eoorse,  I  cannot  mention  the  author's  name,  as  the  work  stands 
in  good  repute,  and  its  publishers  are  in  the  fore  rank  of  their 
profession.  When,  however,  it  is  stated  that  every  word  in  this 
Dictionary  has  been  personally  verified,  and  that  neither  the 
spelling  nor  meaning  of  one  single  word  has  been  tampered  with 
to  make  it  fit  the  occasion,  it  is  a  great  advantage,  which  may 
be  most  confidently  relied  on. 

A  goodly  number  of  the  "derivations"  difilBr  from  those 
nsaally  given,  but  therein  fancy  or  guess-work  has  had  no 
part.  The  word  "confervae"  is  usually  referred  to  the  Latin 
eonfervere  (to  boil  up),  but  the  connection  between  water-plants 
and  ebullition  is  not  obvious.  Pliny  teUs  us  these  plants  "were 
esteemed  cures  for  broken  bones,**  and  "  conferveo"  means  to  "knit 
together  broken  bones,"  a  good  and  sufficient  reason  for  the 
technical  term.  "  Psean  "  (a  hymn  to  Apollo,  and  applied  to  the 
god  himself)  we  are  told,  in  Dr.  Smith's  Classical  Dictionary,  is 
from  Paean,  the  physician  of  the  Olympian  gods ;  but  surely  it 
could  be  no  great  honour  to  the  Sun-god  to  be  called  by  the 


viii  PREFACS. 


name  of  his  own  vassaL  HemiBteifaidi  saggestn  paud  (to  make 
[diseaBee]  oease)  $  bat  paiOf  "  to  dart,"  seems  to  be  the  natural 
parent-word  of  the  "far-darter.**  Again,  the  nsaal  deriTadon 
of  ** mammy"  is  nrnm  (wax);  bat  Diodoras  Sicalas  says,  that 
"  the  pe<^le  of  the  BaleazJe  Isles  used  to  beat  the  bodies  of  the 
dead  with  ohibs  to  fendeit  them  flexibie,  in  older  that  they  might 
be  deposited  in  earthen  pots  ealled  mwnmaJ*  "Morgne  (a 
dead-house)  is  getmr^y  assoeiated  with  the  Latin  moT9  (death); 
but  Bouillet  tells  as  the  word  means  ifUage^  and  was  first 
applied  to  prison  vestibules,  wheM  new  criminals  were  placed 
to  be  somtinised,  that  the  prison  officials  might  familiarise 
themselves  with  the  fitces  and  igures  of  the  new  inmates. 
"Sky-lark"  (a  spree)  has  nothing  in  eommon  with  the  word 
Bhy.  It  is  a  contraction  of  **  Vtdsoi,"  by  which  the  Westminster 
boys  mean  "  snobs,"  and  a  *  sky-lark  "  is  a  lark  or  bout  with  the 
*8ci-men  or  thiet,  a  *^town  and  gown  row.^^  **  Lumber;"  one 
dictionary  gives  Uummet^  which  it  terms  "an  old  Dutch  word 
meaning  hmd»rAnce'**  anotlieer  gives  the  Anglo-Saxon  Uwna 
with  the  meaning  "  atenEBkb"  but  iAnb  only  meaning  of  ledma  is 
"  a  ray  of  light."  Lady  Morray  tells  t»  that  the  real  origin  of 
the  word  is  Iwrnhard  (a  pawnbroker's  shop,  originally  called  a 
"  lumber-room  "):  ^  They  pat  aU  the  little  plate  they  had  in  the 
lumber^  which  is  pawning  ft." 

Sometimes  the  analogy  between  ft  parent  woid  and  its  off- 
spring seems  so  very  remote  that  the  gMieral  reader  cannot 
trace  it:  the  missing  link  has  always  been  supplied  in  this 
Dictionary,  and  in  some  cases  thishas  brought  oat  informatkm 
of  a  very  mteiestmg  chaMotor.  ArehbieAiop  Trenoh  has  pointed 
oat  that  the  word  post  (immovably  fixed)  expresses  the  idea  also 
of  the  utmost  speed.  To  this  examine  many  others  equally 
curious  ar«  here  added:  thus,  "onion"  is  the  same  word  as 
union,  and,  strange  to  say,  both  are  equally  connected  with 
precious  peark.  ^'Complexion"  is  tiie  Latin  compUxum  (to  em- 
brace),  and  "eoKatenanee**  is  from  the  Latin  verb  Mnteneo  (to 
contain);  bat  it  is  by  no  means  obvious  at  isrst  sight  how 
"embraoe"  and  *'eontain"  oame  to  signify  the  "eolknat  and 
OTjimiiitiifn  of  the  fiMBe"  (»ee  complexion  and  distemper).  The 
KUj^iMi  of  ilowets  ȣferd  a  wide  fiefii  fbr  this  eariens  lore. 


^St^FACE. 


Speujno  Befobh. 

The  difficulty  and  Absurdity  of  oiur  fipelliDg  liaye  long  been  a 
very  general  complaint,  and  those  who  interest  themselves  in 
education  will  bear  witness  that  spelling  is  the  greatest  of  all 
stombling-blocks  in  examinations,  even  Lord  Byron  confesses 
*'  he  conld  never  master  English  orthography."  Many  devices 
haye  been  suggested  to  remedy  or  relieve  the  diffioolty,  bnt 
no  system  hitherto  projected  has  found  favour  with  the  general 
public 

In  all  spelling  refbraifl  three  things  are  essential  t  (1)  Nothing 
must  be  done  to  render  our  existing  literature  antiquated  and 
unreadable.  (8)  Nothing  must  be  done  to  render  etymology 
more  'obscure  and  intricate.  (8)  Nothing  must  be  done  which 
would  render  the  task  of  leaniing  to  read  more  laborious  and 
perplexing. 

Keeping  these  three  things  in  view,  much,  very  much,  might 
be  done  to  make  our  spelling  more  uniform  and  simple ;  and 
with  very  little  alteration  the  perplexity  of  pronouncing  words 
might  be  greatly  relieved. 

The  first  reform  in  spelling  should  be  to  abolish  all  printers' 
blunders  which  have  become  perpetuated,  all  wanton  caprices, 
and  all  needless  exceptions  to  general  rules. 

L  Take  those  words  derived  from  the  Latin  eedo  (to  go). 
Why  should  pro-ceed  be  spelt  one  way  and  pre-eede  another  ? 
No  reason  can  be  given  but  caprice.  The  twelve  examples 
belonging  to  this  class  of  words  should  be  made  to  conform  to 
one  uniform  pattern:  thus  aceeed,  anteeeed,  eonceed^  exceed^ 
interceed,  preceedt  proceed,  receed,  retroeeed,  seceed,  succeed^  and 
eeed.  The  termination  -ceed  is  preferable  to  -cede,  because 
the  word  would  remain  unchanged  throughout  all  its  parts, 
whereas  a  final  e  would  have  to  be  cut  off  with  some  affixes  and 
retained  with  others. 

"  Snpenede  "  Is  not  from  udo  to  go,  bat  tedeo  to  rit,  and  to  "  supersede  " 
Is  to  ait  above  another,  to  sit  in  a  higher  place  {Luke  xiv.  S-IO). 

IL  We  have  130  words  ending  in  e  mute  which  take  the 
suffix  -meatp  but  fiye  of  the  group  drop  the  "  e."    It  is  rather 


X  PREPACK 

curious  that  four  of  the  anomalous  words  are  examples  of 
e,  i,  0,  u  before  -dg,  as 

Acknowledg-ment  •  •  •  « before  -dg, 
Abridg-ment  •  •  •  •  •  i  bef oie  -dg, 
Lodg-ment  •  •  •  •  •  o  befpie  -dg, 
Jndg-ment «  before  -dg. 

The  only  other  exception  is  argtie,  which  makes  arffu-metd, 

ILL  The  next  class  of  words  needing  reform  is  much  larger. 
There  are  two  general  rules  which,  if  strictly  observed,  would 
do  much  to  simplify  our  spelling. 

(a)  Monosyllables  ending  in  one  consonant,  preceded  by  one 
Towel,  double  the  last  letter  when  a  suffix  beginning  with  a 
vowel  is  added :  as  "thin/*  thinn-er,  thinn-eBU  thinn-ed,  t^tmi-ing. 

(6)  Dissyllables  accented  on  the  last  syllable,  under  the  same 
conditions,  are  treated  in  the  same  way:  as  '*  defer',"  defeiY-edp 
deferr'-mgj  deferVer,  <fec. 

The  negatives  of  these  two  rules  are : — 

(e)  Monosyllables,  and  also  dissyllables-aceented-on-the-last- 
eyllable,  do  not  double  the  final  consonant  (1)  if  more  than  one 
vowel  precedes  it;  and  (2)  if  no  vowel  at  all  precedes  it:  as 
*' clear"  (more  than  one  vowel  before  the  final  consonant), 
hence  clear-&ty  elear-est,  cZear-ing,  cZ«ar-ed,  <fec.;  "blight"  (the 
final  letter  is  not  preceded  by  a  vowel  at  all),  hence  hright-Qv^ 
bright-est,  &q, 

^)  No  dissyllable  (even  if  it  ends  in  one  consonant  preceded 
by  one  vowel)  doubles  the  last  letter  on  receiving  an  affix,  unless 
the  accent  of  the  word  is  on  its  final  syllable :  thus  "  dif 'fer  " 
(although  it  terminates  in  one  consonant,  and  that  final  con- 
sonant is  preceded  by  only  one  vowel)  remains  unchanged 
throughout,  because  it  is  not  accented  on  the  last  syllable: 
•'  differ,"  differ-iag,  difjer-ed,  differ-er,  dt/'/er-ence,  &c. 

If  these  rules  could  be  relied  on  they  would  be  useful  enough, 
but  the  exceptions  are  so  numerous  that  the  rule  is  no  rule  at 
all.  The  first  palpable  observation  is  that  the  rule  will  not 
apply  even  to  the  most  favoured  examples :  thus  "  defer',"  it  is 
true,  makes  deferr^-mg,  deferr^'edf  <fec.,  but  it  has  only  one  r  in 
dif*er-mee  and  defer-en'tiaL  If  it  is  objected  that  the  accent 
I^^Jfui'disrer.enoe"  is  thrown  back  to  the  first  syllable  and  of 


PREFACE.  zi 

"deferen'tial'' is  thrown  fbrward,  the  reply  is  this,  fifty  other 

examples  ean  be  produced  to  show  that  accent  has  no  part  or 

lot  in  the  matter. 

We  have  nine  dissyllables  ending  in  p  not  accented  on  the 

last  syllable.  Six  of  these  preserve  one  p  thronghoat,  and  three 

of  them  doable  the  p  when  a  snfflx  beginning  with  ayowel  is 

added: — 

Ural  '*  goe'iip*  makes  goMipp-er,  QonXpp-^A,  gotHpp-ing,  goulpp-j, 
"Idd'oAp**  makes  hidnapp^er,  feidnapp-ed,  hidnapp-iag, 
"wox'ship''  makes  wonhipp-et,  «oraAlpp-ed,  loorsAipp-ingi 

Compare  with  the  aBo?e  the  following  examples  :— 

"  KWip,-  ^Kp-ed,  fiUip-big, 

"Gallop,"  gcUlop-ed,  ^ottop-ing,  gaUop-mSB,  &o. 

"ScaHop,"  aeaUop-edf  aeaUop-ing, 

"WaHop,**  lootlop-ed,  toaUop-tng,  wxUop-^r. 

"CDeJreFop,'*  [de]iM2op-ed,  idelvdop-iag,  Idejvelop-m. 

What  reason  can  be  given  why  the  first  three  of  these  words 
should  doable  the  p  and  the  last  six  shoald  not?  It  is  mere 
wantonness,  and  the  saperflaoos  p  of  the  first  three  words  oaght 
to  be  suppressed. 

^  The  case  with  words  ending  in  lis  still  worse.    There  are 

between  ninety  and  one  hundred  words  of  two  syllables  accented 

on  the  first  syllable  and  having  one  consonant  for  the  last  letter 

preceded  by  only  one  vowel.    Of  these  words  about  one-half 

conform  to  the  rule,  and  the  rest  are  a  rule  unto  themselves. 

For  example : — 

"E'qual'*  makes  equaU-ed,  equaH-ing,  and,  to  make  matters  worse, 
equcU'-itj,  although  the  accent  is  brought  to  the  last  syllable  of  the  simple 
word,  eguoMse,  eguoMsed,  e^uaMsing,  eqwU-iaer,  fto. 

"Mar'shal"  makes  tnar«ha{2-ed,  marthaU'tng,  fnarthaU-eit, 
"  SJg'nal "  makes  sigiuM-ed  and  ngnall-ing,  bat  aigjialriae,  Ao, 

Above  twenty  other  words  in  -al  do  not  double  the  I,  as : 

Brutal,  eamcU,  crystal,  feudal,  final,  formal,  frugal,  local,  loyal,  moral, 
regal,  tocial,  tpedal,  venal,  and  vocal.  To  these  add  capital,  federal, 
general,  lih&ral,  mineral,  national,  and  rcdional. 

%  Of  those  ending  in  ^el  some  fifty  double  the  I,  and  seven  or 
eight  do  not:  thus — 

*' An'geL**  makes  angel'-io,  angel'-ical,  &c. 

"Chi'sel"  makes  c^ue^-ed,  chisel-iDg,  chisel-er. 

**  Impan'nel"  makes  impamnel-ed,  impannel-tng,  but  not  panel 

"  Han'sel "  makes  hanad-ed,  hanad-iag. 


xii  PREPACK 

"PaiaUel"  XMtkm  jMrottoI-ed^  psuraJlMring, paeraXte^KJisi^sim,  &c. 

"Tea'sel"  makes  teasel-^,  t«a«eMng. 

"Gospel'*  makes  gospelUet,  but  ^Mpel-lse,  gotptMa&t,  &o. 

The  fifty  which  double  the  I  are-^ 

Apparel,  barrel,  chancel,  ehapel,  corbel^  eoumd,  cudgel,  driwi»  ^'^^* 
embowel,  entrammel,  flannel,  fuel,  gramel,  grovel,  Tiansel,  housel,  hovel, 
impail,  j&nbel,  kennel,  hemel,  label,  knirel,  level,  Hbel,  marvel,  model,  pangl, 
parcel,  pommd,  quuirrel,  ravtA,  revel,  rowel,  eentinel,  shovel,  eniixL,  spoMoel, 
ewvoel,  taseel,  Uauel,  Unael,  ttmnel,  tramm^,  t/roAkl,  vanM,,  vowel,  dca 

§  Of  the  dozen  words  in  -il  there  are  fonr  which  preserve  the 
single  I  throughout  and  eight  which  double  it.    The  four  are — 

"CivU,"  civil'-ian,  cii/iWst,  dviV-iij,  cii/iWse. 
"Devil "  (to  griU),  deviled,  devO-lng,  also  deriMsh,  demMsm. 
"  Fossil/' /oA^^lse,  /oMiMferous,  /o««iMst,  /oMtMsation. 
"Imperil,"  vmperil-%A,  imptriUing,  but  "peril,"  p«ul^ed,  periU-iag, 
and  to  make  the  matter  worse,  fteril-oiis,  perilHsn/iij, 

Those  which  double  the  I  tx&— 

"  Ar'gil,"  ovvilZ-aceons,  orgtill-Ueroas,  «rgri2Mte,  argiZMtif^  atyiU-oiis. 

**  Cavil,"  eavi{l-ed,  caviU-ing,  cavi^^er,  caviU-ouB. 

"Council,*  ODtmcill-or. 

"Pencil,"  pena{^ed,  perveUl-ij^^,  pendU-es, 

"Pedl,"  periXIr^  psrUI-ing,  but  2>erU-ou8,  ftc 

"Pistil,"  pi«t^Z^aceous,  j>i«<«{l-iferous,  i^tiU-ate,  ]>i«f{IMdImn. 

"StencU,"  8fenci2I-ed,  stefuKIMng,  steneill-er. 

"T^ranqufl,**  fran^ili'-ity,  tran'gutll-ise,  (ran^Mill-fser,  &e. 

§  Of  words  in  -ol  only  carol  doubles  the  2,  as  earo2l-ed, 
carolling,  caroll-Qt,  and  this  is  so  doubtful  that  some  diction- 
aries give  it  one  way  and  some  the  other;  gambol,  pistol,  and 
tymbol  retain  one  I  throughout. ' 

Nothing  can  be  worse  and  more  perplexing  than  this  uncer- 
tainty, but  nothing  could  be  more  simple  than  a  substantial 
reform  in  this  respect.  Bestore  to  the  simple  word  the  lost 
letter  where  it  is  due,  and  preserve  it  throughout;  but  where 
the  simple  word  has  but  one  consonant  do  not  foree  upon  it  a 
second  when  a  sufQx  is  added.  For  example,  earnl  (Latin 
cavill-or)  should  have  double  I,  but  counsel  (Latin  consul-o) 
should  have  only  one.  Similarly  gallop  (French  galop-er)  should 
have  only  one  p  throughout.  The  same  should  be  carried  into 
words  accented  on  the  final  syllable :  thus  excell  (Latin  excell-o), 
dUlM  (Latin  distOl-o),  (j^o.,  the  douhle  I  should  Ibe  restored  to 
LJtm  simple  word  and  preseryed  throughout 


M 


»  ... 


fBEFACK  xlH 


IV.  The  Aoct  simple  teforiQ  would  be  tOTeserve  the  pliural  -e« 
to  thoee  words  oiUy  with  whieh  it  makes  a  separate  syllable :  as 
church-es^  6ca;-es,  ^a«-es,  ta«A-6g;  notbing  ean  be  more  absurd 
than  thiev-es,  loav-es,  faalv-es^  beev-^s  (all  of  one  syllable.) 

$  All  noons  in  ^/»  exae/f^  thUf,  thieves,  make  the  plural  by 
adding  «:  as  belief ^s,  brief -s,  Mef-n,  elef-UtJief-Bt  grief -a^  reef^L 
Why  should  thief  form  an  exception?  ** Thief  is  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  thedf  or  thSf,  the  plural  of  which  was  thedfas  or  thifas 
(thie&);  and  as  th^e  was  no  v  in  the  language,  the  substitution 
of  v  for  /  is  most  reprdienaibld. 

W«  hsT6  the  word  &e^  the  fash  of  oxen  daln  for  fbo^  and  the  word 
heemu  liviiif  oxen,  te. ;  but  the  frenob  is  btmft  Imuftm 

§  In  -t/and  -iff,  -of  and  -off,  -uff  and  ^ulf^  with  those  in  -rf, 
the  plural  without  one  exception  is  formed  by  adding  -«:  as — 

Bailiff-B,  caitif-B,  ealif-B  (T),  eliff-B,  coif-Bf  mcutiff-a,  ptairUiff-^ 
Sheriff-B,  skiff-n,  tariff-B,  waff-B,  wh^'B. 
Hoof-B,  proof-B,  rtfproof-B,  rocf-B,  woof-B,  seoff-B, 
Cuff-*,  huff-B,  myiff-B,  puff-B,  ruff%  tni^ff-B,  stuff-B,  0u^-a 
Vwanf-B,  Bcarf-a,  wharf -b,  tw^f-Bp  iwrf-%, 

I  Except  *'  thief,"  thieves,  therefore,  all  the  nouns  in  /  men- 
tiooed  above  are  normal,  but  those  in  -af,  -aff,  and  -If  (except 
gulf)  are  all  abnormal.  Strange  enough,  all  these  nouns  are 
native  words,  not  one  of  which  makes  such  a  plural,  or  indeed 
ooold  do  so.    There  are  ten  in  all : — 

"Calf,"  edheB:  "half,"  halves;  "elf,*  ehes;  "eelf,-  sOtfes;  "ghelf," 

ah^ffes :  irolf ,  wolves, 
"Leaf,"  leaves;  "sheaf," sheaves;  "loaf,"  loaves;  "staff" (a  stick),  staves, 

but  not  staff  (a  body  of  menX  nor  yet  distaff. 

The  original  plural  of  these  words  was  -[fjas,  as  stafas, 
hldfas,  &c,  and  there  is  no  excuse  for  the  present  perversions. 

§  In  regard  to  -fe  the  case  is  worse,  and  even  more  absurd. 
We  have  six  nouns  with  this  ending,  four  native  and  two 
borrowed  from  other  languages.  The  native  words  are  knife, 
Ufe,  wife,  and  strife;  the  boxrowed  ones  are  fife  and  safe  (a 
eloaet). 

The  natite  words  have  for  theii  plurals  knives,  lives,  wives, 
(and  strifes) ;  the  aliens  have  fifes  and  safes.  The  origiual 
plural  of  knives  was  cnifas  Qmifs),  but  wif  and  lif  were  alike 


xiv  PHEFACB. 


in  both  numbers.    The  word  "  strife  "  is  a  oormption  of  $trltht 

plural  Btritfuu  (striths);  there  is,  therefore,  no  excuse  whatever 

for  the  change  of  /  into  v,  in  any  word  ending  in  -/e. 

V.  Come  we  now  to  the  plurals  of  nouns  ending  in  -o.   They 

somewhat  exceed  one  hundred,  and  may  be  displayed  under 

three  groups :  (1)  Musical  terms  and  terms  descriptive  of  the 

size  of  a  book.    All  these  are  Italian  words,  and  make  their 

plurals  by  adding  -« :  as 

Atto-9,  5CM90-8,  foIo-B,  flauto^,  pianuhB,  violoneello-B ;  ocmto-t,  nwuto-s, 
&o.,  with  /olioHi,  quarUMt,  octavo^  duodednuHt,  and  so  on. 

As  this  group  is  consistent  and  without  exception,  no  objection 
can  be  brought  against  it.  The  other  two  groups  are  about 
equal,  thirty-five  of  one  make  the  plural  in  s,  and  thirty-one  of 
the  other  in  -es. 

All  nouns  ending  in  -2o,  -«o,  -vo,  and  -o  after  a  vowel,  make 
the  plural  by  adding  •«,  with  one  exception,  viz.,  &u^a2o-es. 
Thus  we  have — 

Armadillo-a,  hdlo-E,  and  peeeadUlo-B  In  4o;  proviso-t  and  virtuosos  in 
'80;  bravo-B,  relievo-By  and  stdvo-B  in  -vo;  imbroglio-B,  nuncio-a,  oglio-»  or 
olios,  pistachios,  poiifolios,  punctilios,  ratios,  aeraglio-B,  studios^  en^ 
bryo-B,  euchoos,  &o.,  in  -o  preceded  by  a  voweL  To  these  add  six  in  'to, 
not  musical  terms  or  sizes  of  books,  vix.,  centos,  grottos,  juntos,  menM»- 
tos,  pinuntos,  and  gtiUtto-B,  with  all  snoh  proper  names  as  the  Catos. 
The  list  complete  would  contain  about  seventy  words. 

The  third  group  consists  of  thirty  words  which  make  the 
plural  in  -es,  and  there  cannot  be  a  doubt  that  the  e  of  these 
plurals  should  be  expunged.  It  serves  no  good  end,  and  is  in 
every  case  an  interpolation. 

Let  us  take  them  in  terminational  order:  (1)  -cho  and  -eo, 
as  echo,  calico,  fresco,  magnifico,  portico,  and  stucco  (all  having 
their  plural  in  -es).  Echo  is  Greek,  in  which  language  it  has 
no  plural;  in  Latin  it  is  the  fourth  declension,  echo  eckds,  and, 
of  course,  could  have  no  such  plural  as  echoes  ;  in  French  the 
plural  is  ichos.  What  right,  therefore,  has  this  word  to  the 
suffix  '68  f  "  Fresco,"  "  magnifico,"  "  portico,"  and  "  stucco  "  are 
Italian,  like  the  musical  terms  and  the  sizes  of  books,  and 
there  is  no  reason  but  caprice  why  they  should  deviate  fix>m 
those  words.  "Calieo"  is  probably  a  ooimption  of  "Calicut," 
Itfid  ought  also  to  be  deprived  of  the  e. 


PREFACE.  xr 

(2)  In  -do,  as  hravado,  irmuendOt  rotundo,  tornado,  and 
torpedo.  Of  these  "rotondo"  is  Italian,  often  written  rotunda 
in  English;  and,  to  show  our  spirit  of  contradiction,  the 
foreign  words  bravata  and  tomada  we^  make  *< bravado"  and 
**  tornado  ";  innuendo  and  torpedo  are  concocted  firom  the  Latin 
Terbs  innuo  and  torpeo,  so  that  none  of  these  five  words  has  the 
least  pretence  to  a  plural  in  -e*. 

3.  The  words  in  -go  are  cargo,  flamingo,  indigo,  mango,  sago, 
and  virago.  Of  these,  "cargo,"  "flamingo,"  and  "indigo," 
are  Indian.  '* Mango"  is  the  Indian- Talmndic  word  mangos; 
"  sago,"  the  Malay  word  sagu,  in  French  sagou ;  and  "  virago  " 
is  Latin,  the  plural  being  viragines.  So  that  none  of  these  six 
words  has  a  plnral  resembling  its  modem  English  form. 

4.  In  -no  the  only  examples  are  no-es  (persons  voting  "  no  "), 
aUnno-es,  domino-es,  and  volcano-ea.  Of  these  "  albino  "  is  spelt 
both  ways  in  the  plural,  dUnnos  and  albinoes;  "domino"  and 
"  volcano"  are  Italian ;  and  as  for  the  plural  of  "  no,"  if  this  is 
the  only  word  which  stands  out  we  must  write  no^s,  as  we  write 
I's,  m*s,  and  so  on. 

5.  In  -ro  there  are  four  words:  hero,  negro,  tyro,  and  zero. 
"  Hero,**  like  "  echo,"  is  common  to  Greek,  Latin,  and  French, 
in  aU  which  languages  the  singular  is  heros.  Probably  we 
borrowed  the  word  from  the  French,  where  the  s  is  silent,  but 
there  is  not  a  tittle  of  authority  for  heroes.  As  for  "  negro  "  and 
"zero,"  they  axe  Italian;  and  "tyro,"  the  Latin  word,  has 
tyrones  for  its  plural. 

We  have  now  gone  through  every  word  ending  in  -o,  except 
six,  and  can  find  no  reason  why  the  plural  of  all  should  not  be 
f .  By  this  uniformity  an  enormous  difficulty  of  spelling  would 
be  removed,  nothing  would  be  lost,  and  every  word  would  be 
consistent  with  its  original  form. 

The  six  remaining  words  are  those  ending  in  -to.  Of  the 
twebre  words  with  this  termination,  six  go  one  way  and  six 
another.  We  have  already  noticed  the  words  eento-s,  grotto-s, 
juntos,  mamentO'S,  pimentos,  and  stilettos ;  the  remaining  six 
are  manifesto-es,  mosquito-es,  motto -es,  mulatto-es,  potato-es,  and 
tomato-es.  Three  of  these  are  Spanish,  "  mosquito,"  "  mulatto," 
and  "tomato";   two  are  Italian,  "motto*'  and  "manifesto"; 


xvi  PREFACE. 


and  the  sixth  is  a  OQrruption  of  the  Amerioan-Iixdian  word 
baUUai*  In  eyery  case  the  Bn£9x  -es  is  an  abomination.  In 
every  case,  therefore,  it  is  a  violation  of  correct  spelling,  an 
anomaly  in  English  orthography,  where  -€$  should  be  limited  to 
words  ending  in  s,  sh,  -^h  (soft),  and  -x  (with  the  single  word 
topaz-ea  in  -z) ;  it  introduces  great  oonfnsion  and  difficulty ;  has 
not  one  single  excuse ;  and  ought  to  be  aboUshed.  To  use  the 
words  of  Lord  Xytton,  it  may  be  fairly  said  '^such  a  ^stem  of 
spelling  was  never  concocted  but  by  the  Father  of  Falsehood," 
and  we  may  ask  with  him,  "  How  can  a  system  of  education 
flourish  that  begins  with  [such]  monstrous  ffilsehoods  "t 

Indivldual  Lettebs. 

A  &W  words  may  here  be  added  respecting  individual 
letters : 

(1)  c.  This  Latin  and  French  letter  is  one  of  the  greatest 
pests  of  our  language.  It  does  diity  for  c,  f ,  and  k,  and  often 
drives  us  to  vile  expedients  to  determine  its  pronunciation. 
Thus  we  have  the  word  "  traffic,"  but  cannot  write  trc^ed  and 
trafficingt  because  c  before  -e  and  -i  ss «,  and  therefore  we  are 
obliged  to  interpose  a  h.  Why  in  the  world  did  we  drop  the  k 
instead  of  the  c  in  the  word  tradg^k  f  If  we  had  dropped  the  e 
all  would  have  gone  smoothly,  "traffik,"  trekked,  traffiking, 
but  printers  have  set  up  their  backs  against  the  letter  k,  and 
hence  the  spelling  of  the  language  is  tortured  to  preserve  a 
faneiM  uniformity  of  type. 

A  sinular  intrusion  of  e  for  «  is  fSso:  more  serious.  We  have 
only  six  words  ending  in  -eme,  but  above  220  in  -etic«.  Here 
the  c  is  an  intruder  and  ought  to  be  turned  out.  The  six 
words  are  con-demey  dis-perue,  ex-pense,  im-menae,  pre-peme,  and 
recom-pense.  It  will  be  seen  that  the  «  in  all  these  words  is 
radical,  and  cannot  be  touched;  but  what  of  -encef  Take  a 
few  examples  at  random,  **  acquiescence,"  why  not  acquieaeme 
(Latin  acquiescens)?  "adolescence,"  why  not  adolesoerue  (Latin 
adolescens)?  "cadence"  (Latin  cadena)^  "coalescence"  (Latin 
eoaUacena),  "decence"  (La,im  decena)^  "efflorescence"  (Latin 
^ffloreacena)t  "innocence"  (Latin  irmocem),  "licence"  (Latin 
Upim),  "precedence"  (Latin  precedena),  and  so  on.    In  other 


PREFACE.  ZTii 

cases  th«  --ee  reprearaits  the  Latia  -tia  as  n^gn^fteetiM  (Latm 
magnificeiitiA),  fimn(/lc«iiM  (Latin  moidfieentia),  in,,  bat  it 
would  be  no  outrage  to  spell  these  words  magn/yiewMt  snd 
wmnificemet  for  f  is  as  near  to  **  t"  as  « is^  if  not  nearer. 

Another  intrusion  of  c  is  its  being  made  to  do  duty  for  &  in 
Greek  words.  If  the  Greek  k  were  preserved  it  would  tell  the 
^e  at  a  glance  <^  nationality  of  the  word,  whereas  the  c  gives 
no  eertain  cue.  Thus  kardiak^  hriUriom^  hritik  would  label 
the  words  "  Greek  "  in  origin ;  but  cardiac^  crileriont  and  criHe 
may  be  Latin,  Ekeaoh,  or  pcorverted  Gveek.  Nothing  ean  be 
worse  than  the  double  sound  of  this  letter,  wbioh  is  some> 
times  s  f ,  and  sometimes  »  1u 

(9)  A  similar  aecusation  lies  against  the  letter  g  wfaieh  some- 
times is  soft  and  sonvetimes  hard,  and  bence  we  are  driven  into 
all  softs  of  shifts  to  make  it  speak  an  articulate  language.  For 
example :  fatigu-ing,  pltf^t^ng,  leagu-Hg,  We  are  obliged  to 
preserve  the  useless  letter  u  in  order  to  keep  the  g  from  contact 
with  the  i  when  it  would  lose  its  hard  sound  and  » J.  We 
might  spell  fittigue,  plague,  and  leagoe  without  the  absurd  'Ue, 
but  g  before  e  and  t  is  general^  soft,  and  therefore  -ed  and  -ing 
mi^  alter  its  sottod.  Here,  however,  we  are  ineonsisteBt  in 
inconsistency,  for  we  find  no  difficulty  in  begin  and  givt,  Hnging, 
g€ar,  and  get. 

Then  again,  why  has  g  thrust  itself  into  such  words  as  Ught, 
hrightt  night,  sight,  rough,  tough,  and  so  on?  It  does  not  exist 
in  the  original  forms  and  is  a  gross  saleciBm.  Niht,  briht,  siht, 
would  be  §BX  better  and  more  normal^  and  as  for  the  other  two, 
rouh  and  touh  would  do  as  well  as  rough  and  tough,  although  it 
must  be  confessed  that  "xuf"  and  **taf"  would  express  the 
sound  attached  to  these  words  better  than  either  of  the  other 
combination  of  letters. 

(3)  The  final  -e  added  to  words  for  the  sake  of  lengthening 
the  preceding  vowel  is  certainly  one  of  the  cluiosiest  contriv- 
ances which  could  be  devised,  and  quite  as  often  fails  «f  its 
duty  as  not:  thus  live,  give,  festive :  come,  haxe,  love;  gemUmt 
sterile,  handsome,  vine-yard,  examine,  destine,  respite,  discipline, 
and  hundreds  more  are  a  standing  protest  against  this  use  of 
the  letter  for  such  a  purpose.    How  much  better  would  it  be 


acviii  PREFACE, 


to  reintrodaoe  the  accents  of  our  older  forms,  and  write  llf  for 
life,  Uv  for  live  (1  syl.);  mU  for  mile  and  mil  or  mill  for  mlU; 
$W>  for  stile  and  stil  or  still  for  stIU. 

%  As  onr  alphabet  now  stands,  we  are  wholly  nnable  to 
express  certain  sounds.  Thus  no  combination  of  letters  can 
give  the  correct  pronunciation  of  such  simple  words  as  these : 
$pirit,  merits  psalm,  ptus^  push,  put,  foot,  only,  bosom,  whose, 
puU,  fuU,  rule,  qualm,  pudding,  pulpit,  "bush,  prorogue,  rogue, 
fugue,  rugged,  waiter,  calf,  calve,  half,  halve,  sugar,  loaves, 
sheath,  wreath,  beneath,  show,  woman,  and  hundreds  more.  Let 
any  one-  try  to  express  by  letters  the  sound  we  give  to  full  and 
put,  and  show  the  difference  between  full  and  hull,  put  and  hut, 
and  it  will  be  presently  seen  how  difficult  the  task  is.  Or  let 
anyone  try  to  express  the  sounds  attached  to  woman  and  water, 
spirit  and  merit,  pulpit  and  bush,  and  the  necessity  of  some 
more  definite  vowels  will  be  readily  acknowledged. 

Phoneho  SPELLiNa. 

Many  schemes  have  been  projected  of  late  years  to  simplify 
our  spelling  by  making  sounds  the  ruling  principle;  but  there 
are  many  grave  objections  to  all  these  systems.  First  and  fore- 
most any  material  alteration,  such  as  these  systems  contem- 
plate, would  render  our  existing  literature  antiquated  and 
unreadable,  except  as  a  dead  language,  an  evil  which  no  literary 
man  would  sanction.  Next  it  would  fossilise  our  present 
system,  as  if  it  were  already  perfect,  and  perpetuate  errors 
which  are  not  now  immutable.  Those  who  have  lived  for  half 
a  century,  have  seen  numerous  reforms  in  the  spelling  and 
pronunciation  of  words,  and  there  is  no  reason  to  believe  that 
we  have  yet  arrived  at  the  period  of  verbal  petrifeustion. 

A  third  great  objection  is,  that  it  not  unfrequently  obscures 
the  derivation,  but  the  great  tendency  should  be  the  other  way. 
The  gnly  fixed  principle  in  language  is  the  parent  stock  of 
words,  and  the  only  plan  to  make  words  living  symbols  of  ideas 
IB  to  show  from  what  "  stock"  they  spring,  and  how  the  present 
meaning  has  arisen  from  the  parent  or  cognate  word :  thus  hare 
and  hair  are  pronounced  exactly  alike,  but  one  is  the  Anglo- 
Bklovl  har,  and  the  other  hara;  so  with  reed  and  read  (redd 


PliEFACK  Tdx 

and  r^^Qia[)^  mare  and  mayor  fmearh  and  Spanish  mayor), 
with  hundreds  more.  If  any  reform  were  made  in  snoh  words 
as  these,  it  shonld  not  be  to  make  them  more  alike,  alike  to  the 
eye  as  well  as  to  the  ear,  but  to  make  them  speak  a  more 
definite  and  articulate  language  by  bringing  them  back  more 
dosely  to  the  primitiye  words,  and  not  to  perpetuate  the  notion 
that  they  are  identical  in  derivation  as  they  now  are  in  sound. 
Before  any  word  is  fossilised  by  phonetic  spelling,  we  should 
feel  quite  sure  that  no  existing  or  ftiture  scholar  either  will  or 
can  imisroYe  upon  the  form  isropoeed ;  for  my  own  part  I  believe 
that  many  of  our  words  are  at  present  in  a  transition  state,  and 
that  the  tendency  of  the  age  is  to  reduce  them  more  and  more 
to  their  etymological  standard,  and  to  pronounce  them  more 
and  more  according  to  the  letters  which  compose  them* 

Old  English* 

Some  reason  may  be  expected  for  the  rather  unusual  substi- 
tution of  "  Old  English  **  in  this  dictionary  for  what  is  more 
generally  termed  **  Anglo-Saxon."  The  main  reason  is  to  force 
upon  the  attention  the  great  fact  too  often  overlooked,  that 
our  language  is  English,  substantially  English,  and  that  even 
numerically  considered  it  is  still  English.  In  the  dictionary 
referred  to,  "  so  highly  commended  by  certain  reviewers  for  its 
etymQlogy,"  not  a  twentieth  part  of  the  words  belonging  to  us 
have  been  acknowledged,  but  they  have  been  fathered  on  the 
Greek,  German,  Dutch,  Persian,  and  often  on  tongues  still  more 
remote.  The  use  of  the  term  Saxon  or  Anglo-Saxon  helps  to 
&vour  the  notion,  by  no  means  uncommon,  that  we  have  no 
words  of  our  own,  but  that  every  word  has  been  imported,  and 
Latin,  Greek,  Hebrew,  and  Arabic,  are  often  most  cruelly  tortured 
to  account  for  a  word  well  known  to  our  forefathers  before 
Harold  fell  at  Hastings. 

Again,  the  language  of  England  before  the  introduction  of 
the  Norman  element  was  not  English  and  Saxon,  as  the  word 
Anglo-Saxon  implies,  nor  yet  English  Saxonised.  One  element, 
no  doubt,  was  Saxon,  but  other  elements  were  Keltic,  Latin, 
Danish,  and  Gallic. 

By  Old  English  is  meant  the  English  language  as  it  existed 


zx 


BREFAClSi. 


before  thfr  introduetkm  of  tiM  Noimfltn  irietnent,  and  no  posGnble 
confttdon  can  aiise  &ot&  tlris  nsd  Of  th6  tem,  as  aU  words  due 
dire&dy  to  tlie  Conquest  tm^  tended  Po^  N&rman,  those  later 
down  are  termed  tMdiaval,  and  those  stfll  later  nrehaie. 

It  is  not  nniunial  to  divide  the  langooge  into  flye  periods  :— 

1.  Old  EiroLisH  dovm  to  the  middle  of  the  twetfOt  oentny  (say  1160).'     . 

5.  TEAHinzDwBv(iuBli,wIuiDlliBoldteadiwti«iswer«strags^ii^       i- 
existenoe  and  onlj  those  best  snited  to  the  langnage  snndyed  CU60-1260). 

3.  Eablt  Enoluh,  from  1250  to  the  Beformation  (say  1620). 

4.  MiDDLB     ,t      from  Oie  Sefonnsctfon  to  Milton'^  death  (152S-1674X 

6.  MoBnair  SinaiiiB,  flrem  MMton'a  ^toatb  to  the  pnaoait  tknac 

The  following  taMe  vfiU  akow  tfte  proportion  of  EngUah,  French^ 
Latin,  Qreek,  and  other  vtordt  in  the  langua§4. 

This  (fiotionaiy  oontidns  17,497  distinct  fionllies  of  words. 
Of  these  groups  or  families  of  words— 

3031  are  English. 

3505  are  borrowed  from  the  French. 
4025  are  borrowed  firom  tiie  Latin. 
2098  are  borrowed  from  the  Greek. 

146  are  English  taken  from  the  Latin  before  the  Conquest 
1862  are  from  miscellaneous  sources,  as  Welsh,  Dutoh,Q«rman. 

211  are  hybrid. 

541  are  from  proper  names. 
37  are  words  in  imitation  of  sounds,  Hke  cuckoo. 
91  are  MedisBYal  or  XiOw  Latin. 


17,487  Total. 


PREFIXES  AND  PRENOUNa 


PMfixes  and  pranoiins  may  be  added  to  words  beginning 
either  with  a  Yowel  or  with  a  consonant. 

When  a  prenonn  is  added  to  a  word  beginning  with  a  vowel, 
the  general  mle  is  to  take  the  genitive  case  of  the  word 
prefixed  withont  its  termination ;  bat  when  added  to  a  word 
beginning  with  a  comonarU  the  vowel  of  the  termination  is  left 
to  form  a  vinculnm:  Thns,  from  the  Greek  "d^mos"  (the 
people)  gen.  dimau,  we  get  dem-agogue  and  demo-eracy ;  from 
the  Latin  "Inmen**  (lig^t)  gen.  luffdinif,  we  get  Vwmin-Bij  and 
iufiitnt-feroas. 

In  Greek  words,  most  nnlbrtonately,  we  convert  " n"  into  y, 
and  "k"  into  c,  after  the  Latm  and  French  method:  For 
example,  ''martur"  (a  martyr)  gen.  martwoi,  gives  mariyrAom. 
and  more^o-logy;  "anthrax"  (a  coal)  gen«  <mthrako9,  gives 
antAroc-erpeton  and  antM'oeo-saaras. 

C'Ch**  if  a  dirtfaictduuncter  in  Greek  (written  thufx):  "th^iialMS 
dittfnct  character  which  existed  in  Analo-Saxon.  but  unhappily  has  been 
dropped  oat  of  use.  How  very  desirable  it  would  be  to  have  two  disUnct 
diaractas  for  iK  (soft)  uid  ih  (hard),  as  in  <A«  and  iMnk.  In  this  Dictionary 
the  chmracter  r  has  been  introdnoed  for  the  hard  letter. 

IrregnlaiitieB.  (L)  In  the  first  Greek  declension  the  final 
vowel  is  changed  to  o.  In  the  first  Latin  dedension  the  final 
vowel  is  changed  to  i. 


(1)  Greek  aitea 

oephalS 

h6ra 

Id&t 

phonS 

phnsa 

psuchS 

rhi26 

sphafza 

■eltad 

dda 

staphul6 

tec^nS 

trachflia 


»9    *aa 


-as 


etio-logy 

ceidudo-pod 

horo-soope 

Ideo-loor 

phono-logy 

physo-gcade 

psycho-logy 

rhiao-pod 

spheio-meter 

seleno-graph 

sdo-maney 

staphylo-raphy 

tecnno-logy 


wwHKu*      ,.    -»•       tracheo-tomy 
(Exception:  ** iMoT  tfOL  UukU,  thekarphore.) 


palma 

if 

peB&a 

>f 

l)6tra 

» 

pinna 

»> 

rota 

M 

Beta 

tt 

spina 

It 

xxii  PREFIXES  AND  PREN0UN8. 

%  The  older  font  oC  the  gen.  case  of  the  first  Latin  declension 
was  'Oi :  as  "  musa"  (a  song)  gen.  musai;  the  "  ai"  ig  generally 
written  a,  bat  in  prenouns  it  is  written  i. 
(2)  Latin  mamma  gen,  -a  (tor  -ai) 

-89  (for  -ai)      palmi-f eroiu 
-89  nbt  -fti)      |)6nni-f OiAa . 
-89  nbt  -ail       petii-Qr 
*  -89  (for  -aiS      pinni-ped 
(for  -at)      roti-fer 
m»r^«i)       seti-ferons 
•«9  (for -ai)       spini-feroiu 
(Exception:  "aqiia'*  gen.  a^uo;,  aqne-duct.) 

(ii.)  The  <fU  K>f  th^  fteoond  Gteek  dedeniiob'  Jb  scnnetfines 
changed  toi:  as  "OMhot"  gem  archou  gives  oroM-p^ago, 
€Tchirtjdct,  but  not  generally,  hence  from  "dainos"  gen..detm>u 
we  get  fl^nno-therium ;  "autos"  gen.  autou  giyes  aiOo-crat; 
mruto$  gen.  amtou  gives  am to-cracy,  <&& 

If  The  "i"  of  the  second  Latin  declension  is  in  some  few 
examples  converted  into  o:. — 

(20  pianos*  (adj.)  phml       plano-concaye 

primtiB    „     priud'     ptimorgeultnre 
&e.  Ac: 

All  snch  words  are  barbarisms:  We  have  the  Latin  fhrnMaqnoM^ 
jptoni-pedia,  ptoni-pes,  pkmi-txiAo,  and  even  in  English  ptoni-sphere. 

Again,  jirimo-genftiis  1^  debased  lAVtH;  dobrottses  |>rifni*^ala,  Vano 
]}rftni-gfniiu,  Lnoretiiu  prAmirgenvs,  then  wa  have  primifMnk  prteti- 
pilaris,  pritiM-pUns,  &c 

IT  The  -48  of  the  foucth. Latin  declension  is  a  contraction  of 
-uU :  as  "  flactus"  (a  wave)  gen.  JIuctuis-  contracted  to  ^fiuet^. 
The  vinculum  vowel  of  this  declension  seems  to  have  puzzled 
bur  word-minters,  and  hence  from  mamts  (a  hand)  we  have 
inona,  mani,  and  manu;  as  mana-de  (a  disgracefal  word,  Latin 
manica}y.  mani-f est,  mofm-faoture ;  bat  tdie  general  vowel  for 
this  declension  is-  -i-^ 

(4)  fractns  gen.  frnctils  (tor  fruduU)      frncti-ibr 

maniis    „    manfia  (for  taat^is)       Baiil-fasfc 
risns       „    ristls     (forritfuia)  riai-hle 

IT  Latin  words  with  Greek  endings  generally  take  o  for  the 

vinculum — 

(5)  lao  gen.  nMtts  lact<»4neM»       5^ftergaAHSbo-BMter 
muscns  ,,  musd  mnsco-logf  „  mosco-logy 
noz  „  Boetls  nocto-graph  „  nncto-graph 
oleum  ,,  del  oleo4Mccharam     „  elsao-sacchanun 
pes  „  pedDi  pedo-meter  „  podo-meter 
pomnm  „  pomi  pomO-logf 

sonus  „    BCfid       sono-meter  „     phono-meter 

spectrum    „    spectlrl    spectro-seope 
(Exception:  "pofiuri-seope.'*   This  would  be  lietter"polaro-scope.'0 

IT  The  usual  vinculum  vowel  b^re  "-pie"  is: 

(6)  centum   -    eantu-pla 
Goto  octn-ple 
quadra-        quaMhr»>de 


quinti*-       quintu-ple 
seztu*        sextu-ple 
septam      septu-ple 


(Bzcepuon : .  "vani^pto."    This  iam-LatlB  iaconairttnogr :  waim-p2etium, 
a handfnii  and  mamirjpuliu,  a handfuL) 


PMnts^  Aim  fifaifOUimsL 


jam 


IT  Most  weeds  of  Modem  inHiiiifwiiUlif  act  derired  from 
classic  soarees,  «r  if  j<iined  tngetliMr  hf  A  l^yplien,  take  the 
vowel  o  ht  the  rinetumn — 

(7)  afauio^en,  F^.  aMm  •tmn  Gothioo-lAtliiiui 

Ai|^>4Mbaw  Lsaaib-Att|lkitt 

Ansteo-PmaiMt  niMO-Qottle 

Iteaev-Praniaa  polttioM«Ugioisi 

f  ^be  Ibflowiag  am  almonnal  or  <ion£rmctdd  forms-^ 

(8)  «iiti- ybr  auto'  atatlKsiitato 

birybrW-  ba-lanoe 

Off'  /iyf  <ileo^  or  orc^       ort^a&tttai 
^tttiK/^  penM* 

Mlf^o*  ^br  solpfaik' 
iMMdiO^  ^br  pseudao- 
tscx>-/tfrtazeo- 

f«n^>bfteEToxf•  iwfi4>ia 

IT  Three  pmftx^d  words  aro  v«rj  ■Bcertaia  in  the  vikMmkiin — 
««"<"™^  cenfl,  centft :  oeMtuia-vlrt  oeliM-pedtt,  caMte-pIe 

nuuMia,  mana^  maai,  &a&ii :  mJEHux-cle;  nkMii-ple,  rtloa»acilpt 


sal|du>*vtad0 
^aaado-^prophti 


PuMixEs  AUD  Pftin^cnis. 


Eo^k  <^  f!roni»  ativy         ••       •• 
Eng.  if,  Intensiya  . .        •« 

Bag;  (t/^  intanaiTe 

^.0/ of,  off 

luDg.  -on,  xtpw^  ttte,  on  . . 

Bog-fe^      ^ 

Lat.  a,  from  (before  -m  and  ■^).. 
Lat  a[(ii,  i^lo^np 
a-J  6k.  a,  without,  negative 
a-  1ft.  a,  to,  for'sn  end- 
ab-  Lat.  a5,reBMiv«llroni,  contrary  to 
abe-  iM.  miUf  ttom  (before  -e  and  -0>  • 
ac-  Lat.  OG  for  dd^  to  (before  -c)     . . 
aero-  Ok.  dkroa,  upwards        . .        .v 
aetiiUH  Oikt,  ccktin  geai.  aktlnoSf  a  ray   .. 
ad-  Lat.  od,  to  •«        ..        ••        •• 
BMuy-  &k.>a(tJUn,  huninoaity  .. 
aeri-  Lat  aer  goa;  aMs,.  air  . .        •• 
Ok.- o^  gaik -aM)s,  air   «, 
afM  Lot.  -4A  Imr  iKi  (before  •/)' 
after-  Eng.  (s/Ker  ..        .■.        ^, 
%^  Lat.  tdgtinad  (before  -g) 
agahnato-  6k.  ogafomi  gem  -matoi,  deUgl^ 
agap6-  6k.  ag&pi,  brotkerly  love 
agatho^  6k.  cUs^thos^  go<Kl 

al-  1^  cBJ,  all,  altogether  . . 

al-  lAt.  dlfor  adt  to  (befero  -Q     .. 

al- Arab.  oZ,  Ihe        


a-go,  a-rise 
a-wake,  a-bide 
a»shamed,  a-ftraid 
a-board,  a-float 
a-way,  a>«ieep 
»like,  a-mong 
a-vert)  a-maouensis 
»-«cend,.i.e.  as-acend 
a-cephalons,  a-conile 
a-vid],  ardiem 
ab-dicate,  ab-oormal 
aibs>tract>  abe-cond 
ac-eede,  ac-oept 
acro-genns,  aoro-Ilth 
actino-orinites  (-kri.nUeB) 
ad-i4^t,  adH>re  (2  lyl.) 
setho-gea 
aer-atAkaeri-fy 
a^ro-Ute,  aero-nant 
al-finn,  af-flz 
aftemoozb  after-math 
ag-ffrandlie.  ag-gDavate 
agumato-lite 
agape-mone  (5  «yl.) 
affwio^phyllam 
al-mighty,  al-ready 
aMege,  iJ-lude 
al-kali,  alHX)hol 


XXIV 


PREFIXES  AND  PRENOUNS, 


aletho 

»l6Zi 

aU 
all-,  allo- 
alun-  ) 
aluno-f 
am- 
am-,  ambi- 
ambly- 
ammo- 
amph-  ) 
amphi- ) 
an- 
an- 
an-,  ana- 
ana- 


QtlL,  aUthM,tMB 

Gk.  oleoBO,  1  ward  off      ..        •• 
Eng.  (b2,  atHt  all,  altogether 
Ok.  aXloa,  another,  different    .. 

Fr.  a{im,  alum     ••        ..        •• 

Lat.  am  for  od  (before  -m)       •• 
Lat  (vmbi,  abont,  around 
Gk.  amhlfuSf  obtuse,  blunt 

Gk.  ammdBf  sand 

Gk.  amphi.  both,  cm  both  sides, 

all  round  

Lat.  an  for  ad  (before  •»)  • . 
Lat.  an-Uf  before  . .  ..  •• 
Gk.  an-a^  without,  free  fh>m  •• 
Gk.  ana,  upwards  . .       • 

Gk.  attO)  sunilar  ..  ..  •• 
Gk.  ana,  into,  up  into  ..  •• 
Gk.  aiM,  without,  apart. .  •  • 
Gk.  anir  gen.  anaroSf  a  man  • . 
Eng.  ang-f  painful,  troublesome 
Lat.  Anglrif  gen.  -oruin,  English 
Lat  Anglicus  (adj.),  English  .. 
Gk.  amii,  reverse  of,  opposite  .. 

Lat.  an<€,  before 

Gk.  aaUMs,  a  flower 

)  Gk.  antfurax  gen.  anthrakos, 

(    coal      

Gk«  ant^ir<)pds,  a  man    .. 

Lat.  atUg,  before 

Ok.  anii,  opposed  to,  reverse  ot 
Welsh  op'  (prefixed  to  men  oi 

"family")  

Lat.  ap  for  ad  (before  -p) 

Ok.  apo,  away  from  (before  •A) . . 

Gk.  opo,  away  from       ..        .. 

Lat.  aqua  gen.  aqua,  water     . . 

Lai.  ar  for  ad  (before  -r) 

Gk.  air,  air •• 

Teutonic  org,  crafty 

Ok.  archot  gen.  archou,  chief  •• 

Ok.  ori^tof,  the  best  ..  •• 
Lat.  a«  for  od  (before  -<)  . . 
Lat.  OMK,  gum  .•        •• 

Lat.  at  for  ad  (before  -0. . 
Gk.  atmda,  vapour 
Lat.  ater,  aira,  airum,  black   . . 
Ok.  auUfs,  one's  ownself . . 

Lat.  M-,  two,  twofold 

Eng.  beee,  behind,  to  the  rear  . . 
Eng.  be-  converts  nouns  to  verbs 
Eng.   be-  converts  intrans.   to 

trans,  verbs        

Eng.  be-  part  of  adv.  and  prep. 
Eng.  be-,  privative 
Bug.  be^.  Intensive 
be-|  Eng.  be-,  to.  in,  for,  at,  about,  ko. 
{Added  to  Bemanee  words 
beati-  Lai  heme  gen.  beati,  blessed  .. 


an-,  ana 
andro- 
ang' 
Anglo- 
Anglic- 
ant-,  anti 
ante- 
antho- 
anthrac- 
anthraco 
anthropo- 
anti- 
ant-,  anti- 

ap- 
aph- 
apo- 
aqua-) 
aque-f 
ar- 
ar- 
arch- 
arch- 
archi< 
aristo 
as- 


} 


at 

atmo 

atra- 

auto 

ba- 
back 

be 

be 

be- 
be- 
be- 


ExAJtPLsa. 
aletho-pterls 
alezi-pharmio 
all-wise,  all-saints 
all-^ory,  allo-pathy 

aluno-gen,  alun-ite 

am-munition 
am-putate,  amU-ent 
ambly-pterous,  ambly-gonita 
ammo-ccBtes,  ammo-dytes 

amph-id,  amphi-theatre 

an-nex,  an-nmilate 

an-cestor 

an-hydrous,  ana-ehronism 

ana-cathartic 

ana-logue 

ana-stomose 

an-archy,  ana-thema 

andro-genons,  andro-id 

ang-nail 

Anj^o-Sazon 

Anglic-[i]sm 

ant-arctic,  anti-septic 

ante-cedent,  ante-diluvian 

antho-soa,  antho-lite 

f  anthrac-erpeton,  anthraco- 

(     saurus 
anthropo-phagi 
anti-cipate,  anti-quary 
ant*agoni8t,  anti-patiiy 

ap*David,  ap' Jones 
ap-peal,  ap-ply 
aph-[h]elion 
ajKHrtasy,  apo-cryi)ha 

aqua-fortis,  aque-duct 

ar-rive,  ar-range 

ar-tery 

arch-ness 

arch-angel,  archi-tect 

aristo-cracy 

as-sault,  as-sume 

asa-foBtida 

at-tend,  at-traot 

atmo-meter,  atmo-sphere 

atra-biliary 

auto-crat»  auto-maton 

ba-Iance 

back-wards,  back-gammon 

be-frlend,  be-night 

be-speak,  be-think 
be-cause,  be-fore 
be-head,  be-reave 
be-daub,  be-smear 
be-long,  be-hold 
:  be-gln,  be-lieve) 
beati<^ 


PREFIXES  AND  PRENOUNS. 


XXV 


M-,  bis 

bi- 

bin- 

bio- 

bitch- 

boar- 

btick- 

earni- 

OUT-    ) 

cMyo-f 
cat-,  cata- 


I] 


) 


cath 
ceno- 
cent- 
centi- 
centu-    > 

centum-) 
cephal- 
cephalo- 
cheir- 
cbeizD- 
chir- 
dairo- 
cUor-  ) 
diloro-r 
ehrom- 
chroma- 
ehromo- 
(f or  thro- 

chrono- 

chrys-   ) 

chrygo-f 

ehiqae- 

circnm 

cLs- 

co- 


oock 

GOg- 

col- 

coleo- 

com- 

con- 


Lai.  hSnit  good 

Lat.  his,  two-fold,  double,  in  pain 
Lat  hiSy  during  two,  once  in  two 
Lat.  &i<  (before -0) 

6k.  hioSf  life        

Eng.  huxe,  a  gender-word  (fem.) 
£ng.  hdtr,  a  gender-word  (malt) 
Eng.  bwif  a  gender-word  (fhaJU) 
Lat.  earo  gen.  eomif,  flesh,  meat 

Ok.  Jbdritdn,  a  nut  •• 

Ok.  Idto,  down,  against,  accord- 
ing to      ..                 .•        .. 
Ok.  ibdto  (before -A)       ..        •• 
Ok.  ken5»,  emp^ 

Lat.  eentwn,  a  hundred  ••  •• 
Lat.  centum,  a  hundred  ••  •• 
Ok.  h^phdU,  a  head  ••  •• 
Ok.  cMr  gen.  eheiroSf  the  hand 
Ok.  their  gen.  eKeiiros,  the  hand 
Ok.  dUtfrtft,  green..  ••  •  •• 
Ok.  dtr&ma,  colour  •.  •• 
gen.  (hr&mdtot. 


} 


Ok.  ehrdma 
colour  .. 


1 


oonch- 
oonehi 
eoncho-) 

dio-     r 

ocml- 
eont-     ) 
eontra-f 
conUx>- 
cor 


Ok.  cftmSffufo,  time 

Ok.  chrOsdt,  gold 

Fr.  eing,  flye         

Lat.  circum,  all  round    ..        .. 

Lat.  cis,  on  this  side 

Lat  ewn,  together  with  (before 

-CI,  -€,  -i,  -O,  -a)  . .  .  •  •  • 

(B^ore  amy  letter  wUh  a  hyphen. 
{Joined  to  Teutonic  toords 
Eng.  coe  (a  gender-word  for  male 

,  birds  and  insects) 
IJat  cum  (before  -natcor,  -nosoo, 

-notnen)  ..        ••        .« 

Lat  cum  (before -Z) 
Ok.  Jb(!(I^()s,  a  sheath 
Lat  eum  (betare  -b,  -m, -p) 
Lat  cum  (before  -c,  -d,  -/,  -y,  -j. 


Ok.  hogchi  or  kogchos,  a  shell  .. 

Ok.  iogcfcdf,  a  shell 

Lat.  cOnus  gen.  coni,  a  cone     . . 
Lat  contra,  against  [law],  the 

contrary 

Lat  contra,  against       . .  •     . . 
Lat  cum  (before -r)       .. 


XZAMPLBS. 

bene^lactor,  bene-flt 
bi-ped,  bia-iextile 
bi-ennial 

fain-ocular,  bin-oxide 
bio-logy,  Uo-graphy 
bitch-fox,  bitch-otter 
boar-pig 
buck-rabbit 
cami-val,  cami-vorous 

cary-opfis,  caiyo-phylUa 

oat-araet,  cata-lepiy 
oath-[h]edral,  oath-lh]olic 
oeno-taph 

cent-ennial,  centi-pede 

oentu-plicate,  oentom-Tlri 

oephal-aspiB,  oephalo-poda 

oheir-acanthus,  ohelro-ptera 

chir-agra,  ehiro-mancj 

chlor-ine,  diloro-iidiyll 

chrom-ate,  chroma-trope 

( chromato-meter,    chromo- 
(     lithograph 

chrono-logy,  chrono-meter 

chrys-anthemum,  chryso-lite 

cinque-ports,  dnque-foil 
chrcum-scribe,  cixcum-spect 
cis-Alpine,  ds-Padane 

co-adjutor,  oo-equal 

co-partner,  co-sine) 

co-worker,  Ac.) 

j  pea-cock,  turkey-cock 

(  cock-sparrow,  cock-chafer 

C(^-nomen,  cog-nate 
col-lect,  col-league 
coleo-pteran,  coleo-rhisa 
com-bine,  com-mit,  oom-ply 

oon-cede,  con-duoe,  con-fer 
conch-ite,  conchi-fer 

concho-logy,  cho-splral 
coni-fer,  coni-form 

cont-rol,  contra-diet 
contro-vert  fJtcU.J 
cor-rode,  cor-rupt 


XWa 


PREFIXES  AND  PSBNOUNS. 


cosm-  ) 
cosmo-j 
coun- 
coanter> 
cmd' 
crypto- 
cyvji-  ) 
cyano-f 
cycio- 
dftis- 
days- 
de- 
der 

de- 
d9 
de- 
deO',4eG^ 
deln-   ) 
deino- r 
dem- 
demo-i 
demi- 
de»]t 
deat 


% 
t. 

dia- 
&^ 

dJA-i 


doe. 

dog- 


dog- 
dog- 
dog 
dolcr  ) 
dulci-  f 
du-,  duo- 
dnum 
dyvA- 

dynamo- 
dFB 
e 


k 


G]^  l!«um4t,  (1^  woi)d   .. 

Lat.  cum,  in  ocajunotton  with. . 
Lat.  nostra,  in  the  (^pocdte  way 
IM.  ortUB  gcsn.  crucify  a  cross  . . 
Ok.  hrupi^  eonoealed,  eecret . . 

6k.  Jbvl^fi^,  deeprblne  ••       ,, 

Ei^.  datgrw^  of  tl\e  day 
Fr.  diaa»,  a  n 


raised  platform 
Fr.  de  (prefixed  to  mniof ' '  fttv^if* 
Lat.  de,  motion  dovmfrom 

Lat.  /lie,  fautansive 

Lat  de,  Kwanifm 

Lat.  cle,  privatiye  . .       ..       ,, 
For  dticKf  as  in  <ffrdke    . .        .. 

Qk*  d^!%o^i  l^n       

Gk.  deinde,  dreadful  [from  its 

^}        r 

Gk.  d^ntde,  the  people    .. 

Fr.  dinvi,  half       . .        .  •        •  • 

Lat.  d^nsg^n.  dentin  (t  tootb  . . 

Gk.  deuUfrds,  a  doable  quota   . . 

two  e<;ii4yalents  of  oxygen 

deutero-  Gk.  deuUrds,  a  second,' another 

di-.  dis-  Q¥>  ^cl  Lat.  di-,  die-,  asunder. . 

^^^Gk.  di«,  two         

Gk.  dia,  through 

In  (Mem.f  donble  equiy.  of  base . 

Gk.  dia,  through 

Lat  4i9,  aauidar 

Lat  »nd  QK  f^^  asunder,  the 

TO  voFSv       ••  ••  •• 

(^dded  Mtp  to  Te^itonie  voordf 

Eng.  dd,  a  gender-word  (the  tt^ 
male  of  cfsrtaUi  animals) 

A  gender-word  (the  muh  of  cer- 
tain wimuSs)  . . 

Pertaining  to  the  dog    ..       .. 

Depreciative,  oeceptiye . . 

Hog.  d^cl],  dodget,  dodgivg  ,. 

Lat.  dul<As,  sweet 

lAtdutf,  two       

Lat  duo,  two       

Gk.  du»dmi»,  power 

\Gk.  dymam*  »n.  dun^medt,  \ 

}     power I 

Gk.  4ht9,  evil,  dii^ased  . . 
Li^t.  e,  out  of  (before  th^  liquidSf 
and  -c,  -d,  -g,  -j,-^) 

e-  Gk,  ek,  up,  ojat  of 

ee-  Gk.  ek         

ec-  l«t  »  (only  «M  exvaapU)      » . 

eco-  Gk.  oikos,  house f 

ef-  L«t.  ^  foy  #»  (b*fpre  -/) 

el-  Gk.  id  tot  ek»  oat 

electii-  JM.  Megtrwn  genu  eUfitH,  wiher 
(toctro-  Gk.  eUetron,  amber 


EXAMPLXS. 

4iqsin-onwft>  «qsm9-gr»phj 

•oun-tenaQQe»  foniHwl 
eew»t«r-act,  conntfr-march 
.cruci-Dr«  crvud-fiMn]! 
eryf)!to-lqgy,  caypto^gmm 

Qran-urio,  grano-g^ 

dai8:y 

days-man 

Perfiaix,  Pe-lolBia 

de-cUne,  de-pavt 

de-«Iare,  dewwlafte 

dMitno^,  da-xnagnetifl^ 

de-capitate,  de-odoiise 

de-coy 

dep-|uid?J|i,  dewkffP* 

dein-orni^,  dfinp-thpilm 
dem-agogue,  demor€{racj 

demi-ged,  demi-lun^ 
d^nti-frice,  denti-^lp 
deut-ozfde  of  copper:  tMiSf 
to  one  of  the  b^  (poi^wr) 
deutero-nomy,  detiterp'jgMBJ 
di-yide,  dis-^olye 
di-cepiui!6us,  di-p^tfUpos 
di-rect,  di-electric9 
^-sulphate  of  silyfr 
dia-gram,  dia-metfr 
4if -f mie,  dif '>fer 

dis-^elieTe,  dls-agnee 

as  dispi^^  dUli¥«>  oMm) 

dog-fox,  dofir-oitter 
dog-8t«r,  dpg-l^ 
diOg'^leep,  dog-Lat|n 
4qg-w»tph  (board  tiMp) 

didc-aniara,  dnlci-fy 

du-p]icat«,  dUP-depimal 

duujvirvixi 

dyna-meter 

dynam-ioB,  dynamiwneter 

dys-pepiia,  dyy-ph^gia 

e^mit,  e-finee,  e4qc^ 
e-lectuary 
•o-lectie,  eo4ipM 
(ic-9Pntxi9 

«D0rnQ|«9^ 

ef-fept,  9t4M» 
eMipstn  (a  Uafim^  tmfy 
eiectri-fy 
eleotrorscope^  elec^ro-type 


FKBrnCES  A1TD  PRXNOUSa. 


udidjKt 
1.  Gk.  •»,  In  . 


■  :  BtaMi.  an-qnln.  sa.tbj 


tjOkcimK 
trt-n,  on 


ttor-,  Offd- 


K 


Siie./a.fl«n«t..       .. 

1*1.  JIm  gen.  Jlirij,  ■  BOWM 
Sag.  J^^r-,  DBgAtlTe,  Mida 
Kog.jtrs-,  betora  ,. 

■■ — .fort-,  front,  befure.. 
.  Arr>  bwUDB,  cbief 
.Aitt.pn«Btlj 


K.  .fte^rbs,  fe  brdtiter    f 


rowkud,  (on-l 
rortb-flofliiiig 


Mn-BroHS,  ggnt-eel 

gain-n«t)0D 

geo-g«phT,  geo-aeOr 

gej-talcon 

glyo-erlne,  gJycyKrliM™ 

gdiTfubH,  Eod-eUld 

arud-fAther,  gTULCl4DD 
:iV.>iJ,  tbrlce  niHied) 
grudl4oqik«it 
gatU-psnh*,  gntti-hniaa 


K«JH 

PREFIXES  AND  FRES0UK3. 

gj™.  } 

Gk.in«n»4..DiA«l        ..        . 

gy!™^.^™ 

B7n-,gjno 

irn-andria,  irjiiD-BleniluBi 

^i^. 

aiLftod™,  hige 

llE^llo 

hiematoi 

4k.  haima  gun.  Aaindtrta,  blood 

tuemalo- 

^Ok,ha<niageii.&a4nilMi,bloo 

biemo-CrJrbigB,  hioroo-ptyiU 

h»gio 

Ok-Sairiiw.lolr     ■ 

liielo««pl.7,  iBgio-logy 

hama- 

Ok.  M™,  togelherirlth 

huai-dirad 

h^rtt  t 

Eng.ftfl™i.lb.laiid      ..        . 

haad-jiel,  hindl^mK 

■^".t. 

Eiig.Af«,.™7 

li&r.bliissr,  hu-boDT 

bsnt 

Fr  ftaui.  long.  Mgb  Bn  fliwotti] 

Ellg./l^,»,BdgB 

liaw-Ebara 

hu^ 

Eng.A™U»P 

baml-EDt 

Ok.fc™fl.,th8.mi         „        . 

boU-antlim,  heUo-trcpe 

haml 

Ok.  AiTmi,  bilf 

Eog,  Am,  ■  gender  word  for 

ieml^aphe™,  heml-pter* 

(omalehlrd        

bf^t 

Ok.Wj)org6n.WjvIM.,U.K  , 

hepat-iHa,hepato-gMWio 

Gk.  Afpta,  Bwn 

hept-uob]',  hepta-gon 

h^r- 

Ok.  iieufilli.  maoOitt      .. 

bei-  heu 
hfu- 
hiera- 

Gk.li«.rii          

hM..aiidrl»,l,eJca,g™ 

Ok.  kiirdt,  ucted,  pilcitly      . 

hipp. 

Ok.Mpp«.»h™         ..        . 

hlpp-Qrito.  Uppo-potamn* 

Eng,W,«l>Dof 

ho^gobllB,  hoh-n^ 

hoi-,  holo 

Ofc.liaf«,thewhol.       ..        . 

bol-Hter.  ho]o*Mut 

i;on.«> 

Ok.  h™(rfM,  likB 

homeo-paUij 

homl. 

■la.t.l>omB  sea.  kemfnU.. 

hoDii-cicle 

bonj-   1 

Ok.  WmSs,  the  uma       .. 

Lom-onTm,  homo-logom 

h^Sii 

Ok.  Iiominoi,  like 

kDmoIo-Hdo 

hom- 

Gk.  Mrs,  tho  bonr,  Ums 

1*1.  *ort«Ben.)iortl,g»fdBii. 

honlHinlm™        ^ 

Eng.  Alij,  booM 

hoe-band,  hiu-nile 

Ok.  fcudor,  *gter 

Gk.  Avgrnt,  molBtiue     .. 
Ok.  Aufaioi  adj.  of  &uM,  vocd . 

hrBTo-ineter,  bj-gro-logy 

hjilOIMHiniB 

hrlo- 

Gk.AuM,  wooil,  mfttler  ., 

hylo-theUm,  hjlo-wlmi 

brsne       *^    ..        .'.        . 

hrioeno-ptera 

hyo-.hTot 

h7por-crilicai,  byper-bole 

h/p^t 

hV 

GkilSS^CdS".'*""..    : 

loiT  1 

Ok.  fcftnot,  tooteUp       .. 

lohn-llejchno-logj 

khli^o- 

Ok.  Uithuseu.  vAlhwi,  i  tub 

iiihUi.o*aunii,-n.phr 

ICO«h 

Qk-fiMngm-Btoia.,  Ml  Image   ioonOHJl^^  Icono-litr/ 

PREFIXES  AND  PRENOUNS, 


XXIZ 


icoe-    ) 
ioosa-f 
ideo- 

iff- 


il- 
fl- 
im 

im- 

im- 

in- 

in- 

in- 

in- 

intor- 

intra- 

intro- 

ll^ 

it- 

is- 

isa- 

iM- 

jack 

ja<^ 

jeo- 

jnrls- 

JQBtt- 

jQxta- 
kjd 
kick 


Gk.  eikdH,  twenty         ••       •• 

■  *  • 

Gk.  idAxy  idea 

Let.  {9  for  in  (before  flye.ezam- 

ples  of  -f»),  not 

Lat.  ignid,  fire 

Lat.  il-  for  in  (before  -2),  in,  into 
Lat.  itr  for  in  (bef pre  -Q,  not  . . 
Lat.  il-  for  in  (before  -I),  mtenslTe 
Lat.  inv-  for  im  (before  -h,  -m,  -p), 

in,  on,  to 

Lat  im-  for  in  (before  -^  -m^  -pX 

not  

BomaAce  for  en-  or  em-  to  rerb- 

alise  words        

Lat  in,  in,  on,  to..        ..        •* 

Lat  in,  not  

I<at  in,  intenslTe 

added  to  Bomance  words  .. 
Lat  inUr,  between,  among 

Lat  in^ro,  within • 

Lat  in^o,  within,  to     .. 
Lat  itr-  for  in  (before  -rX  with, 

OYWE',  on  ..        .. 

Lat.  itT'  for  in  (before  -r),  not  . . 

Eng.  ed  gen.  «fs,  water  .. 

Gk.  iMW,  -a,  -on  equal    ••        .. 

Gk.  i«d«,  equal 

a  gender  word  fmaUJ  ..  .. 
coarse,  laige         ..  ■     ..        .. 

Fr.itfw,  sport        

Lat  jui  gen.  juris,  justice 
Lat  justtu  gen.  justi,  just 
laA.juxta,  ride  by  side  .•        •• 
Gk.  k&loay  beautifal 

Fr.  ouelgues,  some  ..        .. 

Uepto- Gk.iUM9b«,  thief 

knap-|  Germ,  hnapptf  a  boy,  a  senrant 

I  Gk.  le^rifMiOB,  a  maze 

Lat  lac  gen.  lactiSt  milk 
Eng.  land,  land    ..        ..        • 

Lat  lapi»  gen.  lafXdis,  a  stone 

Lat  Wus  gen.  laiiriB,  the  side 
Lat.  IMua  gen.  UUi,  broad 
Lat.  Zaurtw,  a  laurel 

Lat  lego,  to  read 

Lat  IfiB  gen.  legi$,  law    .. 
Lat.  legitimus,  lawful     ..        • 
Lat  Uher  gen-  libi%  a  book      . 
Lat.  liber,  free      ..        ..        • 
Fr.  lieu,  instead  of 
Lat  ligare,  to  bind,  to  tie 
Lat  lignum  gen.  ligni,  wood  • 

Lat  Umaa;  gen.  limdcis  ..        . 


} 


labyrinth- 
labyrinthi 
lact-.lacto- 
land 
lapid- 
lapidi 
lateri 
lati- 
laorus- 
leg- 
legis- 
legitam 
lib-,  Ubr 
Uber- 
Ueu 
Ugar 
lign-,ligni- 
limac-  ) 
limad-) 
lingua-) 
lingui-f 
lique- 
liquld 


•• 


Lat  lingua,  the  tongue .. 

Lat.  Uqueo,  to  melt 
Lat  liquidH%  Uqnid      •• 


Examples. 
ico»andrfa,  icosa-hedron 
idao-graphy,  ideo-logy 

ig-noble.  ig-noramig 
ign-ite,  igni-potent 
il-lapse,  U-latlre 
U-legal.  il-libeial 
il-lustxlous,  il-luminate 

im-bibe,  im-pazt 

im-mortal,  im-perfect 

im-Mtter,  im-txown 
in-cite,  in-cline 
in-attentive,  in-animate 
in-candescent 
in-born,  in-bred,  in-come 
interKMNde,  inter-mix 
intra-mural 
intro-dnce,  intro>it 

ir-radiate,  ir-rigate 

ir-rational,  ir-regnlar 

is-land,  £nn-it 

isa-gon 

iso-eoeles,  iso-thermal 

jack-ass,  jack-daw 

jack-plane,  jack-towel 

jeo-pardise 

juris-diction,  juilt-pmdence 

justi-fy 

juxta-positlon 

kal-eiaoscope 

kick-fihaw 

klepto-mania 

knap-sack 

j  labyrinth-odon 
.  ( labyrinthi-f orm , 

lact-eal,  lacto-meter 
'  land-scape,  land-mark 

lapid-ary,  lapldi-fy 

lateri-folious 

lati-septsa 

laurus-tinus 

leg-ible,  leg-end 

l^is-late 

legitim-ate,  legitim-ise 

lib-el,  libr-ary 

Uber-al 

lieu-tenant 

liga-ment 

lign-ite,  ligni-ty 

limac-ldso,  limad-ous 

lingua-dental,  Ungul-form 

lique-fy,  liqae-factton 
iiquid-iae 


PREFIXES  AN9  PXENVONSi 


lithvUibo-  Ok.  Kttot.  stonet 


load- 


logo- 
long-  .) 
longi-j 
lad 
Imnin- 
lombii 
Inna-ylimi 
Mac- 


ho^  Ok.  loflw^  xatto 


} 


macrw  ) 
macro-) 


Bng.  Icedian},  to  guide 


Ok  loflKW,  aword  ..        ..        •• 

Lat  loNtfM  gen.  longi,  long     •• 

Lai.  iiu3  gen.  luelf,  Sight 

JjtiX,  tumtn  gen.  lundaiif  lig^.. 

Lat.  I«na,  moon  . .        .,       ■»• 

aoatok    VMM   prefixed    to  the 

names  of  men  of  fboMj}    «« 

Gk.  maerds,  large  « 


EXAMPLSS. 

Jitb.-omi4  lUhCHiniph 
load-stone,  load-star 
log^uiituB 
kgof^nqrii,  log»«Mdij 

longHmil,  iQcgl-ptniitte 

teid-f ei^  hid-d 

inmin-aix,  InQdal-feroaa 


*• 


XnoGiecei;  MadDonald 
maer-onra,  macuKtlieriam 


mael-  NcnregisB  mai,  evil 


magneto- 

magn-  ) 

magni- j 

maid 

mal- 

mal-,  malar 

malac-   ) 

malaco-f 

male- 

mnift 

malle- 
mamma- 


mammali- 


man 


mana- 
mani 
mani 
mano- 
manu 
mar 
marcion- 

mari-  ) 
mari»-r 

marit- 

marqu 
marri 
marti. 

Martin 

marl9^ 
mar^TO- 
Mary 
mas 
mast- 
materi- 
matecn- 
matri- 
xne(U- 
mega- 

megalo-J 


ma^-f  Sag.  auisiM»  man  (a  gender  woni) 
Lat.  mantis;  the  band 
Lath  maiMts,  the  band    . .. 
Eng;  «MUii(r,  many 

Gk.  nuMMftudtj 

Lat.  OTOMM,  the  hand    .. 
Eng.  fnaf«,  a  hone         ..        .^ 

Med.  Lat.  mareto  gen.  mafici<niii^ 
amarqpda  


Gk.  mdgmis  gen.  -itds,  magnesia 

Lat.  moiinHi  gen.  magni,  great 

Bng.  nuEgth^gendec  word) 

Fr.  malt  e«£U7*  not 

Lat.  motes  fern,  mala,  naughty 

Ok.«iiaUBbtf9,  soft..        ..        ^. 

Lat.  ttol^  amiss 

ly.  «uUs  4(ender  word)  •• 
Lat.  maiZeMS,  a  hammer..        •• 
Lat.  mamma,  the  breast. . 
Lat.  moMtma  gen.  -a,  the  breast 
Lat.  maimiMUa,  adj.  of 
Fx.  flioMs,  the  hand 
Bng. 


magneto-mfeto^  -elactridty 
m«gn-animoii8,  magni-floent 

mal-treaty  malHwmtMit 
mal-aria»  mala-iie^ 

malao-ostrolagy,  malaoe-lite 

male-dietioa,  male-volent 

male  iw  ¥■■<»  brfia  lale 

malleable 

mamma-haty 

mammirf er,  mammMorm 

mammaU-ferooB 


man-eaaTT^  matt>iiia 
man-shMghter,  miut-tal 
man-aeirant^  Seoteh-aan 


mani-f est,  maai-ple 
maBi>fold 

maaoKmeter,  manoaacne 
i-iaotiue»  maiHMaript 


MariaorHaxy 

IaL  marifws  (mare,  the  aesj   •.* 
lAt.  maritus,  a  husband  • . 

Port  mamMio,  qninoe    ..        .. 
Eng.  mtar^,  borderland..        •. 
LaC  mot  gm.  maris,  man        •• 
Lat.  JMTors  gen.  Marti$  . . 
Martin,  a  man's  name   . . 
)  Ok.  martur  gen.  wiartiMfs,  a 

r    mar^ 

Mary,  the  "virgin  Mary" 
Lat.  maB,  the  male  kind 
Ok.  madoB,  the  breast    . . 
Lai  mater  guL  matris,  a  mother 
LaL  maiemm,  adj.  of  mcUer    .. 
Lat  mater  gen.  matris,  a  mother 
Lat.  we4M»,  tbamiddle. . 
Ok. m^ga, i^eat    ..' 

Ok.  megapn.  fm^dUow,  great  . . 


marchion- 

maii-goUU  mailo-latiy 

marin-er,  martn-orama 
marit-al 


marqQ-is 
»axri-age 
marti^ 
Martin-maa 

martyp^on,  iuarltyw)4ogy 

Mary-bud 

mas-eullne 

mast-itis,  mast^xlBa 

mateil-al 

matem-al,  maiem-ity 

matri-dde,  matxi-mony 

medi-eval,  medi-terranean 

m^r<H»ros,  mega-th«lum 

megal^dhthys,  megalo-sanro-' 


FREFOSa  AND  PREJfOUmt. 


zxzi 


mel«ao- 
mell- 
meUi- 
mel-  ) 
meio-f 
mempr- 
mere- 


meio^  Qk.  Mai(9ftt»  iMi 

meUrn-  I  Qk.md<MgeiLin<MfU)»,black..    meJaa-chdlT, mel»i>o-«litolU 


meso- 


meta- 

met«Ui- 
metal-  ) 
metallo- j 

meteoro- 


■!«**  iOk.  niMOk  «f  ter 


1 


Lat.  m4  fffi»,  9ietti«>  hon«7      ..  m«U-lt6,  meUi-flwmi 

^k.  flwbM,  floQg nxfil-ioie,  mdo-teMOM 

l4at  m0f?w»  xDindfnl      ..       ..  mempr-able,  mem«v-7 

Iiat.  merx  g.  mems,  merchsndise  merc-er,  merc-ery 

Oh,  menthdt  Irnminate . .       ..  meryao-UMaium 

Ok.  «i<s^  in  ttAinidst,  middle  m«Mn»teTMtt|iiiBiim 

Gk.  m^wfo,  middle         ..       ..  meso-carp,  meio-tkQna 


Qk.mHa^Bibm meta-phriiGt, -monboiil 

IM.  mdtaUymt  |ra^•  -Ii»  me^l . .    vataUi-ionn,  meUQi-fonms 

Gk.  nKtoOon^  metal 

{•  Olu  411^091^  »  meteor 
CHc  ««^i«(biCoce-AX  with 

Ok.  m#|rM^  «  m«fwiKe  .. 

IlaL  SMSzo,  middle 

Ok.  «M4pvt9i^  imMtt i»iexo-MO|w,  jnioNHiOiia 

l4it.«»Ue9s«B'«*'tt<^ai<^dier    mllU^My,  mfliti« 


•  ■ 


metaB-nrgy,  meUll«-gnplif 

mfleor-tti^  met#9i»>k)gsr 

metMXNl 
metii-yleMit  metli-f  I 
■mti^-nome,  m«tro-poUi 
meuO'tilDtci,  me»(hfoprano 


L«t.  ^ntOc^  •  Uiouand   ..       ..  mUl-eimiam*  mllle-pede 

Ok.«ie<fmlMi  ..  mto<e»» 

Ens.  mi«-,  wrong,  out  of  pUce..  mi»-b«U«l.  mie-lar 

9k.flM»-«eTil        mii  cihance,  wak^hUi 

Lat.  laJlMwK  uriM,  erU         ^  mte-caleoUte,  mlf-lortime 

Gk.  wtimo,lh9l» BKJi»-«iftliJ»pA,  mUoijiqr 

XiSft^wodw gen.  modi, meMnre..  mod-vie,  modi-ff 

Ija^moU9,mwM$  ..  m<4»-Cille,  mole^ 


gen.  a^rtii,  deelft 

agm 
Itettfr 

amonw 

•ari^awiU 


Mfftt'^daj 
mort-^naim  morHpfe 


anlt-jngnlw;  ^wMt-fotM 

QwnA'flMBt,  mmi^c^al 
mnn^mcst 

mir-al,  mvii-feini 
mnaeo-logy  fhjfbrridj 


mreo-logy 

■njel-itis 


Bight 


od-,  Ddo- 
odont-  I 
odoato-  r 


PREFIXES  AND  PRENOUNS. 

ElAHFLIB. 

•Mkrot,  a  dead  body,.        ».  aecn^toLDCj'^  necro-logj 

nrctoT  EDb.  TitctArii  *  •  nHtar-iDe,  nectArl'TBroiir 

Bnj.  woft,  noK    ..        ..        ..  DBlgh-boni 

....  neo-logj.  nco-phytB 

lo™         ..  neitefli-    Netber-Undi 

..  neur-algla,  nonro-logr 

Eni.-niAt ..  idght-ibsdu.  DJght-niue 

Ok.  ntJrvn,  Dltn  . .       .<        ■■  nitro^gen,  nltro-nieteT 

L«t.li™gBil.iiiMHt        „        ..  nocti-T«gant,  nooto-gmph, 

Lat.  nomen  gen.  funnCnii  ••  nomen-claton,  nominal 

Ok.  lunnaa,  Isw     ..        ..       ..  uonio-gnplii 

t«t.  noini,  ulna    ..       ■.        ■■  non-flllon,  noM^gflslmBl 

Bnf.  RD,  QQt  BUT BO-lfalDe.  ncrbod; 

Ok.  floloi,  wmlb nol«m|j|.  noto-therfam 

l?~"'''"''":'°'°::i3'"!Iir""""" 

lOf'tamllr''')  o°CoDnBu"o'Buno™i 

igiliut ob-lajt,  ob-Btratl 

.,  Jor  nil  (boloM-c)  ..  oe-rat,  e«-flHpr 

' '  I,  eigbi     ..        .*        --  oct4ndrU,  oct&-goa 

>.  elgbb oot-EDDial,  octo-sjlUbl* 

J,  oigbt trelnplo 

Gk.AMdi.iiraj'.iniad..        ..  od-rie,  adL)-aiel«r 

Qi.  oAhv  gaa.  odonUiM  ..        .-  Ddcmt-^lgJji,  odobto-lc^y 

Gk.  fffnoff,  irinfl  ..        -.  -flen^nthJc,  ffuo-tboi* 

Ut  iirrorobCbBfQra/).,        ..  ol-fend,  or-far 

Eng,  o/,  limy  from,  fiom         ..  oMal,  off-68t 

L&t.  ot^m,  oU Dle-flAnt»  al«-\a 

Qk.  alladi,  ii  few  ..        ..       ..  oUi-vcbr,  ollgo-claH 

Bk.  oinfifDa, » nbowoc     ..        .,  orobtiviDotar 

Sng.  on,  upon,  forth      ..        ,.  on-alBoghl,  cm-wudi 

f  Qk.™atiwg.ondiB(I«M,anEiDiB  onomitfllogr,  onom«to-p.i!)ii 

Ltt.  0)'- tor  dA  (before -p)         ..  0|t-pOi«,  op-preW 

Lul.  opin,  plo.  Optra      . .        . .  oparHjDiiUD.  opera-moter 

ak,  tphU,  otpMDi  nerpeat      „  optal-oldde,  DphlD-mency 

Gk,  ept-ikot,  pertaiiLlng  to  dght  opl-lca,  optl-i;r>ph 


PREFIXES  AND  PREN0UN8, 


-xxxiii 


org»n-  ) 
o^gano-f 
ori- 
oA-f  €ftO- 
or-,  oti- 
omlth-    ) 
omltho- j 
oro- 
ortlio- 
os- 

0M-,  OSii 

orteo 
ostrac 

ostro- 

ot-,  oto- 

onimno- 

oufc- 

0T-,  ovi- 

OTer 

ovo- 

ovn- 

OZ-,  ozy 

o«o-     ) 

oioixo-  r 

pMhy 
pftcnyo- 
p«ci 
pal-,  pal»- 
palfldo- 
paU- 
palin-  ) 
palim-j 
palm-  ) 
palmi-f 
palmao- 
palmati- 
pan- 
pan-  ) 
pano-) 
pani- 
pan! 
panta- 
panto- 

panul^o- 
paii- 
parl- 
parri- 
part-  I 
p«rti.f 
pass- 
patem 
patho- 
IMktr- 
patri 
pea- 
pecto- 
pecUn-  ) 
pectinl-) 


} 


Gk.  orgd/Mn^  an  organ  ••       .. 

Lat  OS  g.  crUt  the  mouth,  a  gap 
Gk.  iir(^  oriik,  a  mountidn  .. 
Fr.  or,  gold 

Gk.  ornis  gen.  omithdi,  a  bird . . 

Ok.  of09,  a  mountain     ..        .* 

Gk.  orfAos,  right 

Lai  09-  for  ob  (one  example)  .. 
Lat.  08,  a  kifls  ,i 

Lat.  OS  gen.  of«i«,  a  bone 
Gk.  osteon,  a  bone 
Gk.  ostrdkon,  a  potsherd,  an  oys- 

ter(?)       

Gothic  osfro,  eastem 

Gk.  OU8  gen.  6tda,  the  ear 

Gk.  ourdThos,  the  heavena         .. 

Eng.  lit,  ont         

Lat  otntm  gen.  ovi 

Eng.  <^er,  too  much,  abore 

Gk.  6on  Latinised  (fJiv}on),  an  egg 

Lat  ovum,  an  egg 

Gk.  oonis,  sharp 

Gk.  dU),  to  smell  [offensiTely]  •• 

Gk.  poo^us,  thick 

Gk.  paehuB  gen.  -eos,  thick      .. 
Lat  paa  gen.  paeia         • .        •• 
Gk.  potoios,  ancient       ..        .. 
Gk.  pototos,  ancient 
Gk.  pa2in,  again 

Gk.  polin,  again  ••       ••        .. 

Lat  pcUma,  a  palm-tree.  •        •• 

(as  if  from  palmAcus,  paJma  palm) 
Lat  palmag.  palmdtis  (the  palm) 
Gk.  pas,  pan  everTthing. . 

Gk.  Pan  gen.  P&nds,  the  god  Pan 

Lat.  panua  g.  pani,  a  qnill  of  yam 

Lat.  panis,  bread 

Gk.  pas,  pin.  pa/nta  all  things  .. 
Gk.  pas  gen.  pantos,  everything 
Gk.  para,  from,  by  itself,  near  . 
Gk.  para{2^I<Is,  ptuallel  .. 
Lat  par  gen.  paris,  equal 
Fr.  parler,  to  speak 
For  paM,  Lat  pater,  father    . . 

Lat  pars  gen.  partis,  part 

Fr.  passer,  to  pass 

Lat  patemtu,  adj .  at  pater,  father 
Gk.  pathds,  suffering 
Lat  pcUer  gen.  patris,  father   ) 
Gk.  pater  gen.  palros     „        f 
Dutdi  pije,  a  thick  coarse  cloth 
Gk.  piktOs,  curdled,  crystallised 

Lat  peeten  gen.  pettinis,  a  comb 


EXAMPLXS. 

organ-lc,  oigano-logy 

ori-flee 

ori-ganum,  oro-logy 
or-molu,  ori-flamme 

oxnith-iohnite,  oxnitho-logy 

oro-logy,  orO"graphy 
ortho-graphy,  ortho-doxy 
os-teni[ble 
os-oola,  osHJolate 
oss-eous,  ossi-fy 
osteo-logy,  osteo-graphy 

ostnuvfsm,  o«trao-tto 
ostro<jk>th 
ot-itis,  oto-soope 
ourano-gn^y 
out-side,  out-cast 
ov-ary,  oTi-f erous 
orer-do,  over-come 
ovo-logy,  ovo-viviparous 
ovu-lite,  ovu-le 
ox-ide,  oxy-gm 

oso-kexlte,  oxono-meter 

pachy-derm,  pachy-pteija 

pachyo-pterous 

pad-hr 

pal-icmthys,  palse-ontology 
palsBo-saurus,  palsao-logy 
pali-logy 

palin-drome,  paUm-psest 

palm-er,  palmi-ferous 

palmac-ite,  palmae-eous 
palmati-fid,  palmati-partite 
pan-orama,  {Mtn-theism 

pan-io,  pano-phobia 

pani-de 

peni-faction,  pani-vorous 
panta-morphic 
panto-graph,  panto-l<^;y 
par-allax,  para^;raph 
parallelogram,  -piped 
pari-syllable,  pari-ty 
parl-ey,  parl-our  f 

parri-dde 

part-y,  parti-dpate 

pass-over,  pass-port 
patem-al,  patem-ity 
patho-logy,  pathogeny 

patr-onymic,  patri-mony 

pea-jacket 
pecto-lite 

pectAn-aX,  pectini-lonn 


xxxhr 


PREFIXES  AKD  PMINOUNS, 


SStori-j"  ^^  9ock^%  jMcWri*.  the  ckert 


ped-,pedo- 


ped-,  pedlx  !<•&  pw  gen.  pidis^  a  foot 


pedo* 
pel- 

peo^ 


I 


peiini- 

pennv- 
pent-  \ 
peni»>f 

pente- 


Ok.  pais  90iL-fNud0^  A'^diikl 


For]f(Ni(HjGk.jMm«e.j>da(9«,afoot 
Lat  wl-,  for  per  (one  example) 
Ok.  Ptifopf  gtBlL  Pel<!f^,  PefifiHW 
Lat.  90n«^  n*w]|f»  almost         •• 

Lat.  ptHODA  gtsn.  jpenncB,  a  spring. . 

0&.  petofis,  dye      ..       ..       i. 

Ok.  perUjjkontd],  fili^ 
Lafe  p«r,^Bro«^ . . 


*• 


per-  Lat.jrMr,  Intengive  ...        .« 

per-  pa  €%«iiii.)  a  maadmnm  quaatitf 
p&A-  Gk.  jMriy  roiud^  near     .  .■ 

Setri-  [  '^*'  ^**"*  ^'^^  ^'^»  *  ^"®  •  • 
petro'  Gk.  petrda^  a  ikme,  a  rock       ..< 
Fr.  paii^  little 


petti 

phanta- 

plumtwinii- 

„  -mato 

phartfiaco 


} 


pboBwt^ 
phos- 
photo- 
pnospll- 
phosphor- 
phot-   ) 
plMto-f 
phreB-   ) 
phrena-T 
phyllo 

plursio- 
phyaty* 


} 


P4g- 
pltt' 

pinnr  > 

pinni-)- 

pinnaU- 

piscir 

plMSO- 

plaai 

plano- 

platf-V 

plates- 1 

plMo- 

plen- 

pleni 

pleo- 
juedo-j 


Gk.  pAanAi[Mnai],  a  phantom 

iha 


*v 


Gk.  |>Aa«iMma»  a  phantom 
Gk.  pha-niaxma  g.  -mdtCs 
Gk.  phafMitiOti^,  medioliaa 

J^  JJGk.  p^iW»,  fond  of 

►non-  1  Ok.  p^^hi^  gen.  |)Mn^,  MHnd 
<a8  if  from  phdniHkoBf  pHdng) 
Gk.  phd$  gen.  p^Mte,  light 

I  Gk.  phospMHhy  phosptiioras .. 

Gk.  ph68  gen.  ph6tilJ$,  liglit 

Gk.  phr&n  gen.  p/iii^<i  llltttd . . 

Gk.  phuUon,  a  leaf 

Gk.  phusis,  ]^iU8«68 

Gk.  fAUM  gen»  p^uate,  a  puff  . . 


Eag.pk/a 

Lat»  pintM,  *  pkie-tree   . . 

Lat  ptnna  gen;  -<b,  a  wiiig 

Lat.  pimnaUis  gen.  •<»«.  winged. . 

Lat.  pisciSf  a  fish 

Gk.  pta*i  gea.  pldkSs,  scalf      . . 
jMi.  plamu  gon.  plant   .. 
.Lab.  pbMMM  gen.  pkmi  . . 

Gk.  platiit,  broad 

Gk;  pIMon,  mote  ... 

Lat.  pteniM  gem  pfeiii»  foil*     .. 

Gk.  plAnif  too  much 


'esto-fOk,  plMos,  nuita 


EXAMPLCS. 

peetoar-al,.  pectMitloquj^ 

ped-«flogae*  pedo^-haptJam 
ped«]^  podh-meni 
pedo-meter,  p«doi>man6^ 
pel-ludd 

peBrUunia>  pan-Ttittbra 

penn-nlft,  penlii^fbiA 

pjnui^wort)i»  paitny-wiBe 

pMlt-ailidri«,  pMtia^goti 

pente-eost 

per-ambnlate,  pet-jore 
per-auade,  per-aeeute 
per-ozide,  per-solphata 
peri-gee,  peri-iBoii 

petr*i»l»alii»  p«t»ii4y 

petro-gra{^^  peliro-liogy 
petti^<;oat,  pffUl-ioggeit 
phanta-acope 
phantasma-goria 
phantaamato-graphy 
pharmacc^oaia,  4og7 

phll-aiithMpyv  pitlo-logy 

plkofl-lea^  ph<»o-log7 

phonet-io 

pho^'S^onM,  iHx^tO'graphy 

phosph-ate,  phofl|)hoHto 

phot-opsy,  pfiolo<4ipto« 

phtexMj,  phcraoKlogF 

phyllo-gen,  phjllo-pdd 

phya-icB,  p^jiHo-logf 

phyao-grad)^ 

phyt-elephas,  i^hj^io^ogy 

pig-sty,  pig-t»il 
pin-y,  pin  ltd 

pinA<ate,  pinBi-p«d 

pinnati-ped,  pi&natl-fld 
pisd-fbrm,  pud-cttltitte 
plaMHitom,  plado-gaiioid 
plani-aphere,  phnd-metty 
plano-ooncaVe,  plaAo-oonvei 

platy-orinite^  platyaHomus 

pleio-cene 

I^en-ary,  ptanl-potMitiaiy 

pleon-asm 
plMi<MAHyra4,  -morpbotti 


Airs  pssirommi 


.    pod-iign,  podo'phrllBu 


L.t.polo^I»I«r         ..        . 

I*I«-IK.  pdui*op. 

ak.pdUm^.m..       „        . 

Ok.  fWAii,  mux 

I>ilr-u>h«,  polT-goB 

tBt.poii™tB£io).paIiU,»ppU  . 
L»t.jBmM«(101i.p™t,ipple   , 

pomade,  poml-raotu 

pomo-TuH 

Ltt.  pom  gta.  fontU,  »bddge.. 

pont-acs,  poDtl-la 

Lat.  pitrn,  forwudi 

Ft.  pour,  for.  bj 

Lat.  »«rl<>.  >  (M 

Pr.  i»r(o;  Lilt,  porta,  tocury. 
Eng.pirt;  Liitpnrtiij.iBsiBonr 

Li«.p™,b*«9 

Lat.  prffttr.  mon  ths,  ulde  . 

Lot  prtiniH,  Bri« 

tat.  r^i"",  ftt»... 

lit.  pro,  pratlooi.  haJorn 
at  prfl.,  bofotB 

port-reve,  Port-land 

^ors-p'sxr 

prod-l^pi^-iglm. 

Gk.  jiHlWi,  ohiat  flirt    .. 

Gtpn«*.cUtf 

piWho-notaiy 

OH.  jwolmoi,  pa»lni 

pMnd-qdym,  piBodo-ptophrt 

StSlI^™?™^^    ::    :: 

piVcho-logT,  P«:rcbo-Bi«w 

Qk.i.tSrfl«,.wine         ..        . 

Gt  jrWViu  gen.  pMrflsoi,  ■  wtae 

ptaryg-otnn,  ptn«Ma 

lit.  jHdiw  gm.  yuiiii*rij,  longi 

Lst  puliui.  ths  piilM     ■  ■ 
Lat.  pultii  gro.  puMrlg^  iliut . 

pulmonl-Cer 
pnlMT-iae,  pahflpinii 

Ljit-  pro,  beforduDi^  forlb 


pia-pon,  poi-me 


Xxxvi 


PREFIXES  AND  PRENOUmL 


pur- 

pur- 

pari- 

pari. 

pycn-  ) 
pycho-j 

pjrr-,pyro- 
pyret-  ) 
pyreto-J 
qnadr' 

quaori- ) 

quadra- f 
quali- 
quanti- 
quart- 
quatem- 
quatre- 
.       quin- 
quinq 
qninque- 
quint- 
qulntu 
quint- 
radl-  ) 
radio-) 
.    radio 
ram- 
rami- 
rare- 
rati 
ration 
re- 


} 


re- 
rect- 
recti 


\) 


red 


otT 
«-)f 


(for 
re' 
rere- 


rere- 

retro- 

rhin-  > 

rhino- 

rhiz- 

rhizo- 

rhod- 

rfaodo- 

risi- 

riv 

rota-,  roti- 

rub-,  rubi 

rubel- 

rubigin 

IUS-,  ror- 

8-for«B- 


Fr.  powr^  on,  off,  away  ..  •• 

Lat.  parumt  somewhat  . .  • . 
Lat.  pwruB  gen.  pwri,  pure 

Lat  jMM  gen.  pitria,  pus. .  . . 

Gk.  puJknos,  thick  ..       •• 

Gk.  pwr  gen.  piinw,  flre  ..       •• 

Ok.  jntf^tds,  flexy  heat  ..       .. 

Lat.  guodra,  a  square    .. 

Lai  qMdnu  gen.  qvadxit  four.. 

Lat.  qiuUia,  such  as,  like 
Lat.  guannu  gen.  ^uonfi,  much 
Lat.  (tuarftM,  fourth 
Lat  gtMifemi,  I7  four    .. 

Fr.  {uolrs,  f our 

Lat.  9uin{fue,  five 

j-Lftt  guin^ue,  Ato    ••       ••  4 

Lat.  ({uinttM,  fifth  .. 

Fr.guin^;  Lat  eentum,a  hundred 

Lat  toMm  gen.  raHi,  a  ray    . . 

Lat.  radist  gen.  radicis,  a  root . . 

Lat.  raiMU  gen.  rami,  a  branch . 

Lat.  ranu,  rare    ..        ..    .    .. 

Lat  rattu  gen.  raM^  firm 
Lat  rojtio  gen.  raUonia,  reascm 
Lat.  re-,  again,  back 

(Added  to  TewUmie  ioord»:  a» 
Lat  ree,  matter,  affaira  ..       .. 

Lat  nehu  gen.  recti '     . .       •• 

Lat.  roe  gen.  regia,  a  king        •• 

Seven  examples 

Eng.  hr^an]^  to  raise  oneself 

Qui  the  air]        

Fr.  arrive,  behind         .. 
Lat.  retr(»-,  baekwards   •• 

Gk.  rhinoM,  the  nose       .•       •• 


i 


«a-,8aU 
aalsi- 


Gk.  rhisa  gen.  rhizi$f  a  root    •• 

Gk.  rAiiki^,  a  rose 

Lat  rieue,  alau^ 

Lat  rivuSf  a  bank,  a  riirer 

Lat  rota  gen.  rotoif  a  wheel     « . 

Lat  ruber,  red 

Lat  rv!beUu8,  reddish     .. 
Lat.  ruMgo  gen.  ruMginis,  rust 
Lat  rus  gen.  turis,  the  country 
s-ample,   s-earce,  s-corch;    for 

eetra,  s^tray 
Lat  eoeer  gen.  Mteri,  saored     .. 
Lat  sal  gen.  eolie,  salt  ..        .. 
Lat  mZmw  gen.  »alH 


EXAMFUBS. 

pur-chase^  pur-loin 
pur-blind 
puri-fy 
purl-fbrm 

pycn^odont,  pyeno-ttyle 

pgn>ope,  pyro-techniD 

pyret-ios,  pyreto-logy 

qnadx'Angle 

quadil-dentate^  quadm-ped 

quali-fjr 

quanti-f!y 

quart-er 

quatem-ary,  qnatem-lty 

quatre-foil 

quin-deoemTixl,quin-decagon 

quinq-angular, 

quinque-partite 

quint-essenoe,  qnintn-ple 

quint-al  (a  cwt.) 

ndl-ate,  radlo-lita 

ladic-ate,  radios 

ram-ons,  rami-iy 

rare-fy 

rati-fy 

ration-al 

re-Terse,  re-animato 

re-opei^  re-build) 

re-publie 

reot-angle,  recti-ty 

reg^ 

red-eem,  red-olent 

rere-mouse 
rere-dos  [or  rear-doi] 
retro-grade,  retnHQMct 

rhin-enoephalic,  rhino-oeroe 
rhis-anth,  rl4»>-pod 

rhod-anthe,  rhodo-dendron 

risi-ble 
rlv-al,  riv-er 
rota-lite,  roti-fer 
rub-eola,  rubi-cund 
rubel-lite 
rubigin-ous 
rus[Q-io,  rur-al 


■aori-floe,  sacii-lege 
sal-aiT,  sali-ferous 
aalsi-fy 


PREFIXES  AND  PRElTOUIfS.  nnO 

\jJL  tal\a%BB.  aiatU    ..        ..  nlal-trj 

lAt  HimiK,  »tB nlv-iMe 

Yag-uan,  tuU:  Lal.nrni        ..  um^bUnd 

LaL  taiKtui  gea.  atacti,  sacied  uncti-f;,  «victu4i7 

}  Eog.  Hm,  half uDd-bUnd 

(LaL  tanffitit  gflju  nn^tUnit, 

blood    .■        ungul-feroQi,  i»n|ndiil-oo» 

Lat,  tapitr  geu.  mji^rie,  flaTour.  HapornMiBj  upoil-lla 

Gk.  «I7  gea.  nrioi,  Seab        ..  barc-aam,  urcD-loir 

Lat.  tolur,  ecDngii  ..         ,.  uli-ale,  uUi-tv 

LaL  Mlur.  Ml] satur-Bte 

:Eiig.  SacUr,  ^deltf  10  maea  ,,  Batnr-dsy 

Gk.  MUTOf,  ■  liard        . ,        . .  aaur-Ichlhiu,  laan-piu 

I4>t,  nuniM,  g«iL  lasei,  a  rock, 

Ok.jcAinnag.Khfjrm'ifi>«,BclUsm  Khlaiaat'la 

l&k.  arAi^liw,  «laf t,  oioven     ,.  Hhlaa-pod 

GJl  iJEia  gea.  fHda,  abadoH     ■•  BOlo-mancr 

Gt.  jtWriM,  haul KluWrttinito.  (clero-dflrm 

Ok.  dlei^rra,  hardDoa    ..        ..  Bderol-lo 

Glk.  nunui,  eanfaqiuke..        ..  wlsmo-aiapb, »liaii>~«ia|M 

Gk.  (eMn*,  the  moon      ..        ..  «elan-ita.  Mleno-gtaphj 

Eng,  Mi/,  one's  proper  poraon  ..  wH-langhl,  self  .will 

Ok.  ttran.  >ipi    llgnal     ..  ..  Oema-jjh.irB 

Gk.  jmiHoj.  aelgD,  aejmptoni..  HBmHo-luHf 

EDff.  «^ffAp  leren  ..        ..        ..  len-nJi^lil,  BOD'niL 

Lai.  erptcm,  (spii-eeyan  ..  •epl-cniiiaj,  sepll-lateraL 

Lat  Kjilim,  Bdven  ..        ..  SBptom-ber,  t8ptcii.BlB 

Lat.  wp""«  gen.  KpM,  a  fold   ..  SEpt-ste,  aeptl-f oim 

Lftt!  Aovui.  Doe-aiid-a-half       ..  BeHf^ul.broEiiMe,  .pedaUaa 

lit.  «tii  gen.  «(«.  a  btlstlB     ..  bbl^om,  teli-larom 

Lat,  AS,  ^  >ei-!uiiiita 

Ut.  «!(<«  gen.  (txli,  BlI  ..  Hit-llllon.  wrt-lle 

Lat.Mi(i",BU MitupLe 

Eng.  jcearp,  >hsrp  . ,         . .  iharp-Ml,  aharp-Qo 

Eng.  >(o  (a  geiKter  word,  female)  sbe-ndlf,  Bbe  bsat 

Put  part,  ol  s/ied,  to  throw  off..  Bhodd-y 

Lat.  airfiwgen.  jjrfft^p  aatAr  „  stdere-al 

Gk.  jiiMrSi,  Iron sidet-ita,  aldeio-Bcopa 


^rt.f 


KAiilo.) 

Rle(t>t 
■dsD-  f 

Kd- 
Htsmo- 


Szxviii 


PREFIXES  AND  pnENOUmi, 


slgn- 

signl- 

silic- 

sUici- 

simpli 

simplici- 

ain-,  sine- 

so-  {sub) 

soci-  ) 

socio- f 

BOl- 

soU- 
8oUd 
somn-  ) 
somni- ) 
soni- 

80X10- 

sonor-  ) 
soDori-  r 
soph- 
Bopori- 
spad- 
spectro- 
spher-   ) 
sphero-  j" 
spin-  \ 
spini-  r 
spirit-    ) 
spiritu-  f 
spiro- 

splanohn- 
•planohno- 

spor 

sporid- " 

sporo- 

staphyl 

staphylo- 

star- 

stear-) 

steat-  r 

steneo- 

(for  steno-) 

stentor 

stentoro- 

step- 

stereo- 

stetho- 

stom-   ) 

stoma-  i 

strati- 

strato- 

straw- 

stulti- 

snb- 

snb 

sabter- 

suc- 


} 


ExAMPi^es. 

Lat.  aignwm  gexL  aigM,  a  sign . .  sigii'*!,  signi-fy 

Lat.  sUex  gen.  tUicia,  flint       ..  sOio-ate,  sUld-calQpireow 

)Lat.   simplex  gen.   aimflidat 

)     simple  ..        sUnpIi-fy,  simi^ici-ty 

Lat.  sine,  without sin-cere,  sine-cure 

Through  the  French       ..        ..  io-jonzn 

Lat.  aocius  g.  aodA,  a  companion  sod-al,  sodo-logj 

Lat.  sol,  the  sun sol-ar,  aol-stice 

Lat.  8olu8  gen.  aolit  alone        . .  soli-loqi^y,  8olirj>ed 

Lat.  8oUdu8f  whole,  solid         ..  solid-ungulous 

Lat.  somnum  gm.  somni,  sle^. .  somn-ambuUst,  somni-lerous 

Lajb.  8(mu8  gen.  soni,  a  sound  . .  soni-ferons 

Lat.  ioriAis,  a  sound        . .        . .  sono-meter 

Lat.  aoiMT  gen.  wnSHs,  noise  ..  sonor-ous,  sonori-4c 

Gk.  sophos,  wise soph-ist,  soph-ism 

Lat.  8opor  gen.  soporis,  deep   . .  sopori^flc 

Lat.  species,  appearance,  species  speci-al,  sped-fy  , 

Lat.  spectrum,  a  spectrum        . .  spectro-scope,  8i>ectro-log7 

Gk.  sphaira  g.  sphairds,  a  sphere  i pher-los,  sphero>meter 

Lat.  spina  gen.  spinas  a  thorn. .  spin-ose,  spini-ferous 


Lat.  S2nr{tu<,  spirit 
Lat  spiro,  I  breathe 
\  Gk.  splanchnon,  the  viscera  . . 
Gk.  «poro«,  a  spore 
Gk.  sporos  g.  ^paridos,  a  «(pore.. 

I  Gk.  staphOU,  a  bunch  of  grapes 
Span,  estri,  the  right-hand  side. . 
Gk.  stear  gen.  steatos,  suet       .. 

I*  Gk.  stefnos,  thin,  small 

)  Gk.  stent&r  gen.  stent&rds,  a 

)     Stentor 

Eng.  steop,  orphan,  bereft 

Gk.  stereos,  solid 

Gk.  stethos,  the  breast,  the  chest 

Gk.  stomOt  the  mouth    . . 

Lat.  stratum  gen.  strati,  a  layer 

Gk.  stratas,  an  army 

Eng.  streaw,  straggling  . . 

Lat.  sttMtu  gen.  stuUi,  foolish, 
a  fool       

Lat.  sub,  under,  inferior 

(Added  to  Teutorvie  toords  as  : 

(in   Chem.)   the   article   named 
inferior  to  the  base 

Lat.  suhter,  underneath,  under- 
hand         

Lat  sue-  for  sub  (before  -e) 


spirit-less,  qpiritu-al 

spiro-meter 

splanchn-ic,  splanohno-logy 

spor-«le 

sporid-ium,  sporo-carp 

staphyl-oma,  s^aphylo-raphj 

atar'board 

1  tear-ine,  8t6at4te 

steneo-saums,  sleno-graphy 

stentor-ian,  stentoro-jdionic 
step.-son,  step-mother 
stereo-type,  stereo-scope 
stetho-scope,  stetho-meter 


stom-ate,  stoma-iK)d 

strati-fy,  strati-form 

strato-cracy 

straw-berry 

stulti-fy 

sub-side,  sub-editor 

sub-writer,  snb-wodcer) 

sub-carburet 

snbjber-fuge 
suo-ceed,  suc-cumb 


PREFIXES  AND  PREN0UN8, 


ZZZIX 


gaf- 

im- 

aolpli'  ) 

solpho-f 

sum- 

tompta- 

sup- 

snper- 

sur- 

siir-  (for 

€ir-) 

sva- 

txu- 


Lat.  ttnf-  tar  mb  (before  -/) 
Lat.  tuf'  for  <ud  (one  exftmple) 

Lat.  mi,  oneself 

lAt.    nUphwr    gen.    nUph&ris, 
snlphnr . .    m^h-orei,  nilpho-vinlo 


1 


som-mon 
Bomptn-aiy 
sup-pose,  sap-port 
snper-abonnd,  si^er-oaigo 
snr-base,  sor-moont 

sor-round 

snr-render,  snr-rogf  te 
sor^pUce,  sur-face 
8as4>ect,  SOS-tain 
{Only  one  example  qf  each,  the 

other  two  are sus^septible  and  8n[s]-spect 

gwnrd- £ng.  noord,  a  swcurd       ..        ..    sword-play,  sword-stick 
sycor  Gk.  cttJbo«,  a  flg     ..        ..       -..    syco-more,  syco-phant 
syl-{  6k.  8iU-  for  eun,  with     . .        . .    syl-logism 

Gk.  eum-  for  *un  (before  -b,  -m,  -p)   sym-metry,  sym-pathy 


sym 
i^n' 

»y 

tanto- 
tazi 
tax- 
taxo- 
techn-  I 
techno- f 
tel-,  tele- 
teleo- 
^mpot- 
tenaci- 
tenebr 
ter- 


1 


tergi- 
terr- 
terri 
terri-  (for 

teTTOTt-j 

teeti- 

tetr-  j 

tetra-l 

thaoma- 

thanmat- 

thec-  1 

theca-) 

the-,  theo- 

therm-    ) 

thermo-  f 

thorough 

thuri- 

Thurs- 

to- 

Tom- 

tom- 


ExAMPun. 
8uf-fer,  suf-flz 
sug-gest 
Bui-dde 


Lat.  8um-  tot  tub  (before  -m) 
Lat.  eumptus,  eaqranse    . . 
Lat.  tup^  for  $ub  (before  -p)     .  • 
Lat.  ntper,  over,  above,  extra  .. 
Fr.ewr-  (Lat.  ntper),  over 

Lat.  cireum,  around,  about 

Lat.  tur-  for  tud  (before  -r) 
Lat.  mir-  for  aujMr,  over,  beyond 
Lat.  «tM-for<ud(before-€,  -s,  -p,  -t) 


Gk.  tun,  with 

Gk.  tun  (before  -e,  -z) 

Gk.  to  auto,  the  samd '    .. 

Gk.  ioxu,  arrangement  .. 

Lat.  taxus  gen.  taxi,  a  yew-tree 


syn-onym,  syn-opsis 
sy-stole,  sy-zygy 
tauto-lbgy,  tauto-phony 
taxi-denny 
tax-ite 


Gk.  taxia  g.  taxeds,  classification    taxo-nomy 


techn-lc,  techno-logy 

tel-erpeton,  tele-scope 
teleo-saurus,  teleo-l(^7 
tempor-al,  tempor-ise 
tenaci-ous 
tenebr-ous 


Gk.  tec^n^,  art 

Gk.  tele,  far  distant 
Gk.UflSd8,  perfect,  the  end 
Lat  tempus  gen.  temp&rie,  time 
Lat  tenax  gen.  teTMcie,  adhesive 
laX.tenebras,  darkness     . . 
Lat.  ter  (in  Chem.),  three  atoms  of  the  substance  named,  gene- 
rally refers  to  the  negative  constituent  ter-acetate  [of  lead] 
("  Ter-acetate  of  lead  =  3  atoms  of  acetic  add  to  1  oxide  of  lead 
"  Tiis-acetate  of  lead  =  1  atom  of  acetic  acid  to  3  oxide  of  lead) 
Lat.  tergum  gen.  tergi,  the  back     teigi^versation,  tergi-ferous 

Lat.  terra  gen.  terroi,  earth      . .    terr-aqueous,  terri-genous 

I  Lat.  terror  gen.  terroris,  terror    terri-fjr,  terri-ble 
Lat 


testis,  a  witness       . . 

Gk.  tetra,  four 

)  Gk.  thauma  gen.  thaumdtoe, 
)     a  marvel         

Gk.  ikekS,  a  sheath 

Gk.  theos,  god       the-ist,  theo-logy 

Gk.  (/iemuM,  heat therm-al,  thermo-meter 


testi-fy,  testi-mony 
tetr-arch,  tetra-gon 

thauma-trope,  thaumat-urgus 
thec-odont,  theca-phore 


Eng.  thuruh,  through     .. 

Lat.  thvs  g.  thuris,  frankincense 

Eng.  Ttior  g.  Thores,  a  Scand.  god 

Eng.  adverbial  prefix 

A  gender  word  (male)     .... 

big,  awkward        tom-toe,  tom-fool 

^^  I  Gk.  tosrffctf »>  polsoo       ,,       ..    toz-odon,  toxico-losy 


thorough-fare,  thorough-bred 
thuri-fer,  thuri-ble 
Thurs-day 
to-day,  to-morrow 
Tom-cat,  tom-tit 


PREFIXES  AND  PREN0UN8. 


tracheli- 


} 


trach- 

tracheo 

trade- 

tra- 

traf- 

trag- 

tran- 

trans- 

tres- 

tri 


trigono- 

tri-,  teiph- 

tris 

torn- 

tnr 

twi 

Udo-  (Jor 
huao-) 
xdtra- 
nmbr- 
nn 
nn-,  uni 
nnder- 
and-al- 
ungu-  ) 
imgoi-f 
nni- 
up- 

Qgque- 

ura- 

ut-,  utt- 

nxoii- 


EXAMPLKS. 

Ok.  traehUds,  the  neck  or  throat    tracheli-pod 
("Tracheli-poda"  ought  to  be  trachelo-poda) 

6k.  traeheiOf  the  wind-pipe     ..    trach-itis,  tracheo-tomy 

Eng.  tredde,  a  beat,  a  tread      ..    trade-wind 

Lat.  trc^-  for  troma,  acrosn         ..    tra-montane,  tra<liice 

Lat.  t/nnf'  for  trans  (before  -/) . .    traf-fic 

Ok.  irago$,  a  goat trag-edy  (for  irag-ody) 

Lat.  iran-  for  trans  (before  -«)  ..    tran-scribe,  tran-sept 
Lat.  trans,  across,  elsewhere    ..    trans-fer,  trans-plant 
Romance  (Lat.  tran^    ..        ..    tres-pass 
Gk.  treiSt  three  (in  Chem.),  it  denotes  three  atoms.     It  gene- 
rally refers  to  the  positive  constitntent  -tri8-«cetate 
("  Tris-acetate  of  lead  '* = 1  atom  of  acetic  acid  to  3  oxide  of  lead 
"  Ter-acetate  of  lead  "  =  8  atoms  of  acetic  acid  to  1  oxide  of  lead) 
Ok.  trigdndn,  a  triangle  ..        ••    trigono-metry,  -carpon 
6k.  treif,  three trl-phylloos,  toiph-thong 


Gk.  treis,  thrice 
Eng.  tyrnlan},  to  tnru'  .. 
Eng.  (ur,  ronnd  ..  •• 
Eng.  tw4on,  donbtfnl  •• 
Gk.  tupos,  type    ..       »« 

I  Gk.  hvdor,  water        •• 

Lat.  vXirat  beyond         .. 
Lat.  umbra,  a  shadow    .. 
Eng.  un-,  not,  back 
Lat.  unus  gen.  unitu,  one 
Eng.  under,  beneath,  inferior 
Lat.  wnd-uia,  unda,  a  wave 

Lat.  unguis,  a  nail,  a  hoof 


•• 


tris-agion,  tris-megistns 

torn-stile,  torn-coat 

tor-nip 

twi-light 

typ-ic,  typo-graphy 

odo-meter  (for  hydo-meter) 

xdtra-montane,  oltra-iadical 
ombr-age,  ombr-ella 
on-troe,  on-wind 
on-animoos,  oni-com 
onder-groond,  -fiecretaiy 
ondol-ate 


••  ongo-al,  ongoi-form 

Lat.  unus  gen.  unlus,  one        ..  oni-form,  oni-son 

Eng.  up,  mgh,  over  . .  op-lands,  op-set 

(Prefixed  to  nouns,  verbs,  adjedives,  and  adverbs.) 

Lrish  uisge,  water osqoe-baogh 

Lat.  usus,  ose       oso-froct,  oso-al 

Eng.  au,  oot         ot-most,  ott-er 

Lat  uxor  gen.  uxoris,  spoose  ••  ozozi-oos 


^ 


SUFFIXES  AKD   TERMINATIONS. 


(By  permisHon  from  Dr.  Brewer**  "  Prefixes  and  &uffiaDU.**) 


The  pftrt  ixL brackets  []  h  either  the  ytncolam  of  a  rafflx  or  an  accidental 
part  of  the  termination.  It  is  displayed  in  this  list  for  three  reasons :  (1)  be- 
came tiM  general  reader  will  more  easily  find  the  termination  he  seeks 
for  by  having  it  written  out  in  full ;  (2)  because  it  very  often  aifects  the 
suffix  with  "a  new  shade  of  meaning :  **  thus  -[<r]eM  is  more  than  a  mere 
female  like  -u»  (in  "lion-ess  "X  u  the  i/r  denotes  that  the  word  is  not  only 
a  /emole  but  a  femait  agent :  and  (3)  it  guides  to  a  declension,  conjugation, 
and  sometimes  even  to  a  language. 


-[a]ble 


Romance 
Lat. 

Lat.  habilia; 
Eng.  oXmX 


Koun,  denotes  a  woman 
Koun,  (in  Bot,)  a  genus 

Adj.,  able  to  be,  fit  to  be 


donn-a,  snltan-a 
scabios-a,  achills»-a 

eat-[a]ble,  cnlp-[a]ble 


(Tha  "a,"  in  words  from  the  Lai.,  denotes  that  the  verb  to  which  this 
suffix  is  joined  is  of  the  frst  eonj.,  Imi  the  rule  is  very  loosely  observed. 
Verbs  of  oQur  conj.  take  **  -tble "  instead.    English  verbs  take  only  **  -aJbU. "> 


Lat    -{<4c-iis;  )  AdjeotiTal  Koun,  pos- 

6k.  -Ca]Jb-os     f    sessed  of     .. 
Lat  -[a^»  gen  \ 

■Hs,  -ia]c-ius,  VKonn,  made  of,  pro- 

'iia,-€ia,-€ius )     duced  from.. 
Lat  -{akeos     . .   Koun,  (in  £ot. ) an  order 
Lat  '^OL^oeva   . .   Adj.,  from  a  ooncrete ) 

noun . .        . .  j 

Lat  -oeeus;  ItaL 

-dceto . .  Noun 

Lat  [a>B  g.  -cu  Adj.,  from  an  absfyntct 

noun . . 
Lat  •{aJtry>s-ns,  Adj.,  from  an  abstract 

\acx^-^i»    . .       noun 

Lat  -iayc-itas  . .    Abstract  noun* 
Lat.  -{ayc-ul-um  Houn,  diminutive     .. 
Lat  -{ac]I-um..   lToun,instrument,place 
Lat    -[a]^-ta, 

-{a]e4a 
Gk. -{a]Ua;  Lat 

•tia,  -^ia 

("-ey"  denotes  mnJb,  .oj^m,  jwrisdidtiony  bui  "-sy*' 
psky*  apostasy,  minatrel-sy.) 


-Ia]c 
-Cajoe 

-{a]ce8B 
-[ajceous 

-£a]ehe 

-{aldous 

•{aeijoas 

-lajc-ity 
-Ia)o-le 
-(aehle 
-{a]c-y 

-{•ley 


Abstract  noon* 
Koun,  oflBlce,  rank 


demoni-[a]e 

tenKalce,  men-[a]ce 
amaranth-[a]ce» 
sapon-[a]ceous,  aigil- 
fajceous 

moust-[a]che 

aud-Ca]cioQs,    ten- 

[a]cious 
gT[acil-ous,  sp[aci>ous 
aud[a]o-ity,  teQ[a]c-ity 
tabem-[a]c-le 
recept-[ac]le,  orfacjle 

fall-{a]c-y,  effic-[a]c-y 

cur-{a]cy,  pap-[a]ey 
condition,  the  arts:  <u 


are  those  which  are  formed  from  adjectiyes:  as 

flilaJHiy  from  "wital,*' whiU^ness  from  "white,"  audacity  from  "audax" 
IMIL  anuiancg  from  ''constant" 


xlii 


SUFFIXES  AND  TERMINATIONS. 


-ad 

-ade 

-ade 

-[a]dffi 

-age 

-age 


Gk.  -<u  g.  -adroa 


Noon,  the  concrete  of 
an  idea 


Lat. 


mon-ad 

lemon-ade,  palia-ade 

cannon-ade 

8epHa]d» 

broker-age,  marri-age 

assembl-age,  vint-age 
(Added aUo to  TeuiorUc vu^ns:  as  "till-age,"  ** cott-age,*'  ** "bond-age") 


Fr.  -ade; 
-cUua  .. 
Fr.  -ade;    Lat. 
Gk.  -[ai]de8 


Konn,  concocted,  made 

Verb,  to  nse,  to  employ 

Venn,  a  family,  a  group 

Lat.  agere,  to  do  Kotm,  a  trade,  a  thing 

done 

Ft. -age.,        ..    Noun,  collective,  sea- 
son of 


-age 
-[aig]n 

-[ai]n 

-[ai]n 

-Ta]l 

-[a]l 

-ol 

-[a]l-ity 

-ta]n 

-an 

-ana 

-[a]nce 


Fr.  -age 

Lat.   thro'   the 

Fr.  [agyne 
Lat.  -[ajrMM, 

-{ayn-is 
Lat.    thro'    the 

Fr.  [ag}ne  .. 
Lat  -[a]l-i8  . . 
Lat.  -[a]^tw  .. 
Lat.  -all-u8y  um 
Lat.  -[a]l-ita8  . . 
Lat.  -{a]n-ui8  .. 
Lat.  -an-va 
Lat.  -ana 

Lat.  -[a^  gen. 
-nUe,  -[ajntia 


Noun,  condition,  duty 

Koun,  characterised . . 
Noun,  office,  rank  (good 
or  bad) 

Noun,  characterised . . 
Adj.  from  a  noun 
Adjectival  noun 

Noun 

Abitraot  noun,  state. . 
Adj.,  belonging  to    .. 
Adjectival  noun 
Noim  (plu.),  things  per- 
taining to    . . 

)  Verbal  noun,  act  of, 

)     state  of    . . 


vassal-age,  hom-age 

camp-[aig>i 

capt-[ai]n,  vill-[aQn 

mount-[ai]n 

vit  [a]l,  music-fall 

geher-[a]l,  crin]in-[a]l 

met-al 

vit-[a]l-ity 

veter-[a]n,  public-{a]n 

Bom-an,  equestri-an 

Johnsoni-ana 

viglHa]nc6 


(Also  jovfUd  to  TeiUonic  toorde:  as  "forhear-ancey**  "hvndeir-ane€.'*J 
-[a]n-cy 


-[a]nd 
-[a]ne 
-[a]nt 

-[a]nt 
-ar 

-[a]r 

-ard 

-art 

-[a]ry 

-[a]ry 

-[a]ry 
-[a]sm 

-ass 
-astar 
-aster 
-[a]te 
-[a]te 

-ate 


■la]te 

-[a]te 

-[a]te 

■la]t-ic 


} 


Lat.    'lajns, 

-[a}ntia 
Lat.  -iajnd-ti8 . . 
Lat.  -\a}nu8    . . 
Lat.  -{a]n8  gen. 

-nt-is 


Abstract  noun,  state ) 
of       ..        ..  i 

Noun,  to  be  done 
Adj.,  belonging  to    . . 


Participial  noun,  i^nt 
Lat.  -ialnst  &c  Participial  noun,  state 
Norse -arer;  Lat. 

Noun,  agent 


[a]r-ii« 
Lat.  -[a]r-t»    . . 
Eng.  hard 
Eng.  hard 
Lat.  -[a]ri-t«  .. 
Lat.  -[ajri-iun.. 

Lat.  -[a]ri-t*s  . . 
Gk.  -la}sm-09  .. 
Fr.  -asse 
Fr.  -(utre 
Gk.  -a^tSr^  a  star 
Lat.  -{a]t-tis  . . 
Lat.  -ia]t-u8  .. 
Lat-oi-us 


Lat  i-[a]<rus    .. 

Lat.  •ra]^^ies  . . 
Lat.  -[a]t-or,  -tu 
Lat.  -[a]«-ic-iM 


Adj.,  pertaining  to  .. 

Noun,  one  of  a  class . . 

Noun,  one  of  a  class . . 

Noun,  one  of  a  craft . . 

Neun,  a  d6pdt,  adap- ) 
ted  or  set  apart  for ) 

Adj.,  relating  to 

Neun,  state 

Noun,  made  of 

Noun,  in  depreciation 

Neun,  star-struck 

Noun,  office     .. 

Verbal  noun    . . 

Noun  rin  Chem)  denotes 
a  salt  formed  by  the 
combination  of  an 
acid  in  -ie  with  a  base 

A4j>v  inclined  to,  fa- 
voured by    . . 

Vetb,  to  energise 

Noun,  agent    . . 

A4j<  or  Adjectival  noon 


pU- 


mendic-[a]n-cy, 

[a]n-cy 
muitiplic-[a]nd 
hum-[a]ne 

infonn-[a]nt 
verd-La]nt 


begg-ar,  registr-[a]r 
vmg-[a;h^ 

drunk-ard,  duU-ard 
bragg-art,  sweet-heart 
lapid-[a]ry,  statu-[a]r7 
libr-[a]ry,     gran-[a]]^, 
sanctQ-[a]ry,  sal-CaJry 
liter-[a}ry,  second-fajry 
enthusi-[a]sm,  pleon- 
cuir-ass,  (cuir,  leather) 
poet-aster 
dis-aster 

magistr-[a]te,  advoc- 
postul-[a]te 

nitr-ate  of  soda,  i.e., 
.  nitric  acid  combined 

with  soda  [the  base] 
fortun-[a]te,     passion- 

[a]te 
anim-[a]te,  flnotti-[a]te 
car-[a]te,  deleg-[a]te 
lun-Ca]t-ic«  aqu-[ali4o 


SUFFIXi:^  AND  TERMINATIONS, 


zlilf 


-ber 

-ble 

-ble 

-ble 

-b<Nid 

-bnle 

-{br]ain 

-bund 

■c 

-c 

-{c> 

-ce 

-cede) 

-oeed  r 

-oeUi 

-cello 
■Cc]h 
-dure 

-chre 

-cle 

cle 

-cule 

-cnltim 

-Ccjnnd 

-[c]y 


Sanskrit  vatwx, 
time  . .  . . 
fioin.  -|){0  •. 
Lai  habiliM  .. 
Lst.  -du{-ttm  .. 
IaL  -btmd^fu . . 
Lat.  -InU-um  .. 
Lat.  -[ftrjuwi  .. 
Lat.  -bund^ua  .. 
Lat.  -C-1M 
Lat  -c-tu 


Lat.  -[e]a,  -[c}ta 
Lat  -ei-a,  -ti-a 

Lat  ecdo,  to  go    Verb,  to  go 

ItaL-ceUi;Lat 


Venn,  time  or  month 

oftiiejrear  .. 
VavB,  midtipUcatiTe 
A4J.,fitfor,  full  of  .. 
Koan,  instmment    .. 
Oenmdial  noon 
Koun,  d^pOt    .. 
Kean,  inatmment     .. 
Oenmdial  noun 

Adi 

AdjeotiTal  noon 
Voun,  denotingagemu 
Abttraetneiu.. 


ItaL  -cello 

Eng. 

Ft.   -en;     Lat 

er-um 
6k.  chroa 
Lat  -cul-ui     .. 
Lat  -cul-um   .. 
Lat  -cu^-um   .. 
Lat  -cuZum    . . 
Lat  -{cyund-Ms 
Vt.  -[c}ie/  Lat 

-ti-a  .. 
Lat  -ti-o,  -H^; 

Gk.  -ibi-a     . . 


VovB,  dim. 
Hoon,  dim. 
A4jeetival  noon,  Adj. 
Noun,   d^pOt,   ingtru- 

ment 

Koun,  colonr  of  . .     . . 

Koon,  dim. 

Noun,  dim.  instrument 

Konn,  dim 

Noun,  dim. 

Adj.,  endowed  with  .. 

Abatraot  noun.. 


-den 
-dom 


Noon,     oflBlce,     state, 
Jurisdiction.. 

(For  different  of  -cy  and  -sy,  8a  page  xU.) 

Eng.  -de,  -[e](2e,  Past   tense    of   weak 

-io}d€ . .        . .       verbs 

Eng.  den  for  In  names  of  places,  a 
denu  ..        ..       valley 

Eng.  -ddm       . .  Noun,  rule,  province 


Oeto-ber,  Deoem-ber 
dou-ble,  tre-ble 
hum-ble.  fee-Ue 
sta-ble,  mandi-ble 
vaga-bond 

vesti-bule  (rohe-d6p6t) 
candela-[br]um 
mori-bund 
frant(i]-c,  mst[i>c 
crit(i>c,  mania-c 
angell-[c]a,  laotu-[c]a 
justi-ce,  mali-ce 

pre-cede,  pro-ceed 

vermi-celU 

violon-ceUo 
Scot-[c]h,  Dut-[o]h 

sepul-chre 
o-chre  fegg-coVowr) 
canti-cle,  mus-de 
tenta-de,  ventri-de 
corpus-cule 
animal-culom 
Jo-[c]und 

ezcellen-rc]sr,     oon- 
stan-[c]7 


magistra-cy,  cnra-cy 


hear-d,  fle-d 


Tenter-den 
king-dom,  wis-dom 


^This  suffix  is  also  ttsedvyith  Romance  vx>rd8:  as  "  duke-dom"  martyr-dom." ) 


-{djor 

-[d]ore 

-{djoor 

-e 


Span.  -[d]or 
Span.  -[d]or 
Fr.  -i(}pir 

Lat  -o  ., 


Houn,  agent,  instrum. 
Noun,  agent    . . 
Noun,  instrument 
Verb 


corri-[d]or  fa  runner  J 
mata-[d]ore 
battle-[d]oor 
produc-e,  divid-e 


f  Very  often  it  is  added  merely  to  lengthen  the  preceding  vowel :  as  cloth,  clothe.) 


-[e]«© 

-[ea]n 

-Ce]d 

-[e]d 


Gk.  -C6]ai 

Lat  -[ajn-eus  . . 

Eng.  -de,  -[c]d«, 

-[olds . . 
Eng.    -d,    -[e]d, 

-[o}d  .. 


Noun,  a  sub-genus  . . 
Adj.  or  Adjectival  noun 
Past    tense   of   weak 

verbs . .     . .     . .  '  . . 

Past    part,    of    weak 

verbs        


amygdal-[e]8e 
Mediterran-[ea]n 

leam-ed,  lov-ed 

leam-ed,  lov-ed 


(Also  added  to  nouns:  as  "hom-ed"  '*vnng-ed,"  "foot-ed."J 


•ed 


-ee 


Eng. 
Pr.  4,  -4e 


Added  to  all  verbs  not 
from  native  words 

Noun,  object  of  some 
action       


syllabl-ed  (Gk.) 
expand-ed  (Lat.) 


legat-ee,  mortgag-ee 
(Chiefly  used  in  legal  phraseology,  the  correspsnding  active  noun,  or  that 
which  is  the  subject  of  the  action  being  -or:  as"  mortgag-or,*^  "  legat-or."j 

.  -.  In  some  few  words  this  suffix  is  added  to  nouns  of  an  active  charac- 
ter: as  "devot-ee,"  *'grand-ee,"  "repart-ee,"  "absent-ee." 


^liv 


SUFFIXES  AND   TERMINATIONS, 


-[ee 
-[e 
-[e 
-[e 


1 
1 
1 
1 
-el 


Lat.  -[e\l-i8 
Eng.  -I,  -[e]l    . . 
Lat.  thro' the  Fr. 
Lat.  -[e]2-a,  -us 
Fr.  -eav,  or  -elU 


Adj.,  belonging  to 
Koun,  instrument 
Noun,  instrument 
Noun,  dim. 
Noun,  dim. 


genH^e]! 
8hov-[e]l,  hov-[e]l 
mod-[ell 

lib-te]l,  quarr-[e]l 
tumbr-el,  parc-el 


(The  final  -el  of  many  other  words  is  only  a  part  of  the  termination : 
thus  in  ** gospel"  it  is  -spel,  in  "hydromel"  it  is  -mel,  in  ** rebel"  it  is 
hell-^m,  in  "  excel "  it  is  cell-o,  in  "  dispel "  it  is  jpell-o,  in  "refel "  faXIrO^  &c 


-[eln 

Lat.  -[e]n-iM    .. 

-en 

Eng.  -aw,  -en  .. 

-en 

Eng.  -en 

-en 

Eng.  -en 

-en 

Eng.  -en          .. 

-en 

Eng.  -en 

-[e]n 

Fr.  -[i]n,  -[e]n7W 

-[eig]n 

Lat.  -[a]rirt«   .. 

-[eigln 

Lat.  -[a]7t-us  . . 

-[eo]n 

Fr.  -ieoln,  -Iw^n 

-[eo]n 

Fr.  -[o)» 

-[e]nco 

Lat.     -{eynt-ia; 

Fr.  -[e]nce    . . 

-[e]ncy 

Lat.     •{e'\nt-ia ; 

Fr.  -[e\nc6    .. 

-[e]nd 

Lat.  -[ejnd-tM.. 

-[ejndous 

Lat.  -[e]ndu8  . . 

-[e]nsis 

Lat.  -[«]7ifiM    . . 

-[e]nt 

Lat.  -ie\ns  gen. 

-cutis.. 

-er 

Eng.  -or,  -ra   .. 

-er 

Eng.  -6re 

-[e]r 

Lat. -[i]r, -[e]r.. 

-[e]r 

Fr.  -[eiijr 

-lee]r 

Lat.  -[a]r-iit»  .. 

-erel 

Fr.  -erelU,  -erel. 

-em 

Eng.  -cm         .. 

-[e]m 

Lat.   -[e]m-iM, 

-[^t]r7^-1t» 

-[e]ry 

Lat.    -[e]ri-a. 

-[a}ri-a 

-[e]ry 

Lat.  -[ejri-a,  ) 
-[d]Ti-a          j 

-ea 

Eng. -a«,  later -es 

-es 

Eng.  -e</i,  later ) 
-ea    ..        ..  f 

-es' 

Eng.  -es.. 

Noun,  one  of  a  class  . . 
Plural  of  certain  nouns 
Gender-noun,  female 
Adj.,  made  of . . 
Verb,  to  make 
P.  p.  of  strong  verbs 

Noun 

Adjectival  novn 

Adjective  . . 

Noim,  instrument     .. 
Noun,  instrument     .. 

Noun,  result,  exhibit 

Noun,  result,  exhibit 
Adj.,  to  be,,  to  be  done 
Adj.,  fit  to  produce  . » 
Noun,  instrument     . . 

Participial  noun        . . 
Comparative  d^ree  . . 
Noun,  agent    . . 
Noun,  agent    .. 
Noun,  agent    . . 
Noun,  occupation,trade 
Noim,  agent,  dim.     . . 
Adj . ,  in  the  direction  of 

Noun,  place    .. 

Noim,  d€pOt,  workshop 
Noun,  an  art,  result  of 

art 

PliL   of  nouns  in  cA 

(soft),  sh,  8,X 
S  sing.  pres.  Ind.  of  v. 

in  ch  (sof  tX  sh,  s,  X . 
Possessive     plu.     of  > 

nouns  in -es..  j 


ali-[e]n 
ox-en 

vix-en  fa  she-fox) 
wood-en,  gold-en 
black-en,  thick-en 
writt-en,  shak-en 
gard-[e]n,  warr-[e]n 
8over-[eig]n     (super- 

an\us\) 
for-[eigln  (Lat.  foris) 
haberg-[eo]n,  gall-[eo]i» 
trunch-[eo]n,  escutch- 

pati-[e]nce,  pre»-[e]nc& 

dec-[e]ncy,  cxcel-te]ncy 
rever-[e]nd,  divid-[e]nd 
trem-Le]ndous,  stup- 
amanu-[e]nsi8 

stud-[e]nt,  accid-[e]nt 
near-er,  narrow-er 
learn-er,  robb-er 
mast-[e]r,  defend-[e]r 
labour-[elr,  devln-[e]r 
mountain-Lee]r,  engin- 
cock-erel,  dott-erel 
south-em,  north-em 

cav-[e]m,  tav-[e]m 

rook-[e>y,  8mith-[e]r7 

cook-[elry,  8cen-[e]ry 
)  church-es,    flsh-es^ 

Sg^s-es,  box-es 
reach-es,  wash-es, 
pass-es,  fix-es 
church-es',   fish-es', 
fox-es' 


(The  sign  0  arose  from  a  blunder  of  old  gramma'pians,  wfio  supposed  the 
possessive  case  to  consist  of  "his,*'  and  we  still  have  in  the  Prayer  Book 
"for  Christ  his  sake"  i.e.  ChrisVs  sake,  or  rather  Christes  sake.) 


-[e]8ce 
-[elsoence 
-[eJBoency 


Eng.      ..        ..    Poss.  of  proper  names 

in  -ses,  -xes 

Lat.  -[e]8C-o  ..  Verb,  inceptive  (-sc  in- 
ceptive) 

Lat.  -[e]8eeat-ia  Noun,  inceptive,  incip- 
ient state 

Lat.  •ie]scent-ia  Noun,  inceptive,  ad- 
vanced state 


)  Moses^  sake,  Xerxes* 
)     army 

eflferv-[el8ce,  cottl-[e]8C6 

}conval-[e]scenoe» 
putr-[e]soence 

adol-[e]sGen<jy 


Affixes  and  terminations. 


xlv 


■ie^Bcent 


-ese 


-es8 


Lat.  'ie]9cen8 

gen.  -entia 

Fr,-[i]», -[afM, 

Fr.  -esse;  Lat., 
Gk.  -[i]«»-a 


A4)*«  inceptlTe,  finished 
state 

Adjectival  noun,  denot- 
uig  a  people ;  Adj. 

}Koun,  denoting  a  fe- 
male 


}conTal-[e>cent, 
putr-[ejscent 
)  Chin-ese,     Malt-ese, 
I     Japan-ese 

count-ess,  lion-ess 

^This  suffia  i»  restricted  to  females  of  the  human  family  and  some  few 
qtMdn^peds.J 

A4j.,  like,  of  the  char- 
acter of 

Ad}  .from  concrete  nouns 

Noun,  one  of  a  class . . 

Noun,  a  small  recept- 
acle or  instrument . 

(Added  to  other  nouns  besides  those  from  the  French: 
*'vnck-et,'*  *'thick-et."J 

-[e]fce|Lat -[e]^4M    ..    Past  partioipl*  ..  lobsol-ete,  eff-ete 

The  words  with  this  ending  are  all  compounds :   thus  "  com-plete " 
and  "ro-plete"  (Lat.  v.  pUo),  "con-crete**  (Lat.  v.  eresco),  "de-lete^  (Lat. 
V.  too),  "ef-fete*'(Lat.yat-twX  "ob-solete"  (Lat.  v.  wieo), 
(Lat.  V.  eemo). 

KonB     m^ 


-esque 

-eons 
-et 
-et 


Fr.  "esque 

Lat.  -eus 

Lat  -et-uSf  -et-a 

Fr.  -et,  -ette    .. 


I  pictnr-esque,  Arab- 

}     esque 

calcar-eous  (see  -ious) 
proph-et,  dig-et 

budg-et,  buff-et,  lanc-et 
as  *'dos-et,'* 


and  '*se-orete' 


-ey 

-ey 
-ey 


Fr. -^  .. 

Ft.  -S    •• 

Fr.  -[<]«.. 
Fr.  -aye 
Vt.-U   .. 


•• 


Noon 
Noun 
Noun 
Noun 


all-ey,  chimn-ey.  Journ- 
ey, vall-ey,  voll-ey 
medi-ey  (Fr.  me«^ 
pull-ey  (Fr.  poulie) 
abb-ey  (Fr.  (ibbaye) 
paral-ey  (Fr.  persil) 


("Barley"  is  bar-ley,  Welsh  bora  tty«[ian],  bread-plants.) 


-ey  Fr. -er  ..        ••    verb  and  verbal  noun  parl-ey  (Fr.  jxirler) 
-ey  Eng. -i(jr  ••   Noun  ..        ..    hon-ej  (hunig) 

-ey  EDg.-ig  ..   A4j.i  after  ay-  ..    ciay-ey,  sky-ey 

In  **jock^"  and  "monkey**  the-eyis  diminutive.    See  pp.  644  and  676. 
"  Purvey"  is  Fr.  pourvoir;  "Obey,"  Fr.  obier;  "SurvejP'  and  "Convey," 
Lat.  fjefe[o]. 

-fast  I  Eng.  -faut       •.   Noun,  effectually,  en- 1 

I  tirely I  stead-fast,  shame-faced 

("Shamefaced**  is  a  corruption  ofshomufoest  or  sham^astj 

Lat.  'fac-ttu   .j.   Adj.,  made 

Eng./eald  ..  Afl^.,  repeated,  multi- 
plied . .        . . 

Lat  form-iea.  Noun,  (in  Chem.)  the 
an  ant  ••  ter-oxide  of  a  hydro- 
carbon. So  called 
from  its  resemblance 
to  formic  add 

Eng.  -full  or  -fvZ  Ad j . ,  having  much    . . 

Lat.  fado,  fids  Verb,  to  make,  to  be- 
come   


-fie 
-fold 

-form 


•fnl 

(y 


.-gen 

-head 

-hood 
-ia 


Gk.geno,  to  pro- 
duce ..        .. 
Eng.  -hdd       .. 


Noun  (in  Chem.)  a  gas 
Noun,    person,    state, 
condition     . . 
Eng.  -hdd       ••   Noun,        „        ,. 
Lat -ia..        ..    Noun,  things  belong- 
ing to 
Lat  -ia;  Gk.  -ia  Noun,  (in  Bot.)  an  or- 
der or  genus ;    (in 
J^ooLXadassororder 


beati-flc,  calori-fic 
two-fold,  four-fold 


Chloro-form  the  ter- 
oxide  of  formyle 
(■=.form'M) 

hate-ful,  hope-ful 


versi-fy,  testi-fy 

oxy-gen,  nitro-gen 

God-head 
boy-hood,  girl-hood 

regal-la,  insign-ia 

monog3m-la, 
mammal-ia,  reptil-ia 


xlvi 


SUFFIXJS8  AND  TERMINATIOm. 


-iftd 
-[i]ble 


n-iad,  Dtmc-iad 
tang-[i]ble,  8^ns-[i]ble 


6k.  -iad-08     . .    Noon,  patrohymlo 
Lat.  hdbUia    . .    Adj.,  able,  fit  to 

(8€mit  as  -aible,  but  added  to  Lat.  words  ilot  of  the  Itt  eonjj 

-[i]c  I  Lat.  -{ijiyua     . .    Adj.,  belonging  to     .  •  I  civ-ic,  pflUdf-lc 
-{i]o  I  Ok.  -i/e^«,  -ik-a    Houn,  a  science         ..  |  mos-lc,  log-ic 

(Bxc^  in  the  5  loords  (arithmetic,  logic,  magic,  music,  rhetoric,  derived 
from  the  French)  this  termination  is  always  plural.) 

Gk.  •'ik-os;  Lat.   Adj.,  of  the  nature  of, 

-ie-iM..        .k       like 

Gk.  -ik-08        ..    Adj.,  (in  Path.)  in  an 

excited  state 


-[i]c 
-[i]c 


angel-ic,  basalt-ic 


titan-ic,  chron-ic 


{If  not  excited,  tike  termination  is  -oid  or  -ode :  <m  titanoid  of  tkanode.) 


-[i]c 


Gk.-iJk-M 


Adj.,  (in  Chem.)  de- 
notes an  acid  con- 
taining a  maximum 
of  oxygeii     . . 

(If  it  contains  less  than  the  maximum  the  term,  is  -ous :  as  nitrous,  d;e.J 

astronomical,     qiher- 


nitr-io,  oarbon-le 


-ical 
-ically 

-[i]ce 

-[ilde 
-il}cian 

-ics 

-diet 
-id 
-id 
-id 


-idiB 

-idal 
-ide 


-ide 


-ides 

idion 

-ie 

-ier 

-iff 

-Iflf 

-im 
-in 

-Wn  I 


Lat.  'iml-is     . . 
Lat.  -icdl-is  with 

-{y 
Lat.        -[t]c-ia, 

-[t]<ia..  .. 
Lat.  -l%}eulum., 
Lat.  -dan  with 

Gk.  -ik-os  .. 
Qk.-ik-a 


Adj.,  pertaining  to 
Adverb  .. 


Abstract  noun.. 

Hoiin,  dim 

Koun,  one  skilled  in  a 

dC16i1C6  •  •  •  • 

Noun,      denoting     a 
science 

Verbal  noun    . . 

Noun,  outcome,  result 

_  Noun,  patronTinlo    . . 

Gk.  eidros,  like     Houn  (in  Science),  with 

0  tat  vinculun^  and 
the  two  combined 
into  a  triphthong  . . 

Noun,  patronymic,  a 
family 

Adj.,  of  the  nature  of 
Gk.  eid-os,  like     Noun,  (in  07^m.)a  non- 
acid  combination  of 
oxygen         ..         *. 
Gk.  eid-os,  like    Noun,  (in  Chem.)  the 

more  negative  of  two 
elements  combined 

Noun,  patronymic    . . 

Noun,  one's  own 

Noun,  dim 

}Noun,  characterises 
an  agent  . . 

employed 


Lat.  dict-um 
Lat.  -id-US 
Gk.  4d6s 


G^.-id6s 
Lat.  -idal-is 


Ql^-idgs 
Gk.  idion 
S<^tch  -is 
Ft.  -ier;     Lat, 
-eri/us,  -aHu», 
Fr. -^Z";  Lat. -itnM  Noxm,   one 
_  officially 
Eng.  -ge-rifa  .. 
Lat.   -W^-fa.     1 

Lat.  -[i]^4s 


Heb.  -im,  plural 
Ohaldee  -in,  plu. 
Lat.  -fijn-tM    .. 


Noun,  a  reeve,  a  steward 

Adj.,  from  a  substan- 
tive stem 

Adj.,  from  a  substaur 
tive  stem     .. 

Noun,  plwral  ..         .t 

Noun,  pluraX  . . 

Noun 


iron-ically,  mus-lcally 

avar-ice,  mal-ice 
patt-[i]cle,  art-[ilcle 
polit-ic-ian,   arithmet- 
ic-ian 

mathemat-lcs,  stat-ics 
inter-dict,  ver-iUct 
ac-id,  luc-id 
J5ne-id,  carot-id 


spher-o-ld  =  tfef.roid 
alkal-o-id  =  al'.ka.loid 

can-MsB,  fprmic-idsB 
pyram-ldid 


chlor-ide,  iod-ide 

ox-ide  of  iron 
chlor-ide  of  sodium 
Atlant-ides,  Oaryat-idas 
enchir-idion 
bird-ie,  dogg-ie 

halberd-ier,  brigad-ier 

plaint-iflf 
shto-iff,  baU-ifr 

civ-[i]l 

gent-(l]le,  host-[i]le 
cherub-im,  sen^h-lm 
cherub-in,  seraph-in 
ru-[i]n,  bas-tijn 


SUFFIXm  AND  TERMINATIOm. 


zlvfi 


-in 

-ina 
-ine 

-ine 

-ln« 
-ine 

•tag 


lAt.  •ilMW 

Bom.  -ina      .. 
Lai  -An-ua 

Lftt.  -imrMa 

Rem.  -ifM 
Ok.  in-i«,  an) 
offspring      ) 
Eng.  -ing        .. 


Vovm^    (in   Ckem.)  a 

simple  substance . . 
youn,denotes  a  woman 
Konn,  belonging  to  a 

group 
Noun,  belonging  to,  of 

the  nature  of 
Noan,denotesawoman 
Vfon;  (in  Clhem.)  ah ) 

element       . .         S 
VoQn,  ion  of,  deseelid- 

ant  of 
Participial  noon 
Geruna 


-ing  Bng.  -wng 

-ing  Eng.  -igmde 

-Ing  Eng.  -tndi,  -inda  Pres.  part 
-[i]on  Lat.-[i]o,g.-oni«. 

Fr.  [-Ion      . .    Kwm,  act  of,  ona  of. . 
-[i]on  Lat.-[t]o,g. -ioni«  Verbal  noun    . . 
-Q]or  Lat.  ^i]or       ..    Adj.,  comparative  deg. 

(The  suffix  -CT  is  added  to  the  first  case  of  the  positire  which  ends  in  -t : 
thus  in  tupenu  (high)  it  is  added  to  the  gen.,  but  in  brevi»  to  the  dat.) 


amid-in 
esar-ina 

feline 

marline,  sal-ine 
hero-ine,  landcnraT-ine 

chlor-ine,  iod-ine 


Athel-hur 

the  preach-ing  [of  John] 
the  fear  of  open-ing. . 
loT-ing,  hearting 


compan-r{]on 
admiss-ri]oa,  reIig-[i]on 
super-[ijor,  infer-[l]or 


-ious 

-Ci]ous 

-ique 

-iM 

-Ise 

-ish 


-ish 
-isk 

-[i]8m 


-ist 

-Ister 

-it 

-it 

-ite 

-ite 


-ite 
-ite 

-ite 

-ll]tis 

-li]t7 


Lat. -itts  ..  A4Jm  (iB  Bot.)  pertain- 
ing to  a  class,  order, 
or  group 

Lat  -[<]tts       ..  .A4j.,  from  an  abstract 

noun 

A4j.t  belonging  to    . . 


Fr.    from 

•iquui 
Lat  -it-lttm, 

Gk.-<s-o 


Lat 


Eng.  Att 
Eng.  -<ae 


Lat  -«se 
Ok.  -ish-ot 


Koun,  act  of,  habit  of 

Verb,  to  undertake  to 
do,  to  make 

Adj.,  external  resem- 
blance, hence  folk . . 

Adj.,  added  to  a  noun 
^*Uke'* 
added  to  an  adj.  dim. 

Verb,  inchoative 

Honn,  dim. 

Ok    j^iTjmw)*-)   ^<'^»   *  system.    ») 

Ok.  -Ut-is;  Lat 

-ist-a Koun,  ag^it    . . 

Ok.  -i*t-€9       ..    Noun,  agent    .. 
Lat.  eo  sup.  it-um  Verb,  engaged  in  doing 
Lat. -{«]t-te«, -Km   Houn,         „        „ 
Verb,         „       ., 
Noun,  (in  Chem.)  a  salt 
formed  from  an  acid 
ending  in  -otu 


Lat.  -{t  jt-iM,  -urn 
Lat  -it-ua 


Lat.  -[i]^tt«     .. 

Lat  .[i]Mw     .. 

Ok.  [J:\ithrOB,  a ) 

stone  ..         r 

Ok.  M£mi       .. 

Lat-f^;/^     •• 


Afl^eotival  noun,  one  of 
a  race  or  nation 

Verbal  noun,  svJbjed  of 
an  action 

Noun,  a  mineral,  a) 

fossil  ..     ..     r 

Noun,  (in  JIfed.)  inflam- 
mation 
AbMtr&otnoun.. 


monosyn-ioos 

grao-ious  (see  -eoiu) 

ant-ique,  un-ique 

exerc-ise,  parad-ise 

apolog-ise,  sermon-ise 

Engl-ish,  Ir-ish 

bo7-ish,  girl-ish 
whit-ish,  black-ish 
admon-ish,  fln-ish 
aster-isk 

Calvin-[r)8m,  vulgar- 
[i]sm,  organ-[i]8m 

art-ist,  antagon-ist 

chor-ister 

edit 

mer-it,  pulp-it 

un-ite,  inv-ite 
sulph-ite  [of  potash], 
i.e.,       sulphurous 
acid  with  the  base 
potash 

Oanaan-ite,  infin-ite 

appet-ite,  contr-ite 
ammon-ite 

card-itls 

cario8-[i]ty,  diiplic-li\tv 


xlviii 


SUFFIXES  AND  1ERMINATI0N8, 


-ium 

-ium 

-Ive 

-Ive 

-ix 

-ize 

-kin 

-kind 

-1 

-le 
-le 
-le 
-le 

-le 

-le 

-ledge 

-lent 

-less 

-let 


} 


Lat. -ium;  6k.  )    Nmm,    (in  Chem,) 
-ion    ..         f    .metal..        ..  , 

Lat.  -ium;  Gk.  )   Koun,  (in  Bot)  a  spe-  \ 
-ion  ..  ) 

Lat.  -if)-u» 

Lat.  -iv-u»      .. 

Lat.  -to;..        •• 


Gk.  -iorO  .. 

G«rm.  -cft«n''.. 
Eng.  -cyn  or  -(An 
Lat.  [a,  e,  i,  o, ) 
u]  with  -2-iM  f 
Eng.  -2,  -olf  -ul 
Eng.  -I,  -el,  -ol 
Lat.  -l-um 
Lat.-[cl^u»,-[tlJ- 

U8,  -[U]l-U8    .  . 

Lat.  -[c\ul-ti8  .. 
Ft.  -elU 
Eng.  -lachf  -Uus 
Lat.  -!ent-iM    . . 
Eng.  -leas 
"EiomAnce -let, -et 


cies     ..        '..  ) 

Adj.,  ableorindinedto 

Verbal  noun 

SToirn,  denoting  a 
woman        . .        . . 

Verb,  to  make,  to  pro- 
dace  ..        ••        .. 

Noun,  dim.     ••        .. 

Noun,  race 

Noun,  instrument 

Noun,  instrument 
Adj.,  dim. 
Noun,  instrument 


Noun,  instrument     •. 
Noun,  dim.     ..        .. 

Verb,  dim 

Noun,  gift 
Adj.,  full  of    .. 
Adj.,  privative,  void  of 
Noun,  dim 


potass-ium 

delphin-ium 

cohes-ive,  ezpress-lye 
capt-ive,  nat-ive 

testatr-iz,  executr-ix 

scandal-ijie 

lamb-kin,  nap-kin 

man-kind 

can[a]l,  bu8h[e]l,  pen- 

c[i]l,  ld[o]l 
hand-le,  sett-le,  gird-le 
britt-le,  spark-le 
exami)-le,  temp-le 

ang-le,  cand-le 
circ-le,  obsta[cH6 
crack-le,  dabb-le 
know-ledge 
corpu-lent 
spirit-less 
brace-let,  corse-let 


(Used  with  pure  English  vxtrds :  as  ham-let,  ring-let,  stream-let) 


-ling 

-ling 
-lith,-lite 

-lock 

-lock 
-lock 
-lock 
-long 
-ly 

-ly 

-lyse 


-lyte 

-m 

-m 

-m 

-m 

-m 

-ma 

-me 

-me 

-meal 

-ment 


Eng.  -ling 

Eng.  4ing 

Gk.   'lUh-os,   a 

stone.. 
Eng.     -toe,     a 

pledge 
Eng.  -loce 

-loc 

Uac,  aherb 

-linge 

'lie 

-lice 


Noun,  the  state  or  con- 
dition 
Noun,  offspring  of  , dim. 

Noun,  a  stone,  a  fossil 


Eng. 
Eng. 
Eng. 
Eng. 
Eng. 


Noun,  a  pledge 
Noun,  a  tuft  of  hair  . . 
Noun,  the  lock  of  a  door 
Noun,  a  herb  or  plant 
Adverb  and  Adjeotive 
Adj.,  like 
Adv. ,  in  the  manner  of 

Gk.  luro,  to  loose  Verb,  to  resolve  a  com- 
pound into  its  ele- 
ments by  the  agency 
of  electricity 

Gk.{u-o,  to  loose  Noun,     a     substanpe 

decomposable 
1st  pers.  sing,  of  verbs 
Noun     ..        .. 
Noun,  done,  made    . . 
Adj.,  established 

Noun 

Noun,  made,  done    . . 

Noun 

Noun     . .        . .        a  • . 

Eng.  -mcel-um. .    Adv.,  part  by  part    . . 

Lat.  -ment-um      Noun,  instrument     . . 


Eng.  -m 
Eng.  -m-a 
Gk.  -m-a 
Lat.  -m-tu,  &a 
Lat.  -m-a        . 
Gk.  -ma 
Lat.  -ma         • 
Lat.  me-n 


world-ling,  hire-ling 
duck-ling,  lord-ling 

mel-lite,  acro-lith 

wed-lock 
fet-lock,  elf-lock 
fire-lock,  pad-lock 
hem-lock,  house-leek 
head-long,  live-long 
god-ly,  man-ly 
vain-ly,  nob-ly 


electro-lyse 

electro-ljrte 

a-m  faiUy  example) 

bloo-m,  beso-m 

epigra-m,  emble-m 

fir-m 

for-m,  pal-m 

panora-ma,  d(^-ma 

fla-me,  f  a-me 

cri-me,  v(^u-m6 

piece-meal 

ezperi-mmt,  flnna- 


(Also  added  to  Teutonic  vjords :  as  fulfll-ment,  acknowledg-ment.) 


-ment 

-mn 
•mGHger 


I 


Fr.  -'tMiA 

Lat.  -[u]mn-iM 
EAg.  m<mger(a) 
dealer)         / 


Noun,  subject  of   an 
action  . .        . . 

Noun 

Noun,    a    dealer,    a 
tsadesmaiL  •• 


} 


move-ment,  judg-ment 
colu-mn,  autu-mn 
iron-monger,  fish-mon- 
ger, cheese-monger 


SUFFIXES  AND  TERMINATIONS 


zlix 


-mony 

-mort 

-mas 

-naut 

-aoe 

-ndnin 


Lat.  -moni^um 
'Eng.nuM 
Lat  -mus 
Gk.  nautSs 
Lat.  *n»,  -fUi-a 
Lat  -nti-a      ., 
Lat  -nd-tu     ^ 
Lat  -luium     .. 


Voan.  state,  condition 
A4j.  (mperlatiye  deg.) 
Noun,  an  instrument 
Noun,  a  sailor.. 
Noun»  outcome,  result 
Abstract  noun . .        • , 
Noon,  to  be  done 
Voun,  something  to) 


be  done 
-nesajEng.  -ties,  -nii.   Abstract  noun.. 

(Also  added  to  Bomance  words,  espedally  with  "ful "  as  a  yinculum,  g.e , 
mCTci{;fnl>nes8,  bounti[ful]-ness,  &o.,  savage-ness,  factious-ness.) 


testi-mony,  patri-monj 
fore-most,  mnd-most 
isth-mus,  cala-mus 
aero-naut 

abund[a]-nce,indulg[e}- 
infa-ncj,  dece-ncy 
leg[e>ncU  garl[a]-nd 
memora-ndum,    oorri- 

ge-ndum 
good-ness,  white-ness 


-nt 

-nt 

-oc 

-{oclity 

-ock 

-od 

-ode 

-ode 

-pedes 

-cecions 


-old 


Lat   -n[«]  gen. 

-nMs.. 
Lat.   •«[«]  gen. 

-nMs..  .. 
WeiBh-og  .. 
Lat  'iocjitai  .. 
£ng.  -itc-a 


Participial  acyeotive . . 


Participial  noun 

Koun,  full  of  .. 

Abftxaot  noun.  • 

Noun,  dim. 
Gk.Ao(ios<away)  Noun,  a  range,  a  way 
Gk.Aoc{os(away)  Noun,  a  range,  a  way 


Qk:ddoa 
Gk.   pous 

podoB., 
Gk.    aikot 

house) 


gen. 


Noun,  an  ode 


Noun,  feet      ..        •• 

A4j.,    (in    Bot)  &T-) 

rangement  of  sta-  >• 

mens  and  pistils      ) 

Gk.  eidos  (like)    Nonn,  (in  Med.)  disease 

in  an  unezoited  state 


abnnd[a>nt,  pmd[e]-nt 

sery[a]-nt,  ag[e]-nt 

hav-oc 

f er[ocHty.  precoc-itF 

bnll-ock,  hul-ock 

peri-od,  syn-od 

epis-ode  (see  p.  815) 

ep-ode 

anti-podfis,  a-podte 

mon-cecious 


tetan-oid  or  -ode 
(IMseose  in  cm  excited  state  terminates  in-ic:  as  tetanic.) 


-old 

-oidal 

-on 

-£i]on 
-on 

-one 

-oon 

-or 


Gk.  eidos  (like)     Noun,  like  (with  o  vin- 
culum)       •  •        . . 


Lat.  -oMs  with 

Gk.  eidos 
Romance  -on, 

-one   .. 
Bomance  -iiym 
Gk. -on.. 


} 


Bomance  -one.. 


Bomance 

-one  .. 

Lat.  -or.. 


•on. 


} 


1 


A4j.,  like  in  nature 
Noun,    act,     instru 

ment,  state  . . 
Absteaot  noun.. 
Noun,    (in    Chem.) 

metalloid  . . 
Noun,  large,  augmen 

tative 
Noun,  large,  augmen 

tative.. 
Notm,  denoting  masc. ) 

gender         ..         ) 


• 

} 


a 


spher-oid,  cyd-oid 

cyd-oid-al 
glutt-on,  apron 
opin-[l]on,  domin-[i]oii 

bor-on,  silio-on 

tromb-one 
ball-oon,  bass-oon 

auth-or,  administrat-or 


(Used  especiaUy  in  legal  phraseology  to  denote  the  active  (tgent  im,  oppost- 
iion  to-eethe  oljectvoe  agent.    Also  a/ter  tors:  as  doct-or,  spons-or.) 

-or  I  Lat  -or..        ..    Adj. (comparative deg.)  |  superi-or,  inferi-or 
(The  nkffix  is  added  to  the  first  case  of  the  positive  lohich  ends  in  -L) 


-or 
-Co]ry 
-[oJt 

-oee 

-(oe]ity 

-ot 

-ot 


ItaL -or  ..    Noun,  a  man.. 

Lat  -[o]ri-ttm..    Noun,  ad^pOt.. 
Lat-Co]ri-ite,&c  Adj.,  pertaining  to, 

province  of . . 
Lat. -OS-US  ..  Adj.,  full  of  .. 
Lat. -[os]itos  ..  Abstract  noun.. 
Ft.  -otf  -otte    . .   Noun,  dim.  .  • 

Lat  -otra,  -ot-es  Noun,  characterises  a 

pOTSOO  . «  . . 


sign-OT 
dormit-[o]ry 

orat-[o]ry,  sanat-[o]ry 
verb-ose,  joc-ose 
pomp-[os]ity  (fse-ocity) 
ball-ot,  cbari-ot 

patri-ot,  idi-ot 


SUrnXES  AND  TERMINATIONS. 


-our 

Lat.-^  thro' the 

Fr. -eur       ..    Abstract  noun.. 

▼al-oor,  hoD-onr 

-Otis 

laX,-08-us      ..   Adj.,(in(7/ieoi.)anacid 

with    less     oxygen 

than -ic  denotes    .. 

nitr-ous,  snlphnr-ons 
fam-oos,  deUd-ons 

-oas 

Lat. -O0-4M      ..   A4J<,  fnllof    .. 
Lat.  [a,  e,  i,  o]«  Adj.,  full  of    .. 

-OU8 

aad[a(d]-oii8,fer[oci]oa8 

(Ua^  also  in  many  modern  formationB :  as  jey-ous,  wondr-ons,  itcj 


-over 

-pie 

-r 

-r 

-r 

-r 

-re 

-re 


-red 
-red 
-rel 
-erel 
-rio 


-ry 

-ry 

-a 


Eng.  ofer        . .    Adv.,  besides 
Lat.  p2i-co,  to  fold  Adj.,  folded 


Eng.  -r-e 

Bomance  -r^; 
Lat.  -r-us    ., 

Lat.  -[a]r-M    ., 

I^t.  -[a,  €}r^. . 

Fr.  -re;    Lai 
-1-^m.. 

Fr.  'iaigj-re; 
Lat.  -r-tu    .. 

Eng.  rid  (coun- 
sel)   . . 

Eng.  hrcBth  (ac- 
tive) 


Gton.  suffix  preserved 
in  the  pronouns    . . 

aUJ  t  •  •  •  •  • . 

AuJ .  •  •  .  .  a , 

Koun  . . 

Noun,    instrnment, 
place  set  apart      ,. 

Axy*      ••        «•        •• 

Proper  name  . . 

Koun,  active,  operative 


Ft.  -[e]r  with)   A4j.,  dim.,  deprec^ 


} 


-el,  dim.        f 
Ft. -erwith-eZ, 

dim.  .. 
Eng.  -rie 

Bomance  -rie . 
Lat.  -rira 
Eng.      •  •        • 


} 


ative 

Acy.,  dim.,  depreci 
ative  .. 

XToun,   dominion,  ju- 
risdiction    . . 

Noun,  collective 

Noun,  d6p0t   . . 

The  ordinal^  plural  of 
nouns 


more-over 
txi-ple  (8-/0M) 

he-r,  thei-r,  ou-r,  you-r 

clea-r.  tdnde-r 
famili-[alr,  regal-[a]r 
ae-r,  cinde-r 

theat-re,  scept-re 

meag-re,  pn^re 

Mild-rpd,  Etheld-red 

hat-red,  kind-red 
mong-rel,  dogg-rel 

cock-erel,  hogg-erel 

bishop-ric 
fai-ry,  poult-ry 
vest-ry,  atmo-17 


boy-s,  tree-s 

(Nouns  ending  in  -  c^  (soft),  -ah,  -s,  -x,  add  -es :  as  chureh-es,  dish-es, 
fox-es.    To  these  add  one  word  in  -z,  topaz-es.) 

good-s,  sweejt-s 


Modem  Eng.  ..   Afl^ectival  noun  (plural 

number) 
Eng.      . .        . .    The  3  sing.  pres.  Ind. 

of  verbs       . .        . .    love-s,  hear-s 

(Verbs  ending  in  -ch  (soft),  -ah,  -a,  -x,  -z,  add  -e« :  as  reach-es,  wish-es, 
guess-es,  box-es,  whizz-es.    Till  the  11th  century  it  was  -th.) 


man-  s,  men- 
boys',  girls' 


-'s  Eng. -«s  ..    Possessive  case  of  nouns 

-[b]'  i  Eng.  -ea  (sing.)     Possessive  plu.  after  rs 

(This  sign  (')  arose  out  of  a  blunder.  Our  old  grammarians  supposed 
the  possessive  -a  was  a  contraction  of  hia,  and  wrote  it  according]^  *8). 
The  plu.  (')  is  a  double  blunder,  as  -e«  is  not  a  plu.  gen.  term. 


-saur  or 

-saurus 

-scape 

-[8]h 

-ship 

-ship 

-ship 

-[s]ion 


)  6k.   aawoa 
§     (a  lizard) 
Eng.  -adpe 
Eng. 
Eng.  -acipa 

Eng.  -adpe 

Eng.  -adpe 


} 


A  prehistoric  reptile 
of  the  lizard  race  . . 

Noun,  view 

Adjectival  noun 

Noun,    tenure,    pos 
session,  office 

Nonn,  form,  state,  con 
dition 

Noun,  skill,  art 


Lat^iogen.|3j^^^^        { 


See  pp.  1050-1058 
land-scape 

EngU-[8]h,  Iri-[s]h  folk 
lord-ship,   guardian- 
ship 

hard-ship,  jFriend-ship 
horseman-ship,    work- 
man-ship 
confu-[s3ion,    ascen- 
[s]ion 


SUFFIXES  ANJ>  TEBMWATIONS, 


It 


-6i)B  Gk.  ••<«..  ..  Koii|i«pn>CMii,it8reiult 

-sm  Qk.'9in-os  ..  Koun,  ivstem,  act 

-^ome  Germ.  "Mm  ..  Adj.,^lllof,oonUi]lillg 

-8on  Eng.  «uti-«  ..  Added  to  proper  names 

-[a]or  Lat. -[«}or  ..  Hcnm,  agent    .. 

i-cr  is  especuUly  used  in  legal  phnueology  to  denote  the  aeiine  pmriy  in. 
opposition  to  -ee  tAe  ottjeat  of  an  action.    It  i»  aUo  used  after  -t  or  -$.) 


analj-aiB,  lynthe-ili 
metnod-[i}nn,  ipa-am 
fflad-aome,  light-eome 
John-ioii,  Diqk-ion 
8pon-[s]or,  8aooes-(8]or 


-isojry  Lat.  •{eoyririu . .  A^j.,  full  of,  able  to. . 

-Csojry  Lat.  -[M>lri-um  Noon,  a  d6p6t 

•fls  Vr.  -{elsi-^-di,,  i^Mtraotnoun.. 

-8t  Gk. -ti-ie        ..  Konn,  agent    .. 

-Iter  Eag.-eter       ..  Sonn,  trade,  skill    .. 

f-Her  does  not  denote  one  of  the  female  sex;  it  is  added  to  any  gen- 
der, and  means  trade,  pursuit,  or  the  skiU  uihich  resuUs  thet^from :  thus 
" malt'Ster**  is  one  idAom  trade  or  purswU  is  piaUing,  ** spi'niter**  is  one 
vjhose  pwrsuit  is  spinning.  J 


illa-[8o]r7,pertna-[io1r}r 
8en-[8o]r7,  insen-CsoJry 
progr-[e]88.  dittr-[e|i8 
antagon-[i]8t.  art-Oljrt 
malt-ster,  spin-tter 


-[8t]ic 
-[8t]ical 

-£8tr}eB8 

[8]nre 

-By 


Gk.  -[st}ik-os  . .  Adj.,  active  qnalitj 
Lat.    -ai    with 

Gk.  -[styUc-os  Ac^.,  active  quality 

Fr.  •{str]esS'e  . .  Noun,  a  female 

Lat.  -is}ur-a   . .  Abatraet  noun . . 

Lat.  -ca,  'ti-a  . .  Noun,  an  art,  office 


8ophi-[8t]ic,  8arca-C8t]ic 

8ophi-[st]io-al 
Bong-(8tr]-688,  mi[8tr]-e88 
mea-[8]ure,  plea-(8>ire 
minstrel-sy,  embas-sj 


f-cy  is  added  to  Abstract  nouns  denoting  rank,  ofUce,  as  aristocra-ey.J 


dai-sy 
eapbra-[8]7 
courte-CsJ',  here-Csly 
tip-sy,  trick-sy 
clef>t,  8pel-t,  <jU«am-t 


-sy  Eng.  •«'-«y0     ..  Added  to  certain  plants 

-is^  Gk.  -sia  . .  Soun,  a  group,  a  genus 

-[s]y  Romance -[<]««  Abatraot  noun . . 

-sy  Romance        .•  A4j.       

-t  Eng. -ed, -d, -<  Past  part 

(In  Ang.Sax.,  verbs  ending  in  c,  h,  p,  s.  t,  z,  took  -t  instead  of-d  in  the 
past  and  past  part.  In  modem  Eng.  the -i  is  limited  to  verbs  ending  in 
f,  1,  Id,  m,  p.) 

Fartidpial^noun 

Houn 


-t 
-t 


-t 
-t 

-t 

-t 
•t 

-te 

-teen 

-teenth 


Ei^.  -ed,  -d,  't 
Eng.  -t  .,        ,, 


Romance  -t,  -te 
Lat.  't-a,  -s  gen. 

-t-is    . . 
Lat  -t-wn 
La,t  -t-us 
Gk.  -t-€8 


Partioipial  noun 


Gk. 

Eng. 

Eng. 


t^s 
-tyne 
theet, 


-theoth-e 


Koun 

Partioipial  noun 

A4^  •  •  •  •  •  •  • 

Noun,  agent    .. 

Noun,  agent    . . 
Numeral,  ten  added . . 

Ordinal  adj.,  ten  added 
wide" 


gif-t,  shoo-t 

lef-t  (the  lef  or  weak 

hand) 
habi-t,  profi-t 


If 


f-th  converts  nouns  to  adjectives:   a« 
•*long" Umg-th,  "deep"  dep-th;  "broad"  lyread-th.J 


ann-t,  ar-t,  monn-t 
deb-t,  rescrip-t 
^ones-t,  modes-t 
prophe-t,  com-et  fone 
who  wears  long  hair  J 
hypocri-te,  athle-te 
four-teen,  six-teen 

four-teenth,  six-teenth 
wid-th,  "hale"  hedl-th 


-Ct]er 
-Ct]er 
-rt]er 
-Ct]er 
-Ctejry 

-th 

-th 
-Lti]a 


Noun,  instrummt     .. 

Noun,  instrument 

Noun,  agent    . . 

Verbal  noun    . . 

Noun,  condition,  state 

Noun,    d6p6t,    place ) 
set  apart      . .  ) 

OonvertB  adj.  to  ab- 
straotnouns 

-t-a,  •ihr4  .    Ordinal  a^j 

iti^       ..    Noun  of  multitude    .. 


Lat.  -i(}r-um  . 
Romance 
Eng.  -l{]er-e    . 
"Eng.  -it]or 
Lat.  -[te}ri^m 
Lat.  -itelrir^m 

Eng.  -th 

Eng. 
Lat 


coul-[t]er,  canis-[t]er 
bols-[t]er,  Qa8Ct>er 
wri[t]-er,  flghCt]-er 
laugh-£t]er,  8laugh-[t]er 
my8-[telry,  ma8-[te]r>' 
baptis-Cbejry,  monas- 
[te]ry 

tru-th,  dep-th 
six-th,  seven-th 
mili[U]-a 


Hi 


SUFFIXES  AND  TERMTNATIONS, 


■mo 

-[tnon 

-[ti]on 

-Ct]or 
-{t]re 

-CtoTiy 
-[to]ry 
-[tr]ess 

-Ctr]ix 

-tude 

-(t]Tire 

-Ct]ure 

-ty 
-[u)ce 

-dooe 

-nle 

■[a]nd 

-ore 

-ore 
•uret 


-ve 
-ive 


-ward 
-wards 

-ways 

-wig 

-wise 

-worth 

-wrlght 

-y 

-y 

-7 

-y 

.[y]er 
-yl,  -yle 


Ok. -Iti]i(H>«    .. 
Lat.    -al    with 

Ok.  'h-08 
Lat.  -itilo  gen. 

-cn-i*.. 
Lat.  '[tilo  gen. 

Lat.  -itVrr 
Lat  -ity-iwa^ 

•{t}ri-a 
Lat  -[to]ri-um . 
Lat  -\td\ri-u8 . . 
Ft.  -[tr]Ma-«    . , 


Lat  -[tr]i» 
Lat  -tiMi-o 
Lat  -[Qur-a 
Lat  -if^-a 
Eng.  -<ig 
Lat  •{«](», 

Lat  -due-o 
Lat.  -[c]u^v«,  -a 
Lat  -{uJnd-iM.. 
Lat  -ura 


Koon,  aotlTe  .. 

A4j<t  active  quality  •• 

Koun,  ak^  of,  state    . . 

Nenn,  a  thing  made .. 
Noun,  agent    . .        • . 

Noun,  instrument  .. 
Noun,  d6pdt,  place  for 
Adj.,  active  quality  .. 
Noun,  female  agent  .. 

Noun,  female  agent . . 
Abstract  noun.. 
Abstract  noun.. 
CSoncrete  noun. .        . . 
Multiple  of  ten 
Noun,  outcome,  pro- 
duct   

Verb,  to  lead  .. 

Noun,  dim 

Oerundial  noun 
Noun,  relating  to  the) 


arts 
Fr.  ant«re(work)  Noun,  manipulated 


Lat   i»r-o 
burn). . 

Lat  -V-1M 
Lat  -io-vs 


(to 


Noun,  (in  Chem,.)  de- 
notes a  combination 
with  an  inflammable 
or   electro  •  positive 

body 

Noun     . .        . .        •  • 
Noun,  Inclination     .. 

(-V,  often  changed  into  "  f  " :  as  «(t-/e,  bailiff,  &c) 

Eng. -iMord    ..    Adj.,  tending  to 
Eng.  -wetvrdes . .    Adv. ,  in  the  direction 

of 
Adv.,  in  the  direction 

of       . .        .  • 


hereCtiK  cri[ti]-c 

here[ti>cal,  cri[ti]-cal 

mo[tQ-on,  no[ti]-on 

poCti]-on,  lo[ti]-on 
audi[t]-or,  fac[t]-or 

8cep-rt]re,  mi-[t]re 
lava-[to]ry,dormi-[to]ry 
inflamma-[to]r7,purga- 
in8truc[tr]-e88,  en- 

chantr-ess 
execu[tr>ix,  te8ta[tr]-iz 
forti-tude,  grati-tude 
na-[t]ure,  adven-[t]ure 
pic-[t]nre,  aper-£t]ure 
siz-ty,  seven-ty 

lett-[u]ce,  prod-[u]oo 
intro-duce,  re-duce 
pust-ule,  q>her-ule 
Joc-[u]na,  rubic-[u]nd 
agricult-ure,    hortt- 

cult-ure 
man-ore,  manufact-nre 


Bng.  •¥)i8 


Lat  -Koa;   Fr. 

uque  .. 
Eng.  -wis 

Eng.    vxyrth 
(Und) 


) 


Eng.     wirht-a  \ 
or  toyrht-a    ) 
Eng.  -ig 
Eng.  -<9 

Gk.  -ia .. 

Lat.  and  Ok.  -ia 
Bng.  -{gu}ere  . . 
Gk.  hiui,  wood 


Noun,  formed . . 

Adv.,  in  the  direction ) 
of       ..        ..  I 

In  names  of  places,  a 
farm  land  belong- 
ing to.. 

Noun,  a  workman  or 
Wright 

Noun,  dim. 

A^.,  of  the  nature) 
of,  like        . .  ) 

Noun,     denoting 
science 

Abfltraot  nouna 

Noun,  an  agent 

Noun,  the  substance) 
from  which  any-  > 
thing  is  made         ) 


n 


sulph-uret,  carb-uret 
octa-ve,  oll-ve 
mot-ive,  pens-ive 


north-ward,80uth-ward 
home-wards,  heaven- 
wards 

side-ways  or  side-wise 


perrl-wlg 

length-wise,  breadth- 
wise 

Words-worth,     Isle- 
worth 

ship-wright,    wheel- 
wright- 
NeU-y,  Johnn-y 

snow-7,  frost-y 

astronom-y,   homeo- 

path-y 
charit-7,  modest-7 
law-[y]er,  i.e.  lagu-^re 

benso-yle  =  banrtoU, 
meth-yl 


EBRORS    OF    SPEECH 

AVD  OW 

SPELLING. 


a,/ate/ 

«»ab<nt<; 

i,/atfter; 

th^tAe. 

e,  meed.* 

8»  he^ray; 

ty  Oik.  looge; 

rh,(Ain. 

i.inf; 

%ia: 

d,  Gft.  loogo; 

J.i««. 

5,1*0; 

tt,on.' 

dw,  grroio/ 

'',  the  stronger  of 

n,  unit ; 

tt,ia; 

fiw,  now  ; 

two  accents. 

A-  (Old  Eng.  ftdyerbial  prefix)  denoting  "away,"  "without,** 
"on,"&c. 

A-  (prefixed  to  verbs)  intensifies,  as  "  awake,"  **  arouse." 

A-  (Greek  prefix)  negative ;  an  before  vowels. 

A  (Article)  is  An  with  the  n  omitted,  before  words  beginning 
with  a  consonant  or  aspirated  h.  Exceptions :  It  stands 
before  otw,  as  "many  a  one,"  before  Eu-  and  w=i/w,  as  a 
eulogy,  a  u-nit,  and  not  before  words  beginning  with  ht 
nnlesB  the  accent  is  on  the  first  syllable,  as  a  his'tory,  an 
histo'rian. 

Ab-  The  Latin  preposition,  used  as  a  prefix,  drops  the  "b" 

before  m  and  v;  and  adds  " s"  before  c  and  t. 

**  AB  "  (preflxt)  means  diminution, 
Bemoval,  or  complete  exclusion ; 
'Tis  "A"  before  both  m  and  t>, 
And  "  ABS  "  before  both  c  and  i. 

Abattoir,  ab.at.twor^t  a  public  slaughter-house  (French). 

French  dbaitre,  to  knock  down  fa  battrej. 
Abbaasides,  Ah'.bas.sides,    A  family  of  caliphs.    (Double  b  and  8.) 

Abbas,  MahomeVs  uncle;  -aides,  -ides  (patronymic)  descendants  of. 
Abbe,  ab.bay.    French  clerical  title  given  for  scholarship. 
Abbot,  feminine  abbess.    Head  of  an  abbey  or  nunnery. 
Abbreviate,  ah.bre^-vi .ate  not  a.bree'-vX.ate,    (Double  b.) 

Abbreyiation,  ab.bree'-vl.a"-8hun.    A  shortened  form. 

Latin  ah  brevidre,  to  shorten. 
Abet,  abett-ed,  abett-ing,  abett-or  (Eule  i.) 

Abhor,  ab.hoT^  not  a.bor^;  abhorr'-er,  abhorr'-ence,  abhorr'-ent, 
abhorr-ently,  abhorred  (2  syL),  abhorr-ing  (Eule  i.) 

A 


ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 


Abide,  past  tense  abode,  pcLst  participle  abided.  * 

Ablative,  ab'M.tiv  not  ab.lay'.tlv,  a  case  in  grammar. 

-able  (Latin  suflSx  -biliSf  jareceded  by  a).    Added  to  adjectives. 

Tbe  " a"  is  merely  a  copula.    In  worets  derived  firom  the  first  con- 
jugation the  copulative  vow6l  is  a,  otherwise  it  is  i. 

Abnormal,  ab.nor^.mal,  out  of  rule,  irregular. 

Latin  od  norma,  not  aeooxding  to  the  square  [used  Ij  builders]. 

Abracadabra,  db'-r&h-kdh.daV-r&h  not  aV-d.-kd..dah"-rd.h. 
Abridgment  (verbs  in  -dge  drop  "  e"  before  -ment).    Bule  xix. 

Abrotonnm,  a-}yriit\6,numy  often  misspelt  ahrotanum. 

Greek  ahrdtdndn,  the  Immortal  plant,  so  called  from  its  great  anti- 
septic qualities  (a  Irotos,  not  mortal). 

Abstract,  db^stract  (noun),  ab^Pracf  (verb).    Rule  L 

Abuse,  aJbtice'  (noun),  a.buze  (verb).    Bule  li. 

Abuf,  abutt-ed,  abutt-ing,  but  abutment  (Bule  i) 

Ac-  (prefix).    Latin  preposition  ad  before  "  c." 

-ac  (suffix),  Gre^  -ak-ott  Latin  -oo-im,  "possessed  of,**  " of." 

Acacia,  a.ka^hW.ah  not  a.kay'jher,  nor  a.kazef^er, 

Latin  acdda,  a  thorn.    (The  thomj*  plant.) 
Academics,  ak'.d-dem!' ,lks.    Disciples  of  Plato. 

Because  he  taught  in  the  Academy,  or  grounds  of  Academns. 
Academy,  a.kad'.k.my  not  ak'-A.dim-y,   (The  "  e  "  is  long  in  Gk.) 

Oreek  acddimoa,  Latin  acddemia. 
Acalephffi,  ak'-a.lee"-fi.     The  "  medusae,"  as  sea-nettles,  <fec. 

Greek  akaUpM,  a  nettle. 
Acarus,  plu.  acari  (Latin),  aV.&.rits,  ak\ii.ri,  mites,  <fec. 

Acarides,  a-kar^ry.deezy  or  acar^idsB.     Tbe  acari  family. 

Greek  aJcari  and  -ides  (patronymic)  the  acari  family. 
Acatalectic,  a.kaf-ii.lek"-tik  not  a.kat^-a.lep^'-tlk. 

Accede  (not  one  of  the  three  which  end  in  -ceed.)    Bule  xxvii. 

Latin  ae  [ad]  cedo,  to  go.  (N.B.—*'  exceed,"  "  proceed,"  **  succeed  '*). 
Accelerate,  ak.sel\e,rate.    To  hasten.    (Double  c,  one  I) 

Latin  ac  [ad]  eelerare  to  hasten  to  [the  end]. 
Accent,  ak\sent  (noun),  ak.8enf  (verb).    Bule  1. 
Accessible,  not  accessable  (Lat.  ae  [ad]  cedire,  see  -able). 
Accessory,  ak*^i8.86.Ty  not  ak.8es^^d.ry  (Bule  Iv.) 

Law  Lat.  ac  [ad]  cessorius,  one  who  goes  to  or  joins  another  [in  crime]. 

Accidence,  elements  of  grammar ;  Accidents,  mischances. 

Accipitreg,   ak^p'.i.treez.     Such   birds  4is  hawks,  vultures^ 
eagles,  <fec. 
Lsiin  acefpiXer,  plural  oceipCtrcf ,  hawks. 


AND  OF  SPBLUNG.  8 

m 

jlcclimate,  akMi'.mate  not  dk^JiVi.ml6t» 

Aodi'nuttifle,  not  acclimatize;  accslimatiaa'tion  (B.  xxxi.) 
Latin  ac  [ad]  elima  [habituated]  to  a  climate. 

AceliTity,  ak.kUv',Lty  not  a.kl4v\i.ty.    A  slope. 
Latin  ac  [ad]  eHvUas,  a  bending  upwards. 

Aooom'modate,  ftoeoin'niodA''''tion  (double  e  and  m). 
Latin  ac  [ad]  jcommodare,  to  lend  help  to  one. 

Accomplice,  ak.hom'.plU  not  aJkom'^^.    A  confederate. 
Latin  oe  [ad]  eompHeo,  to  fold  up  wlUi  one  [in  mischiefl. 

Accomplish,  ak,kom\pli8h  not  a.konf,pU8h.    To  finish. 
Latin  ac  [ad]  eompleo,  to  complete  entirely. 

Accord,  ak.kord'  not  a,kord\    To  agree  with  one,  to  award. 
Latin  ac  [ad]  eorda,  [hearts]  to  hearts^ 

Accordingly,  ak.kord\inff.ly  not  a.k^,ding.li. 

Accordion,  aA.^ord^^.on  not  a,ko7^.de.<m.    An  instniment  which 
plays  in  accord  with  others. 

Accost,  ak.kosf  not  a.ftost'.    To  address  another. 

Latin  ac  [ad]  co«ta,  to  draw  near  to  one's  side  [to  speak]. 

Account,  ak.kounf  not  a,kounf,    A  bill;  to  yerify. 

Latin  ac  [ad]  comptUo.  A  mercantile  term,  meaning  "  the  particulars 
of  a  bill  set  forth,"  and  hence  "to  state  particulars."  "  Ckunpt*' 
is  a  contraction  of  compute  (comp't). 

Aocoontant,  accountable  (1st  coi\j.,  coirvputare^  R.  xxiv.,  xxv.) 

Accoutrements,  ak,koo' .tre.menU.    I^ilitary  equipments.     (Fr.) 

Accredit,  ak.hred'Xt  not  a.kred'.iU    To  give  trust  to  one. 

Latin  ac  [ad]  crtdo,  to  give  credit  to  one. 

-ace  (sufl&x  of  nouns)  Latin  c  or  t,  preceded  by  "  a." 

Thus  menace  (Lat.  minocice).  preface  (Lat.  prsBfo^io), 
It  means  "of  the  nature  of,    "pertaining  to." 

-ace»  (In  botany)  denotes  an  ''order:"  as  amaranth-ace^. 

-aceous,  -fusions  (suffix,  of  adjectives),  "  of  the  nature  of,"  "  ap- 
pearance of,"  as  saponaceoii^  (Lat.  sajpo,  8apon\i8'\,  soap). 

Acephala,  a.8ef\d.ldh.    In  Geology,  molluscs  without  a  head. 

Greek  a  keph&U,  without  a  head  [as  oysters]. 
Ache,  ake^  pain.    Hake,  a  hook,  a  fieh. 

"Ache,"  Greek  ackot,  pain.    "Hake,**  Old  Bng.,  haecoa,  a  hook. 
The  jaw  of  the  hake  is  like  a  hook. 

Achores,  a.ko'.reez  not  aT^.d.reez.    Pustules  on  the  head. 

Greek  achdr,  an  ulcer  on  the  head  with  an  inflamed  base. 
Achne,  often  misspelt  acne,  ak\ne,    A  pimple  on  the  fieuse. 

Greek  a^chnS,  snrftee  foam. 
-•eitj  added  to  Ahstrstet  Nouns:  as  Midacity,    See  -«e^ 


ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 


Acknowledgment,  ak.kndV.ledg,ment  not  dk.hnvw^Udg.ment, 
AJl  verbs  ending  in  -dge  drop  the  '*  e  "  before  -mefid  (Rule  xviH. } 
-acle  (Latin  ^alculumj^  "diminutive;"  as  tabemacZ^,  a  little 
wooden  house. 

Acme,  ak.ni&y  (Greek).  The  highest  point,  the  crisis  of  a 
disease.  It  means  "the  edge,"  hence  the  Greek  proverb, 
iwl  ^vpoO  &Kfi7is  (on  the  razor's  edge),  that  is,  "at  the 
critical  moment." 

Acne,  »ee  Achne.    Hackney,  a  horse  kept  for  hire. 

Aconite,  dkf.d.nite.     The  herb  Wolfsbane. 

Greek  akonlton,  the  plant  without  dost,  meaning,  it  will  grow  on 
rocks  where  there  is  not  even  dust  for  a  soil  It  is  called  "  Wolfs- 
bane" because  meat  steeped  in  its  juice  was  used  hj  our  fore- 
fathers as  a  lure  to  i>oison  wolves. 

AcomB,  a\ko.ru8.     "  Sweet  flag,"  (fee. 

Greek  a  kdrSo,  to  stop  diarrhoea,  for  its  astringent  properties.  Galled 
"  flag,"  because  its  powers  resemble  a  flag  curled  by  wind. 

Acotyledon,  a\kdt-y,lee"-ddn,  plu.,  acotyle'dons,  or  acotyle'ddna. 
Plants  without  husks  or  seed-lobes  for  their  seed. 
Greek  a  kotuUd&n^  without  husks  (like  ferns,  mosses,  lichens,  ^.) 

Acoustics,  a.kHw'Miks  not  axoo^sUks,    Science  of  sounds. 
Gcreek  dkoud,  to  hear. 

Acquit,  acquitt-al,  acquitt-ance,  acquitt-ed,  acquitt-ing  (E.  i.) 

Acrogenous  (plants),  a.krodg^^.nHs  not  ak\ro.jee".ne.u8. 

Greek  akro  gSnos,  growth  upwards.  Plants,  like  tree-ferns,  which 
grow  tall,  without  increasing  much  in  bulk.  Plants  which  grow 
in  bulk,  not  height,  are  caUed  amphigens. 

Acroleine,  ak.kro\U.ln,    Acrid  fumes  &om  distilled  oils. 

Latin  acrt  olH,  acrid-product  of  oil. 
Acrolith,  aV.krd.lith.     A  statue  partly  in  stone  or  marble. 

Greek  dkrd-lithos,  stone  extremities  (as  head,  arms,  legs,  &c.) 
Act,  a  deed.    Hacked,  hakty  mutilated. 

Latin  acta,  things  done.    "Hack,"  Old  Eng.,  ha^anl  to  cut. 
Actsaa,  ak.tee^ah.     The  snake  root  genus  of  plants. 

Greek  a  ktaA,  preventive  of  death  [from  the  bite  of  snakes].  Called 
"herb  Christopher,"  because  St.  Christopher  was  invoked  to  w>u:d 
off  evil  spirits,  whic)i  often  assumed  the  form  of  snakes  (Gen.  iii.) 

Actinia,  plu.  actinisB,  ak.tin\i.ahj  ak.tin%.e.    Sea-anemones,  &c. 

Greek  aktia.  a  ray,  because  their  numerous  tentacles  extend  like  rays 
from  the  circumference  of  the  mouth. 

Actinocrinites,  ak'-tin-o.kri" -nitesj  not  ak'-t%n.ok"-ri-nites,     A 
subgenus  of  extinct  "  actinia." 
Greek  aktU  krinon,  ray-lily  (radiated  lily-shaped  animals). 
Actor,  fern,  actress ;  not  acter  as  it  is  a  Latin  word  (R.  xxxvii.) 
-acy  (suflBx)  Greek -[aJ&-o»  (nouns)  "rank,"  "office :"  as  papacy. 


AND  OF  SPELLING. 


-acy  (suffix)  Latin  .[ajfiia,  -tia  (noung)  "state,"  "condition:" 
celibacy. «  • 

Ad-  (Latin  preposition)  to,  for.  As  a  prefix  it  intensifiett  or 
denotes  "  approach,"  "juncture,"  "  addition."  It  changes 
its  conGlonant  in  sympathy  with  the  liquids,  and  with  c 
and  «,  p  and  /,  g  and  t. 

"  At) "  (preflxt)  meahs  augmentation. 
Juncture,  or  approximatioa ; 
But  when  preoedinf  c,  /  9, 
A  liquid,  or  a  p,  <,  t. 
These  letters  it  prefers  to  d. 

Ad  infinitum  (Latin)  ad  in.fi.nt.tum.    Without  end,  for  ever. 

Ad  n*nseam  (Latin)  ad  nau^ .8(i.am,    To  disgust,  to  nausea. 

Ad  valorem  (Latin)  ad  tMi.Zd.Vem.    A  tax  in  proportion  to  the 
market  value  of  the  things  taxed. 
Observe  the  terminations  of  these  last  three  words. 

Adage,  ad'.adje,  a  proverb.    Adagio,  aday'.jH.o  uot  a.dadg\16.o,^ 
" Adage,"  Latin  addgium.    ''Adagio,'*  ItaL,  slow  time  (In  M\uie).' 

Adamantean,  ad^-d'man.tee'''an  not  ad^-d.7nan''-t^-dn. 
Latin  adamantcBut,  hard  or  strong  as  adamant. 

Adamic,  Ad\dm.ik  not  Ajdam'.ihy  as  "  The  Adamic  Covenant" 

^dansonia,  A''dan.8if-n^-dh,   The  boabab  or  Monkey-bread- tree. 
80  called  by  Linn»u>  in  oomp.  to  Michel  Adanson,  a  French  botanist. 

^pia,  adf.d.pU,    An  extinct  animal  resembling  a  hedgehog. 

This  was  the. animal  which  Cnvier  worked  out  from  a  stray  bone  or 
two  by  his  knowledge  of  comparative  anatomy. 

^  to  join.    Had,  pcut  tense  of  "  have."    Aid,  help. 

"  Add,"  Latin  addo.    "  Had,"  Old  Eng.  htf/de,  p.  of  habban,  to  have. 
"Aid,"  ode,  French  aider,  to  assist ;  Latin  adjuddre. 

Addendum,  Tplu.  addenda  (Latin).    Things  to  be  added. 
Addicted,  ad.dicf.ed  not  a.diclf.ed.     Given  up  to  the  habit. 

Latin  ad-dictus,  given  in  bondage  to  [a  creditor  or  habit]. 
Addition,  ad.dish^on  not  a.dUh'.on ;  additional  (double  d). 

Addreas,  odAress^  not  a.dress^    To  speak  to,  to  ^ve  the  due  title. 

French  adresser  (one  d),  bixt  in  English  the  d  is  doubled, 
•ade  (Lat  at-tui)^  termination  of  Nouns :  "  state  of^"  as  blocko^. 
-ade,  as  a  termination  of  Verbs :  "  act  o^"  as  oannona^f^. 

•adaa  (Greek  patronymic  -idis  or  -iadSs\  "descent  from,"  "of 
the  family  of  " ;  generally  -ida  as  c&nida, 

Adephagans,  a.def\d.ganz,    A  tribe  of  voracious  insects. 

Greek  adSphdgos,  voracious. 
Adept,  a.depf  not  ad\ept.     One  skilled  in  something. 

Latin  adeptus,  one  who  has  discovered  [the  philosopher's  stone]. 


6  ERROliS  OF  SPEECH 

Adiantnm,  ad' 4.091" -turn,    **  Maiden-hair"  and  other  ferns. 
Greek  adiantont  dry.    So  called  because  rahi  do^  not  wet  it. 

Adieu,  a.de%  Good  b'je.    Ado,  a^oo,  foss. 

'*  Adieu,"  Frenoli  d  Dieu,  [T  commend  yoxk]  to  Ciod. 
"  Ado,"  Old  Eng.  verb  ad(/n.    The  noon  means  a  fuss,  as  if  there 
was  much  to  do. 

Adipic  (acid),  ad\i.pik  not  a.dip'ik.    Fat  procured  by  add. 

Latin  adep8,  aMpit,  t^i, 
Adipocere,  ad'.t.'po.seer,    A  flnhstance,  called  "  grare  wax." 

Latin  adiposa  cera^  fatty  wax  (found  in  cemeteries). 

Adipose,  ad'.i.poce  not  ad'.i.poze.    Foil  of  fat,  fatty. 

Latin  adipostu,  containing  fat. 
Adjournment,  ad-jum\ment  not  a-jum'.ment.    Postponement. 

French  aJoumemerU,  deferred  to  another  day  {jow^  a  day). 

Adjure,  ad.jure'  not  ajure'.    To  hind  hy  oath. 
Latki  ad-juro,  to  make  one  swear  to  [what  he  says]. 

A^ust,  ad.jtL8t'  not  a.just;  adjustment,  ad.jti8lf.ment, 

Latin  ad-jwtus  [righted]  to  wliat  is  correct. 
A^utant,  ad' .jU.tant.    (This  word  is  incorrect  in  quantity.) 

Latin  ad-jutant,  one  who  aids. 

Ad^utor,  female  adjutriz,  ad.jn\tor,  ad.jik^trix  (B.  xlvL) 

Admin'istrator,  female  admin'istratriz  (Latin)  B.  xlvi. 

Admif,  admitt'-ance,  admitf-able  aUo  admiss'-ible,  admitt'-ed, 
admitt'-er,  admitt^-ing  (Bule  i)    Admittable  (R.  xxiii.) 

Adonis,  A.dd'.nis,    The  plant  called  "  Pheasant's  eye." 

The  flower  of  the  **  com  Adonis  "  is  poetically  supposed  to  have  been 
reddened  by  the  blood  of  the  boy  Adoi^  dropping  on  it. 

Ad'ulator  (Latin),  not  ad^ulatpr  (Bale  xxxviL) 

Advertised,  ad\v^.tizd  (in  a  newspaper). 
ad.vir'.tXzd  (by  private  letter). 

Advertisement,  ad-ver^.tiz-mentf  not  ad'-vir,tizei''-ment. 

Advertiser,  ad'-vir.t%-z9r ;  not  advertisor  (R.  xx3d.) 

Latin  ad  verto,  to  turn  [public  attention]  to  something. 
(Advertiser  is  not  a  Latin  word,  but  an  English  coinage,  and  benee 
the  suffix  is  er,  not  or  (Kule  xxxvii) 

Advice  {n(mn)y  advise  (verb).     Latin  ad  vi80,  to  go  to  see  (B.  li.) 

Advisable,  ad,vl\zH.b'l  (Not  of  the  1st  Lat.  conj.,  K  xziiL) 

Adynamic,  a'.dy-n&nC-Xky  not  dynamic  or  strong. 

Adytum,  ad'.y.tum,  not  a.dy\tum  (Gk.  adutotij  Holy  oi  Holies). 

iEdile,  e\  dile.    A  Bom.  magistrate  who  had  charge  of  the  public 
buildings.     (Lat.  <ed««,  sing.  "  a  house,"  plu. ''  a  temple  "). 

iEgean  (Sea)  E.jee\an  (Sea).    The  Archipelago. 


AND  OP  SPELLma 


iEgicerea,  ei'-jl,»er^ry-iiK    Order  of  plants,  genus  ^Egiceru. 

Ondc  tOgot  Jo^i^Ui,  soat'a  horn.    iEgic«n,  ijltf.i.rah. 
•^^Bgilopi,  i'^jlhdps,    A  sore  in  the  oomer  of  the  eje. 

.  Greek  aigos  ops,  a  goat'e  ej«.    Ooatg  being  inbjeot  to  the  disease. 
JEneid,  Bjnee\td,  not  E'.ni.H,    Virgil's  epic  about  iEne'as. 

•id (a patronTmJo) meaning  "pertaining  to,"  "oonceming." 
iEolian,  B.d'di.Hn.    It  ought  to  be  E,ol\i,an  (o  short). 
JEqUc,  eM\tk,  not  e.d\lik.    Belonging  to  MSL'ixk  (Greece). 
iEmgo,  es^'.go.  (Lat.)    The  green  "rust"  of  bronze  omamentc. 

iBthal  or  Etbal,  lth\al,    (A  word  G(»ned  by  Chevreul.) 
It  consists  of  the  fini  sy^Uables  of  Efh  [er]  and  ^I[oohol]. 

iEsihetics,  ece.ThefJlks,    The  philosophy  of  good  taste. 

Greek  aitXMifQcoi  [betnty  as  it  is]  appreciated  hj  th^senses.    (The  • 
of  the  seeond  s^laUe^is  long  in  Greek.) 

iEthogen,  ethd.jihi.    An  intensely  luminous  compound. 

Greek  aUMn  gin4.    I  produce  luminosity. 
.Sthnsa,  e.ThU\zSh.  A  genus  of  plants  including  "  Fools'  parsley. " 

Greek  aith»%i8a,  bnming  hot.    The  leaves  being  very  acrid. 
£tites,  more  correctly  Aetites,  a'-^.tV-teez,    Hollow  stones. 

Greek  ctttos,  an  eagle.    Supposed  to  form  part  of  eagles'  nests. 

Aer-  (prefix).     All  words  with  this  prefix  (except  a.e^ri.al)  have 
the  accent  on  the  first  letter.    For  example : — 
a'erate  (3«yU.)        a'erog"raphy  a'eronaufics 

a'era''ted  a'erolite  (4  syll.)     a'eropho"bia 

a'era''tion  a'eror'ogy  a'eropbytes  (4  syU,) 

a'erifica''tion  a'eroman"cy  a'ero6"copy 

a'erify  a'erom^eter  a'erostat'ics 

a'ero-dynam'ics       a'eronaut  a'erosta"tion 

Afhir,  af-fair  not  a.fair^,  busioess;  plu.^  transactions  in  generaL 

French  affaire;  Latin  afitA'\fac&re  to  do  [something]. 
Affect,  af-fecf  not  a.fecf;  affec'ted;  affec'tion  (double/). 

Latin  af  [ad]  fectus,  to  act  on  [one]. 
AffettuoBO,  af-fe1f'too,o'^-so,    (Ital.  term  in  Music.)   With  feeling. 
Affianced,  af.ji'.amX  not  a,fi\an8t.    Betrothed. 

Latin  af  [ad]  fido^  to  trust  to  one's  good  faith. 
Affidavit,  af-f\.da"-vit,    ('Davy  is  a  vulgarism.) 

Old  law  Latin  ekffidare,  to  give  an  oath  of  fidelity. 
Affiliated,  af.fiV-Ua-Ud  not  a.fiV-i-a-ted  (double/,  one  V), 

Latin  of  [adj  filiua,  [to  assign]  a  child  to  one. 
Affirm,  af.firm'  not  a.jirm';  affirma'tion  (double/). 

Latin  af  [ad]  Jirmore,  to  make  [something]  firm  to  [another]. 
Affix'  {verb),  affix  {ncmn),    A  postfix  (Kule  1.) 

Latin  af  iMd]  Jixo,  to  fix  to  [aometbingj. 


8  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Afflatus,  af-JUiy'-tus  not  a.jlay'-tu8.    Inspiration. 

Latin  of  [ad]  fiatvs,  breathed  into  one  [by  divine  inspiration]. 
Afflicted,  af.fiiyfded  not  a.Jlihf.ted;  afflic'tion  (double/). 

Latin  of  [ad]  figo,  to  dash  against  one. 
AfEbrd,  af.ford^  not  a.ford\    To  be  a£le  to  bear  the  expense. 

French  afforer;  Latin  af  [ad]  forvm,  according  to  nuurket-prioe. 
AfEright,  af.frighf  not  a.frighf.    To  startle  with  fear. 

Old  Eng.  afyrM  changed  to  afryhV  (the  g  is  interpolated). 
Affront,  af.frwnlf  not  a.frunif;  affronted  (double  /). 

French  affironUr;  Lat.  a/  [ad]  Jrontem  [to  insult  one]  to  his  face. 
A  fortiori  (Lat.),  a  for.8he.o\rl.    For  a  stiU  greater  reason. 

Afraid,  a,fraid'  not  af.fraid.    Filled  with  fear. 

Old  Eng.  afcBrd'  changed  to  afrced*  {"  afeard' "  is  the  older). 
Afresh,  a.fresh'  not  af. fresh'.    Again,  anew,  recently. 

Old  Eng.  a/erse  changed  to  c^resc  (c  equals  ch). 
Aft  (Old  Eng.  aft),  behind.    Haft  (Old  Eng.  haift)^  a  handle. 
Ag-  (prefix)  is  the  Lat.  prep,  ad  before  "  g." 
Agagite  (The)  Ag*.a.gite,    Haman  is  so  called  (Esth.  iii.  1). 

Agabuatolite,  a*-gal.mdf-d-lite,    A  claj  for  statuary. 

Greek  agalmdtos  lithoa,  stone  for  images. 
Again,  a.gen'  not  a.g&ne,    (Old  Eng.  agen.) 

Agama,  plu,  agamas,  ag\d.mdh,  &c.    A  species  of  lizard.    The 
adjective  is  ag^amoid,  as  "  agamoid  Uzards." 

Agama,  plu.  agamsa,  ag'.d.mee,    Flowerless  plants.    The  adjec- 
tive  is  ag'amous,  same  as  cryptogamic,  q.v.     All  the 
species,  &c.,  are  Uie  agamldie  or  '*  ag^ama  "  family, 
Greek  a  gdmos,  without  sexual  organs. 

Ag'anii,  plu,  ag^&mis.     The  gold-breasted  Trumpeter. 

Agapanthus,  ag* 'd.pan" -Thus,     The  African  blue  lily. 

Greek  agap€to8  anthdt,  the  lovely  flower. 

Agape,  ag'.d.pee,  a  love-feast.    Agape,  a.gape^  wonder-struck. 

"  Agape,"  Greek  agapi,  brotherly  love. 

''Agape,"  Old  Eng.  agedp,  open-mouthed  with  amasement. 

Agapemone,  ag'-a.pem''-d-ne.    Love's  abode. 

Greek  agdp4  mOni,  Love's  mansion. 
Agaric,  ag\dr.lk.    A  genus  of  fungi 

Greek  ogdri^on,  fungus :  from  Agdria,  a  river  of  Sarmatia. 
Agathophyllum,  ag'-d-rhdjiV-lum.  Clove  nutmeg  of  IVIadagascaiu 

Greek  agdthon  phuUon,  the  good  leaf. 
Agathotes,  a.gath\d,teez.    One  of  the  gentian  family. 

Greek  agathdtet,  goodness  (from  its  medical  vlrtuesX 
Agave,  a.gii\vi  not  ag.&v\    The  American  aloe. 

Greek  agatU,  splendid  [plants 


AND  OF  SPELLTNO.  9 

-age  (French  suffix),  '* state  of:"  as  pupilage. 

-age  (Lat.  agHre)  "  the  act  of:"  as  ijiilage, 

-age  {Celt,  fulnesi),  added  to  collective  nouns :  as  herba^^. 

Agen'dmn,  plu.  agen'da  (Lat.)    Mem.  of  "  things  to  be  done." 

Ageratnm,  a-jee^sd.tUm  not  a.j^.ra\tum  (Bot)    A  flower. 

Greek  agMLUm,  exempt  from  old  age.  Properlj,  "Everlastings." 

Agglomerate,  ag.glom'-e-rate  not  a.glonC-t-rate  (trouble  ^,  one  m). 
Lat  ag  [ad]  gUvMtSrt,  to  wind  into  a  ball  (jgUmuit  a  clew  of  thread). 

Agglutinate,  ag-glu'-U-nate  not  a-glu'-ti-nate.    To  glue  together. 
Lat  ag  [ad]  gluHtnare,  to  glue  together  {gluten,  glutXnia,  glue). 

Aggiandise,  ag'.gran.dize  not  a.gran\dize.     To  exalt. 
Aggrandisement,  ag-gravf-dlz-ment  not  ag*-gran.dize"-ment. 
Latin  ag  [ad]  grandeaco,  to  make  lazger  and  larger  (Kale  xxxi) 

AggreBsiye,  ag^gress'-iv  ;  aggresslcm,  aggressor  (double  g  and  »). 

Latin  ag  [ad]  gresaio,  a  going  against.    ("  Aggressor,"  Bule  xxxvii. ) 
Aggrieve,  ag.greev'  not  a,greev\    To  do  wrong  to  a  person. 

A  hybrid  word.    Lat  ag  [ad],  French  grever,  to  burden  with  taxes. 

Agilia,  a.jiV.tdK     Squirrels,  dormice,  and  similar  "  Eodents." 
Latin  agilia,  nimble  creatures. 

Agio,  €Ldg*X.o  not  a\j^.o.     The  market  difference  between  banl^- 
notes  and  current  coin.    Ago,  a.go\    Gone  by. 
"Agio,**  ItaL  aggiOf  difference.    "Ago/*  Old  Eng.  agdn,  gone  by. 

Agitator  (Latin),  af-ida'-tor  not  agitater.    (Bule  xxxvii.) 

Agnail  see  Angnall. 

Agnate}  ag'.nate.     Belated  on  the  father's  side;    Cognate,  on 
the  mother's. 
Latin  ag  [ad]  nalu8,  bom  to  [the  same  surname]. 

Agomphians,  a.gom^-fi-anz.     Bodents  without  grinders. 
Greek  a-gomphio8t  without  a  grinder. 

Agora,  ag'.d.rdh.    The  Greek  "  forum.** 

Greek  ageird,  to  assemble ;  the  place  of  assembly ;  the  market-place. 

Agree,  agree-ing,  agree-ment,  agree-able,  agree-ably,  &;c. 
(Observe  the  double  e  is  retained  throughout.) 

Agrimony,  ag*,H.mun\y,    A  genus  of  field  plants. 
Greek  agros  mdni,  the  field  my  abode. 

Aide-de-camp,  plu.  aides-de-camp  (French).    A  military  officer. 
A'Aexcmgy  plu.  aid\de.cong,  sometimes  aids.de.cong. 

Aiguille,  a.gweel  (French).    For  boring  holes  in  blasting. 

Ail,  to  suffer.  Ale,  malt  liquor.  Hail,  frozen  rain.  Hale,  healthy. 
"  AiL**  Old  Eng.  egl  [an],  to  be  in  grief.   "  Ale."  Old  Eng.  eala,  ale. 
"  Hail/'  Old  Eng.  hagol  or  luegl,  hail.   "  Hale/*  Old  Eng.  hdl,  hearty. 


10  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Ailing,  ailMg^  suffering.  Hailing,  hailing,  hail  falling. 

Ain't,  "  am  not,"  "  is  not,"  should  be  written  "  &  n't "  (a  contraction 
of  am  notf  as  nott  "  as  "  being  the  old  form  of  is).  Ar'n't 
is  a  contraction  of  are  tiot,    (Colloquial.) 

Air  (we  breathe)^  Airs,  oZm.,  tricks  of  conceit  Are,  ar,  plu.  of 
**  am."  Hair  (of  the  head).  Hare  (game).  Heir,  air  (of 
property).  Here,  in  this  place. 

"Air/*  Latin  aer,  the  atmosphere. 

**  Are/'  Norse,  plural  of  the  Old  Saxon  rerb  icl>e6,tkA  Ust,  he  byth. 
"  Hair/'  Old  Eng.,  hcer,  hair    *'  Hare/'  Old  Eng.  hara,  a  hare. 
"  Heir/'  Latin  Jueres,  an  heir.    •*  Here,"  Old  Eng.  Mr,  here,  now. 

Airless,  without  air.  Hairless,  without  hair.  Heirless,  airless, 
without  an  heir. 

Airy,  adj.  of  air.  Hairy,  ac^j.  of  hair.  Aerie  or  eyrie,  an  eagle's 
nest. 

Aisle,  lie  (of  a  church)  meaning  **  the  wing  /'  isle,  an  island. 
French  aisle,  now  €Ale;  Latin  oto,  a  wing.     "  Isle  "  (Lat.)  i/naAla. 

Ajuga,  a'.ju.gay  not  a.joo\gah.    The  plant  called  "  Bugle.** 
Lat.  a  JH^ja,  averse  to  Jnno ;  supposed  to  favour  miscarrii^e. 

Alaria,  aXair" -rS-dh.    A  genus  of  sea-weeds,  as  "  badderlooks,  4c. 
Latin  aXa,  a  wing.    "  Badder-locks  "  means  **  locks  of  Balder." 

Albeit,'  awLhef.it.   Although,  notwithstanding  (Rule  Iviii.) 

Albino,  plu,  albinos,  aLhee^no,  aLbee'moze  (Eule  zlii.) 

Al  Borak,  ^aV  Bo,rak\    The  animal  that  carried  Mahomet  from 
the  earth  to  the  seventh  heaven. 
Arabic  al  borclka,  the  shining  one. 

Albucum,  al.hvf-hum  not  al\bu,kum.    The  white  daffodil. 

Albugo,  al.hu' -go.    A  white  speck  on  the  comSa  of  the  eyt* 

Albumen,  al.bu-m^  not  ar,bil.men.    White  of  egg, 

Alcahest,  aV.kd.hesif  (Arabic).    The  universal  solvent. 

Aloaid,  aLknidf ;  or  alcayde,  al.kay'.dS,    (Spanish.) 
Arabic  al  kadi,  the  governor  [of  a  Spanish  fortress]. 

Alcalde,  al.kaV-de,    A  Spanish  magistrate. 

Arabic  al  kaldi,  the  judge,  or  justice  of  the  peace.  (It  is  a  mistake 
to  suppose  the  Alcay<U  and  Alcalde  axe  merely  different  spellingiB 
of  the  same  officer.) 

Alcedo  (Latin),  al,seef,d>o.    The  kingfisher  genus  of  birds. 

Alchemilla,  aV -k^.TrnT -Idh,    The  plant  called  '*  Ladies*  mantle." 

The  "  Alchemists'  plant,"  being  greatly  priiied  by  them. 
Alchemy,  aV,ke,me,  not  aUhymy  ;  alchemist,  al',kSamsU 

Arabic  al  Ji^mia,  the  secret  art.  It  is  a  mistake  to  suppose  the  word 
mixt  Arabic  and  Greek,— aa  al,  the ;  chuma,  somethuig  poured  out. 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  11 

Alcohol,  aVM.htSL    Th«  epirit  of  f«rment«d  liquon. 

Arabic  al  kokol,  the  TOlatUe  labstanee. 
AloohoUze,  aVMMMze  not  al,kd\h6dize  ;  Al'cSh51iaa''tion. 
Alcorad,  aLko-rad.    Contrariety  of  light  in  planets.   (Astrology). 
Alcoran,  see  Alkoran.     The  Mohammedan  Soriptores. 
Alcoranes,  aV-kS,ray'-neez,  The  high  slender  turrets  of  mosques. 

Alcyonite,  aVJi,S.nite  not  al^V.S,nite,    A  sponge-like  fossil  very 
common  in  chalk  formations.    (See  oelcw,) 

Alcyonlum,  plu.  alcyon'ia.    Halcyon  stones.    Supposed  at  one 

time  to  have  heen  used  by  kingfishers  for  their  nests. 

Oreek  alkiUyn,  a  kinffflsher.    AlkUdTid,  daughter  of  M61xxb  changed 
into  a  kingfiaher.    (With  or  without  an  initial  h. ) 

Aldehaian,  aLdelf-d-Hin,    The  '*  Bull's  eye  "  in  Tatous. 

Aiabic  al  ddbdrcMf  the  follower  [of  the  Pleiades]. 
Alder  (tree),  oV.deri  not  aV^der,  nor  awl\der  (Rule  IriiL) 

Old  English  o^er,  an  alder-tree ;  Latin  alntu. 
Alderliefest,  aV-d^Mef-^U  Best  or  oldest  loved  (2  Hen.yi.  i  1.) 
Alderman,  oV,dSr,m(m,    A  civil  dignitary  (Bule  Iviii.) 

Alembek,  aXem'-hSk,    A  vessel  used  by  alchemists. 

Arabic  al  an&ig,  the  cup ;  Greek  tmJbiXy  a  cnp. 
Alethopteris,  a.lee.rh(yp'-tS-r^,    Fossil  ferns  (coal  formations). 

Greek  aUtho-pUHs,  the  true  fern. 
Aletris,  aV.i,tris  not  cUe^tris,    A  garden  shrub. 

Greek  cUitriBf  a  miller ;  the  plant  being  covered  with  ''meaL" 
Alezicacon,  a-lex'.ik"-d-kon.    A  medicine. 

Greek  aiex6  kdkon,  1 4rive  out  the  evil  thing. 
Alexipharmio,  a-lexf -l,far^ -mlk.    Antidote  of  poison. 

Greek  oieasd  pAarmdA)(>n,  I  avert  poison. 
Alezipyretmn,  a-lex" -l/pyr^ry-tum.    A  fever  mixture. 

Greek  aieaBd  pHriftdt,  I  drive  off  fever. 
Algffi,  aVJee  (Latin).    Sear-weeds. 
Aignn-TJIj  alg'.wajseeV,    A  Spanish  constable. 

Arabic  al  vKuil.  t^e  man  in  authority. 
Alien,  geo orally  pronounced  d\Vl.Sn,    A  foreigner  (Bule  IviL) 

Alienate,  aV.i.^.nate;  alienation,  aV4-^.nay'^-8hun. 

Latin  Alieno,  to  make  another's ;  dUBntu,  one  of  another  country. 
Alike.     *•  Two  "  and  "  both  "  should  not  be  used  together  with 

"alike:"  as  "The  two  are  both  alike;"  say  "The  two 

are  alike ;"  or  "  They  are  both  alike;"  or  "  The  two  are 

exactly  alike.** 
AUke  (adj.),  meaning  similar,  always  stands  after  its  noun,  as 

"  The  darkness  and  the  light  are  both  alike  to  Thee.** 

(Ps.  cxxxix.  12.) 


12  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Alike  (adv.))  means  in  a  similar  way^  eqtiallyt  as  "Whether 
they  shall  both  he  alike  good."  (Ecc.  xi.  6.) 

Alima,  aM'.mdh.    A  medicine  to  assuage  "  craving  for  food." 

Greek  a  I'Smoa,  antidote  for  hunger. 
Aliment,  aVXment,    Food.    (Obs,  only  one  L) 

Latin  dUmentvm,  verb  dlo,  to  nonrish. 
Alimony,  aV.l.mun,y,    For  a  wife's  separate  maintenance. 

Latin  alimonia,  alimony.    (Obs,  The  o  is  long  in  Latifi.) 
Alismaoesd,  aV -Iss.may" -sS-e.     "  Water-plantains,"  &c. 

Greek  alitma,  the  water-plantain. 

The  suffix  -da  or  -eta  means  "of  the  same  sort."    (Gk.  -kiat  -lua.) 

Alkahest,  aV.kd.hest.    The  Universal  Solvent. 

Alkali,  plu.  alkalis,  aV.ka.lif  aV.kddize,    Soda,  potash,  &o. 

Arabic  cU  kali,  the  kali  plant. 

Alkaloid,  aV.ka.loid.    A  substance  analogous  to  an  alkali. 

The  Greek  -eidoa  (-id),  like  oar  -ith,  is  sometimes  a  diminutive. 
Alkaloids  are  substances  slightly  alkaline. 

Alkoran,  aV.kS.ran  not  al.ko\ran.    The  Arab  "  Scriptures." 

Arabic  <U  Koran,  the  Koran.  It  ts  Inoorreot  to  say  "  The  Alkoran." 
*'  The  Koran  "  means  the  Readings.  We  call  our  "  Bible  "  Ths 
Writings  (Scriptures). 

All,  awl,  every  one.    Hall,  hawl  (of  a  house),  a  mansion. 

"AU,**  Old  Eng.  eall,  or  eel  " Hall/'  Old  £ng.  heall,  a  hall  or  mtosion. 

All-     The  perfect  compounds  of  thifi  word  difop  one  I:  as : — 

almighty  already  altogether 

almost  although  dlways 

See  Kule  Iviii. 

But  when  it  is  oldy  agglutinated  to  another  word,  it 
preserves  its  double  I :  as  all-wise,  all-fours,  all-saints. 

All  of  them.  In  this  and  similar  phrases  "a£"  does 
not  mean  dut  of,  but  has  an  adverbial  force,  like  the 
Latin  ex  in  ex  parte  (partly),  e  duobus  (two  by  two,  two- 
ly),  &c.  So  all  of  them  means  "them  whollyi"  "alto- 
gether." Both  of  them  "  them  both-ly,"  or  "  both-toge- 
ther," the  whole  of  it  "  it  entirely,"  "  in  its  entirety,"  <fec. 

Allantoio  (acid),  al.lan'.tSM  not  aV-lan.td"-ik  (see  below). 

AUantois,  al.lan'-to-iss,    A  membrane  like  a  sausage  in  form. 

Greek  aUantd-eikos,  sausage-like. 

Allay,  al.lay\  to  mitigate.    Alley,  aVWy,  a  passage.    Ally,  aLlV, 

an  associate. 

"  Allay,"  Old  Eng.  aUcg  [em],  to  lay  down  ;  French  aUeger. 
**  Alley,"  French  alUe,  a  passage.   "  Ally,"  Lathi  aX  [adj  ligo,  to  tie 
to  one. 

Allege  not  alledge ;  allege-able  (Verbs  ending  in  -ge  and  -ce 

preserve  tie  "e*' before -a&ie).    Eules  xx.  and  xxiii. 

Latin  al  [ad]  leg€ret  to  read  an  indictment  against  a  person. 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  18 

Allegiance,  al.lee^-j%.ance.    Obedience  due  to  an  overlord. 
French  cMigMnc^,    HediATal  Latin  oUegicmHa  {ad-Ugem). 

AUegro,  allay' -grii  (Itfd.  term  in  Mxisic).    Bright,  sprightly. 

Alleviate,  al,lee^-vK-ate  not  a.lee.vK.ate,    To  lessen  a  trouble. 
Latin  ai  {ad]  Uviarey  to  lighten  [a  burden]  to  the  bearer. 

Alley,  plwral  aUeys,  not  allies  (Rule  xIy.)     (See  Allay.) 
French  aUi^,  a  passage  (verb  aXUrt  to  go). 

Alliance,  alM'-ance  not  a.li,ance.    Union  by  treaty  or  marriage 
Latin  al  [ad]  ligo,  to  tie  together  [by  treaty,  Ac] 

Alliteration,  aVMt'S.ray*-elwm  not  a\Ut-e.ray''-8kun»     (One  t.) 
Latin  aZ  [ad]  UUfra  [words  or  lines  made]  to  a  letter. 

Allinnij  aV.UMfn  (Latin).    Garlic  and  similar  plants. 

AUochroite,  al.lok'-rS-ite.    Iron  garnet  which  is  iridescent. 

Greek  tUlos  efvrda,  [exhibiting]  different  colonrs. 
AlIocatQr,  aV-l6,kay*'tur.    Cost  allowed  in  a  law  suit 

Latin  al  [ad]  tocdtwr^  placed  to  one's  credit. 

Allodium,  ahld'-d^i-um,    A  free  tenure,  not  held  of  an  overlord. 
Norse  odd,  a  patrimonial  estate ;  Medieval  Latin  allodium. 

Allopathy,  aLlop'-a-rM.    Treatment  of  disease  by  antidotes. 

HoMXOPATHY.— Treatment  of  disease  by  what  causes  it.      "  Like 
coring  like,"  as  curbig  a  bum  by  /Mt  fomentations. 

Allopathist,  aLlop'M.rhXst.    One  who  practises  allopathy. 

Greek  alios  pathoi,  [medicine]  different  to  the  disease. 
Homeopathy  Iwmoioi  pathos,  [medicine]  like  the  disease. 

Allophane,  al\ld.fain.    A  mineral  whieh  changes  colour  before 
the  blowpipe. 
Greek  aUos  phain^omaij,  1  appear  of  different  [colours]. 

AUof ,  allott'-er,  allott'-ed,  allott'-ing,  allot'-ment.    (Rule  1.) 
Medieval  Latin  al  [ad]  lotto,  to  place  to  your  lot. 

Allow,  allow;  allowance,  allow'. ance;  allowable. 

French  allotur;  Latin  cU  [ad]  locdre,  to  place  to  your  share. 

Allude,  allood\    To  hint  at,  reference  to. 

Latin  oZ  [ad]  ludo,  to  play  towards  one  [wit^  nods  and  other  signs]. 

Allusion.  Verbs  ending  in  -d,  -de,  -s,  -se,  change  these  termina- 
tions to  -sion,  instead  of  -tion.  (Rule  xxxiii.)  This  word 
should  be  employed  only  for  vague  and  indirect  refer- 
ences :  thus,  **  Henry  V.  won  the  battle  of  Agincourt  '*  is  a 
positive  statement,  and  a  person  ought  not  to  say  "  the 
battle  alluded  to  was  fought  in  1415,"  but  the  battle 
referred  to. 

AUure,  allure';  allurement,  allured. ment    To  entiee,  &c. 
Latin  ai  [ad],  French  leurrer,  to  decoy. 


14  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 


Alluvium,  plu,  alluvia,  al.Wji)iMm,  al.lu\vi,ah. 
Latin  al  [ad]  hUfre^  to  wash  to  [the  hank  or  shore]. 

Ally,  phi,  allies,  oLU,  aldize",  allied  (2  syl.).  alli-anoe,  ally-ing. 
Alley,  aU.ley,  a  passage.  Allay,  al.lay't  to  set  at  rest,  tee 
Allay. 

Almanac,  oV.mojndk,    A  calendar  of  the  year.    (Bule  Iviii.) 
Arabic  al  manack,  the  computation ;  or,  Anglo  Sazpn  alm&naght. 

Almighty,  awLmigktf.y.    All-powerfoL    (Eule  Iviii.) 

Almon<^  aN.mvm*  not  aLmon\    The  nut  of  the  almond-tree. 
Greek  dmugdUUS  fdmugd'J;  French  amande;  Spanish  Cblmsndm. 

Almoner,  ah\m6,n^  not  aV.m6.n^.    One  who  diBpenses  alms. 
French  oumonier;  Med.  Lat.  oMMn&riut;  Old  Eng.  CB<me«-man. 

Almost,  oV.most  not  awl\most  (Bule  Iviii) 

Alms,  arms  not  alTfit^    Charity.    Both  singular  and  plural. 

"  Who,  seeing  Peter  and  John,  asked  an  alms  "  {Acti  m.  3). 

"  Thine  alms  are  come  up  for  a  memorial "  {Acts  x.  4). 

Anglo  Saxon  oJmes;  Old  English  oelmeMe/  NotmAn  aimoignea;  Latin 
eUemotyna;  Qreeik.  iU4md»ibnS  (de4m&n,  pitiful). 

Aloe,  phi.  aloes,  a^.o,  al'Mey  a  plant.    HaUoo,  plu>.  hallooB,  to 

shout,  shouts.     Hallow,  hal',lOt  to  hold  saored.     Hal€^ 

hay\lOy  a  "glory." 

''Aloe,"  Greek  aM,  the  aloe.   "Halloo,"  Low  Ger.  Aoito,  outcry. 
"Hallow,"  Old  Eng.  hdlig  [on],  to  hold  sacred.    "Halo/'  Greek 
halAt,  a  halo. 

Aloetic,  aV'6.ee'-txk  hot  aV-oM-ik.    Containing  aloes. 

Greek  cdoitik^.    The  postfix  -ic  means  "  pertaining  to."  To  ezpreia 
acids,  it  means  containing  the  most  oxygen  possible. 

Aloexylon,  aV-o.eex'-U'On  not  aV-o.&c'-U-on.    Wood  of  aloes. 

Greek  aloS  xtUan,  aloe  wood. 
Alopecurus,  a.lo'-p^.ku^-rus.    Fox-tail  grass,  &c, 

Greek  aldpifkds  oura,  fox's  taiL 
Alopecy,  a.ld'-pS-sy,    A  disease  of  the  hair. 

Greek  aUpildUk,  fox's  evil  (o  long,  e  short). 
Aloysia,  a,loy'-zS-ah.    The  Verbena  order  of  plants. 

Greek  aXouaia,  unwashed  ;  because  rain  does  not  wet  the  leaves. 

Alpaca,  al.pak^-dh.  Cloth  made  of  paco  hair.  The  paco  of 
SouUi  America  is  a  kind  of  camel  with  long  wooUy  hair. 

AlpMtldon,  aUfilf-i'dSn.    A  JEracture  with  the  bone  smashed. 

Greek  alphtUm,  bran  (the  bone  ground  like  branX 
Already,  oLred\p,    At  this  time,  in  time  past  (Bule  Iviii.) 
Alsine,  al^sVjn^  (Latin).    Chickweed,  mouse-ear,  isc, 
Alsinia,  aljSfjnMh.   The  "  alsme  "  or  chiskweed  groop  of  phMfes- 
Also,  oV,8S,    likewise,  in  like  manner  (Rule  Iviii) 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  16 

■  ..III 

»,  alao'-di^e.    The  Tiol«t  sub-order  of  plants. 
Greek  aUOdU,  woodlukl  plants. 

.  Alutmilft,  alaiSn'-i-dh,   The  Dogbane  tribe  of  plants.    So  name  I 
from  Charles  Alston,  a  Scotch  botanist    (1688-1760.) 

Alstonite,  al'MlSn^ite,    A  white  or  greyish  mineral,  found  in  the 
mmes  of  Alston  Moor,  in  Cumberland. 

Altar  (of  a  church).  Alter,  to  change  (Bule  Iviii.)    Halter. 

"Alttf,**  Celtic  alt;  OlA  Eng..  alter;  Latin  aXtdrt;  JCo. 
"  Halter,"  Old  Sng.  lujOfter,  a  halter  or  heacUtaU.  • 

Alteration,  oV-terjray^'than  not  clV -ter.ray-ihun  (Rule  IviiL) 

Alterative,  oV,fra.f(v  not  (U\terM.tiv.    A  medicine  to  change 
gradually  the  habits  of  the  body  (Rule  Iviii.) 
French  atterer,  alteratUm,  alUratif, 

Altercation,  <it-ter,kay''-8hun  not  <>l'-ter.ka/y'''Mkun, 
Latin  aUertik^  to  talk  one  against  another. 

Alternate,  at,t^,nate  (verb) ;  aLtef^.nate  (ac^ectiye).     Bule  L 

Altemative,  al,ter^-na-flv.    Choice  of  two  things. 
Latin  alter,  [if  not  one]  the  other. 

Although,  alLthdw  not  alLrhSw,    Notwithstanding  (B.  Iviii.) 

Altitude,  at.ti.tude  not  ot.tl.tude.    Height. 
Latin  oUKtHLdo,  from  JaMua,  high. 

Alto,  phi.  altOB,  at  to,  aV.toze.    Counter-tenor  (Bule  xlii.) 

Alto-relievo,  plu.  alto-relievos,  aV.tS  reV.td\vo  (reV.tW.vaze) 
not  al'.to  re.leev\o,  &c.    Term  in  sculpture  (Bule  xlii.) 

Alto-primo,  ^Zu.  alto-primos,  aV.topree'.mo  (pree'.moze). 

Alto-secnn'do,  plu.  alto-secnn'dos  (Bule  xlii.) 

Altogether,  alt-tS.geth'-er.    Wholly,  entirely  (Bule  Iviii.) 

Aludel,  a.W-del.    A^vessel  used  in  sublimation. 

Latin  a  hitum,  [a  pot  or  vessel]  without  late. 
Alumina,  al.loo\mX.n(ih.    Earth  containing  alum. 
Alumine,  a.loo'.mtn.    (Same  as  alumina.) 

Aluminium,  aV.oo.min''.X.um.     Metal  obtained  from  aluminia. 
The  gold-coloured  is  a  mixture  of  aluminium  and  copper. 
Latin  aJumen,  saltstone.    (The  u  is  long.) 
Aluminous,  a.loo\m%.nue.    In  Geology,  means  clayey. 

Aluminiun,  a.loo\m$.num.    The  metallic  base  of  clay. 

Alnnite,  aM>o\nite  not  (U\oo.nite.    Alum-stone. 

French  almn,  alum ;  Greek  lUhos,  a  stone. 
Alunogene,  a.loo'jri6.jene.    An  efflorescence  on  d^vip  walls. 

Fxmeh  aMui,  alom ;  Greek  gm6,  to  produce. 


16  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Alveary,  aV-ve.drp  not  al-vee'-a-ry.     The  hollow  of  the  ear. 
(The  "  a  "  in  ary  is  long  in  the  Latin  word.) 
Latin  cUvedrium,  a  bee-hive.    (Boles  Iv.  and  Ivii.) 
Alveolar,  aV.ve.o.lar  not  al.vee\8.lar.    Containing  sockets. 

Alveolus,  plu,  alveoli  (Latin),  aVJoS.oMSy  aV,vSJ6M. 

Not  al,vee\o.lu8f  nor  al.ve.dWut,    (Both  e  and  o  short.) 

The  hole  or  socket  of  a  tooth. 
No  such  word  as  alveola  used  by  Dr.  Mantell,  Wonden  of  Geology. 
Alveolite,  aV.ve.S.lite.    One  of  the  coral  groups. 
Always,  oV.wayz.    At  all  times,  for  ever  (Bule  IviiL) 

Alyssum,  a.W-8um.      Madwort,  &c.    [To  prevent  madness.] 

Greek  a  lus8(m,  preventive  of  madness  [from  the  bite  of  mad  dogs]. 
Am-  (prefix),  Latin  preposition  ad  before  the  letter  m. 

Am,  was,  been.    These  are  parts  of  three  distinct  verbs. 

Am.  is  Norse ;  Be  is  the  old  English  hed;  and  Was  is  the  old  Bnglish 
Moes  {an}  "  to  dwell."  Bed  is  Indicative  Mood,  and  he  is  still  used 
so  in  rural  districts  and  in  poetry. 

Amadou,  am\d.doo  not  am\d.d6w.    German  tinder. 

French  aTMhdou^  from  the  Latin  am.  [ad]  mMnus  duloe  (a'ma'duO. 
Amanita,  arnf'd.ni"'tah.    A  fungus  common  in  Amanus. 
Amanuensis,  plural  amanuenses,  a.man'-u.eTiP'SU,  'enf.8eez, 

Latin  a  manu  -eiiHs :  a  munu,  a  secretary ;  -ensis  (suffix)  office  of. 
Amaranth,  am'-d-ranth,  or  amaranthus,  am* -a.rarC -rhui, 

Greek  amaranthos,  the  unfading  flower  (a  ma,raino,  I  die  notX 
AmaranthacesB,   am'-d-rdn.Thay"-8e-e.     The   "  order "   of  the 
above ;  -acea,  added  to  plants,  denotes  an  "  order." 

Amaryllis,  plural  amaryllises,  am'-a.riV-liSy  (fee.    A  flower  so 
called  from  the  shepherdess  of  classic  pastorals. 

AmaryllidacesB,  am'-d.riV-li.day*'-ce-e,     The   "  order  " .  of  the 
above;  -acea^  added  to  plants,  denotes  an  *'  order." 

Amateur  (French),  am\a.ture\    One  who  'cultivates  an  art  or 
science  for  his  own  pleasure,  and  not  as  a  profession. 

Amaurosis,  a.maw.ro^sis.    Called  by  Milton  **  the  drop  serene.'* 
Greek  amauros,  blindness  [without  any  visible  defect  in  the  eye]. 

Amazon,  Am'.d.zon.    A  race  of  female  warriors.    Amazo''nian. 
(This  word  is  wrong  in  quantity,  the  second  "a"  is  long). 

Greek  amMZon,  without  a  breast.    The  right  pap  being  cut  off. 
Ambas'sador,  feminine  ambas'sadress,  not  embax^sadoVf  <fec. 

Fr.  airibassadeur ;  Med.  Lat.  amibascia ;  Celt.  ambacM,  a  servant. 
Ambas'sador  Extrao'rdinary,  plu.  Ambas'sadors  Eztrao'rdinaxy. 
Ambas'sador  Ple'nipoten"tiary,  plural  Ambas'sadors,  <feo. 
Ambergris,  anfJf^r.griss  not  am\hSr. grease.    Grey  amber. 

French  amhre  gris  (grey).    To  distinguish  it  from  the  noir  andiAun«. 


AND  OF  SPELLING,  17 

Amblyptems,  amMip\t^.ru8.    A  genos  of  fossil  fishes. 
Greek  amblua  pteron,  [fish  with]  obtuse  or  large  flos. 

Ambreiiie,  am\hrS.ln,    The  active  principle  of  amber. 

Ambreic  (acid),  ajnf.hrSXk  not  am.bre'ik,    (See  above.) 

Ambrosia,  am.hrd\z^Mh  not  am,hro\zhe,ah.    Food  of  the  gods. 
Greek  a  hrotoa,  not  mortal  [immortal  food]. 

Ambulacra,   am^'bu.lay^-krah.     Holes  in   the   crast  of  sea- 
urchins  through  which  their  "  walkers  "  protrude.  K* 
Latin  am^nildcra,  walking  places.  ^ 
Ambulatores,  am".hu.ld.t8,rez.     An  order  of  birds;  their  feet 
have  tiiree  toes  before  and  one  behind  (Rule  Iv.) 
Latin  ambulatdret^  walkers.    (The  o  is  long  in  the  Latin  word.) 

Ambuscade,  plu.  ambuscades ;  am\btu.kadef,  am',hu8.kddz\ 
Ambusca'do,  plu.  ambusca'does  (Spanish).    Rule  xhL 

Spanish  emJwsccur,  to  retire  into  the  thickest  ];>art  of  a  forest. 
Amenable,  a.mee'-nd'b'l  not  a-men'-a-h'L    Accountable. 

Italian  ammaincMre,  to  strike  sail ;  French  amener. 

Amend,  a.mend\  to  correct.    Amends,  satisfaction. 

French  omencZer,  to  amend ;  Latin  a  menda,  without  fault. 

Amende  honorable  (Fr.),  a-mend'  on''-o.rah''b'L    An  apology. 

Amenity,  a.mee'-ni'ty  not  a.men''i-ty.    Softness  of  climate. 

Latin  amanitoM,  agreeableness  of  climate  or  manners. 
AmentacesB,  a-men.tay''8^-e.    An  order  of  plants  with  catkins. 

Lat.  aTneniumy  a  catkin  or  thong ;  -dcece  ^suffix)  an  "  order"  of  plants. 
Ametabolia,  a.m€t''a.hol"-l'ah.    Insects  which  change  not. 

Greek  a  metahdle,  without  change  or  metamorphosis. 
Amethyst,  amf.^.Thist.    A  precious  stone  of  a  violet  colour. 

Greek  a  methHstdt,  preventive  of  drunkenness. 
Amianth  or  amianthus,  am' -tan" -Thus.    A  sort  of  asbestos. 

Greek  amicmtos,  that  which  does  not  contract  defilement. 
Amianthoid,  amf -l.an*' -rhoid.    Like  amianth.    (Rule  xlix:.) 

Greek  amianto-eidos,  like  amianthus. 
Amide,  am\ld.    A  chemical  substance  not  unlike  starch. 

Greek  am  [ulon]  -idis  (patronymic)  of  the  starch  family. 
AtwIHin  or  amidine,  amM.cWn.      The  soluble  part  of  starch. 
The  insoluble  part  is  called  amyline,  q.v, 

AmmocoBtes,  am'-mo.see'^-teez,  a  genus  of  sand-fi,shes. 

Greek  ammoa  koiti,  sand-bed  [fish]. 
Ammodytes,  amf-mo.dyf'-teez.    Sand-eels,  &c. 

Greek  ammoa  dvUs,  sand-divers. 
Ammonia,  am^md'-nt'-aK    Spirits  of  hartshorn.    (Double  m.) 
Ammoniacal,  am''mo.ni"'d-kdl  not  a''7nojni'''a-kdl,    (Double  m.) 

B 


% 


18  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Ammoniacnm,  am' -mo.ni^' -a-hum  not  a'-mo,ni*'-S-kum,    Gum  of 
the  Persian  plant  called  [dorema]  amTnonia^mm, 

Ammonite,  am^jno.nite.    A  family  of  fossils  resembling  a  ram's 
horn.    Ammon-ite,  like  [the  horns  of  Jupiter]  Ammon. 

AmmonitidaB,  am'-mo.nU'-i-de,    The  Ammonite  family  of  fossils. 
-ida  (Greek  patronymic  -idis),  of  the  family  or  race. 

.'.     Ammophila,  am.mof-%-lah.    Sand  wasps. 
<^  Greek  ammos  philedf  I  love  tho  sand. 

Ammunition,  am'-mu.nisW-on.    Military  stores. 
Latfn  am  [ad]  nmnitio  munitions  for  [war]. 

Amoeba,  a.mee'.bah.    The  lowest  type  of  animal  life. 
Greek  amoib^f  the  changeable  [animal]. 

Amomum,  a.m3\mum.    The  ginger  species  of  plants. 
Greek  amdntum,  ginger. 

Among,  a.mung'y  not  a.mong.    Old  English  amang. 

Amorphous  (rocks),  a.mor'.fus.    Having  no  definite  shape. 
Greek  a-morphos,  without  [definite]  form. 

Amorphozoa,  a.mor'-f5.zo'-dh.    Zoophytes,  like  sponges,  <feo. 
Greek  Or^norphos  z6a,  living  animals  without  [definite]  form. 

Amour  propre  (French),  a.m^oor'  propr.    Self-respect. 

Ampelic  (acid),  am'.pe.Uk.    Produced  from  coal  tar. 

Ampelin,  am'.p^.lin,    A  liquid  resembling  creosote. 

Ampelite,  am'.pe.lite.    Alum-slate. 

Greek  ampilis.  the  vine.    "Ampelite"  is  so  called  because  it  was 
used  by  the  ancients  for  destroying  the  vine-insects. 

Amphi-  (Greek  prefix).     "All round,"  "on  both  sides,'*  "doubt" 

Amphibia,  am.fib'-i-ah.    Animals  that  live  in  water  or  on  land. 

Greek  avyphi  hios,  having  life  both  [on  land  and  in  water]. 

Amphibichnites,   am'-JiMk"-nite8.     Animals   which  have   left 
their  footprints  in  certain  geological  rocks. 
Greek  amphibia  ichnos,  footprints  of  amphibia. 

Amphibolite,  am.jiV -o-lite.    Parts  of  amphibia  fossilised. 
Greek  amphiJbios  lithoSf  amphibia  [become]  stone. 

Amphibole,  am.Jib'-d-le,    Hornblende. 

Greek   amph4Mlds,  something  doubtful   [whether  hornblende   or 
augite.    It  being  difficult  to  distinguish  them]. 

Amphibology,  am'-fi-boV-d-j^.     Words  which  bear  two  inter- 
pretations, like  the  responses  of  the  ancient  oracles. 
Greek  amphibiflds  logos,  doubtful  words. 

Amphibrya,  amfiV-ri-ah.  Plants  which  grow  in  bulk,  not  height. 

Greek  amphi  bru6,  to  swell  all  round.    Those  which  grow  upwards, 
.  and  not  in  bulk,  are  aordgena. 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  19 

Amphigens,  am\fi-gen8.    Plants  which  grow  in  bulk,  not  height. 
Greek  amphi  gifnos,  growth  all  round  (like  lichens).  See  AorogenoUB. 

Amphitheatre,  am'-fLrhee^-a-t^.     A  circular  theatre.     (The 
"a"  is  long  in  the  Greek  word.)    Rule  Ivii. 
Greek  ampM  theatr&n,  a  theatre  all  round. 

Amphora,  ain\f6.rdh,     A  wine  vessel  with  two  handles. 
Greek  amphi  ph^eirif  [handles]  on  both  sides  to  cany  it  bj. 

Ample,  ajnf.p'l,  am'ple.nes8,  am'ply.    (Latin  amplutt  large.) 
Amplify,  amf.pU.fy,  am'plify-ing,  but  amplifies  (3  syl.),  am'pli- 
fied  (3  syl.),  am'plifi-er,  am^lifi-ca''tion.    (Rule  zi.) 
Latin  amplificdref  to  make  ample. . 

Ampulla,  am.puV.ldh  (Latin).    A  bottle  large  in  the  middle. 

Amulet,  am'M.let.    A  charm  worn  about  the  person.     (One  m.) 
Latin  cmvuUtum,  a  charm ;  a  molior,  to  drive  away  [evil]. 

Amuse^  a.muzef,  amuse'-ment,  amused'  (2  syl.),  amu'ses,  amu'ser, 

amus'-ing,  amus'-ingly,  amus'-ive,  amus'-ively.    (R.  xix.) 

French  am/user;  Latin  a  MuHs,  [to  turn]  from  the  Muses  or  study. 

Amygdalesd,  a-mig^daV-S-e,  A  family  of  plants  including  the 
peach,  apricot,  plum,  and  almond. 

Amygdalic  (acid),  a.mig'.ddMk,    Derived  from  amygdaline. 

Amygdaline,  a.inig'dd,V6n,  A  crystalline  principle  contained  in 
bitter  almonds. 

Amygdaloid,  a.mig' .da.loid.     Volcanic  rocks  with  almond-like 
cells  or  cavities  filled  with  foreign  substances. 
Greek  amugdalos  eidos,  almond-like. 

Amyl,  am\il,  or  amyline,  am'.il.Xn.    Insoluble  part  of  starch. 
The  soluble  part  is  called  amidine,  g.v. 
Greek  dny&lon,  starch. 

Amyridacesa,  am'  i-rtday^-se-e.    Plants  of  the  myrrh  kind. 
The  genus  am'yris  (Latin  myrrha,  myrrh),  is  type  of  the  order. 

An-  (prefix)  Latin  preposition  ad  before  n  ;  Greek  an  (privitive) 
before  a  vowel. 

-an  (suffix),  Latin  an-U8  "  belonging  to : "  as  Roman. 

An  (Article),  before  vowels  and  silent  h ;  also  before  h  aspirated, 
when  the  accent  of  the  word  is  not  on  the  first  syllable, 
as  "  a  his'tory,"  but  an  histor'ian.  On  the  other  hand, 
the  n  is  dropped  before  onef  and  also  before  eu  and  u 
pure,  as  many  a  one,  a  u-nit,  a  European. 

Anacathartic,  an^'d'kd.rhaT^'tlk  not  an'-d-ka.rhark"'tik, 

Greek  cma  katharsU,  purging  upwards  [through  mouth  and  nose]. 

Anacharis,  an.akf.d,  rU.    A  troublesome  river-weed. 
Greek  cma  chaHSf  out  of  favour,  a  nuisance. 


20  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 


Anachronism,  a.nak\ro.nizm.    A  chronological  error. 

Greek  ana  dvronos,  out  of  time. 
AnaBmia,  a,nee\ml,dh  not  a.nernfX,ah»    Deficiency  of  blood. 

Greek  an  aima,  without  blood. 
Anssmic,  ajnee\mih  not  a,nem\ik.     Blood-failing. 

AnsBstdiesia,  an.ece.Thee\ztdh.    Defect  of  the  sense  of  feeling. 
Greek  an  aisthSsia,  without  the  sense  of  feeling. 

Anagallis,  an'-a,gar.li8.    The  pimpernel  gronp  of  plants. 
Greek  a7iagela6,  to  laugh  heartily.    Supposed  cure  of  "  spleen.** 

Anagrammatio,  an'-a-gram.mat" -tlk  (double  m). 

Greek  ana  gramma,  transposition  of  letters. 
Analogue,  an'.drldg.    Something  analogous. 

Greek  analogos,  of  similar  proportion. 

Analogy,  a.7tal'.o,gy,  anal'og-ous,  anal'og-ously.  anaVogist,  anal'- 
ogism,  anal'ogis^,  anal'ogisingj  analogical,  anf-a.lqj"-i-kal^ 
analog'icaUy,  analog'icalness.    Kule  xi.) 
Latin  anaZogia,  analogic;  Greek  ana  Idgds,  similarity  of  words. 

Analysis,  plural  analyses,  amaV.y,8%s,  a,naV.y.8eez. 

Greek  anorlusU,  a  breaking  up.    The  opposite  process  is  syn'thSsis. 
Greek  ntfUJUfais  (sun  tithSiM),  a  putting  together  again. 

Analysable,  analysation  not  analyzdble,  analyzation. 

The  8  is  pf^rt  of  the  word  analysis  (liu6  not  luzd). 
Anamorphosis,  an'-a.mor^-fo-sU,    (Wrong  in  quantity,  Kule  Ivii) 
In  Natural  History ,  development. 

In  Botany  y  when  one  part  of  a  flower  assumes  the  appear- 
ance of  a  higher  principle. 
In  Perspective^  elongating  the  figure. 
Greek  ana  morpJidsis,  upward  shaping. 
Ananas,  a.nah'.ndz  (Brazilian  word).     The  pine-apple  species. 
Ananchytes,  an,an\ki.teez  not  an.anM'.teez,    Fairy  loaves,  &c, 

Greece  anamt68  cfv&ti  (gaia),  steep  mounds. 
Anandrous,  an,an\dru8.    In  Botany,  without  stamen. 

Greek  a/n  a/ndros,  without  a  male  or  stamen. 
Anastomose,  an.a8\t8.moze.    To  interlace  vessels.  &c, 

Greek  ana,  sUfma,  [to  insert  one  vessel]  up  the  mouth  [of  another]. 

Anastomosis,  an'a8''t6,md''-8l8,    Ij^  Botany j  union  of  vessels. 

Anathema,  plural  anathemas,  a.nath\^.mdhj  a.nath'.e.maits. 

Greek  ana-tMma,  a  thing  set  apart ;  hence  a  ban  of  the  church, 
which  sets  a  person  "apart "  from  church  fellowship. 

Anathematize  not  anatkematisey  a,nath\S.md.tize. 
Greek  ana-themdtixd,  to  make  accursed.    (Bule  zzzii.) 

^LnatidsB,  an,af,l.de.    Web-footed  birds,  as  swans,  geese,  ducks. 
Latin  andUs  -idee,  the  duck  family  (-idee,  a  patronymic) 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  21 


Anatomy,  a.natf.S.my,  anat'omist;  anat'omise,  not  anaifomize, 
anat'omised  (4  syl.),  anat'omiseT,  anat/omis-ing,  anat'o- 
mls-ation ;  anatomical,  anatomdcally. 
Iiatiii  andtdmej  anaUfmXcut ;  Greek  ana  Uhni,  a  catting  up. 

AnatroiMd,  a.naf.r^i.pal.    In  Botany ^  an  inverted  ovule. 
Greek  anartrSp6,  to  invert  [the  ovnle],  as  in  apple  blossoms. 

-ance  (suffix,  Latin  -ans).    Attached  to  verbal  nouns. 

There  are  nearly  800  words  with  this  termination,  and  not  one 
ending  in  the  more  correct  form  -ante. 

Ancestor,  fern,  ancestress,  an'^Ss.tih;  dtc,    A  predecessor. 
French  anceatres,  ancitrea;  Latin  ante  ces$or,  a  predecessor. 

Anchor,  an.kor  (of  a  ship).    Anker  (Dutch),  ten  gallons. 
Old  English  aneor;  Latin  anchdra;  Greek  a^k&Ufa,  hooked. 

Anchovy,  an'.cho,vy  not  an^cho\vy,    (In  Port,  anchdvy,) 

Ancient,  ai'nf.shent  not  an'^hent  nor  am'^hent,  of  old. 
The  Ancients,  plu.  People  of  the  olden  times. 
French  ancitn,  old ;  Italian  anziano ;  Latin  antiqutu. 

Ancile,  an,8i\le  (Latin).    The  sacred  shield  of  Mars. 
Ancillary,  an'MLld^ry  not  anMl'.ld.ry,    A  handmaid  (Bule  Iv.) 
Latin  andlla,  a  maidservant. 

Andintal,  an.8ip\ttdL    In  Botany,  two-edged. 

Latin  anceps^  andipitis,  two-edged  (am  caput,  head  both  sides). 

-ancy  (suffix,  Latin  -ans,  -antis).    Added  to  abstract  nouns. 

Ancyloceras,  an'-siJos^-e-rahs.    Fossils  curved  like  a  horn. 
Greek  agkulos,  curved  [like  a  horn].    (Greek  "  g "  before  k  =  n.) 

And  (a  copulative).    Hand  (of  the  human  body). 

"  And,*'  Old  English  and.    "  Hand,"  Old  EngUsh  hand. 

And  SO  forth,  et  caetera.    (Old  English  and  swd  forth.) 

Andante,  an.dan',te  (Italian).    In  Music,  moderately  slow. 

Andirons,  an'-d^-riSnz  not  hand'.i.on8.    Fire-dogs. 
Old  En^isfa  brandrisen,  iron  to  hold  a  brand  or  log. 

Androgynous,  an.drof.tnu8  not  an.dr5.jee\ni.u8,     (Botany.) 
Greek  anir  gunS,  man- woman.    (Male  and  female  flowers  united.) 

Android,  plu.  androides,  an\droid,  an.droi\deez.  An  automaton. 
Greek  andro-eidoa,  [an  automaton]  like  a  man. 

Andromeda,  An.drom\^.ddh.    Wild  Rosemary,  &c. 

Aa  Andromeda  pined  on  a  rock  snrrounded  hy  sea  monsters,  so  the 
plant  droops  its  head  in  swampy  places  amidst  reptiles. 

Anellides,  an.eV.ltde8y  or  anellids,  an'.SLlids.    Earth-worms. 

(All  these  words  should  be  spelt  with  one  n  and  double  {.    Latin 
andlu8,  a  little  ring.— Horace's  Satires,  II.  7-9.) 


22  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Anelytrous,  an,eV,y.trus  not  an,S,ly\tru9. 

Greek  an  HUUrdn,  [insects]  without  wing  sheaths. 

Anemone,  a.nem\6.n^  not  a.nen\o,me.    The  wind-flower. 
Plu.  anemones  not  anemonies  (Lat.  anemoncy  Bale  Ivii) 
Greek  anihn6Sy  wind.    These  flowers  love  a  free  open  space. 

Aneroid,  an\S.roid.      The  air  barometer,  which  has  no  mer- 
curial or  other  liquid  column.    (The  "  e  "  long  in  Greek.) 
Greek  a  nMfa  HdoK,  without  [a  column]  resembling  a  liquid  [column]. 

Anethnm,  a.nee'.Thum.     The  dill  genus  of  plants. 

Greek  an^thon,  dill :  and  thein,  to  run  upwards,  by  rapid  growth. 

Aneurism,  an\eu,rizm.    IMorbid  dilitation  of  an  artery. 
Greek  aneurilLnA,  to  stretch  or  dilate. 

Angel,  ain'.jelf  a  heavenly  being.     Angle,  an'.g\  a  comer. 

Angel'-ic,  angel^ical,  angel'-ically  (Rule  iii.  -el).    (This 

is  a  strong  example  of  the  perversity  of  English  spelling. 

Although  the  accent  is  on  the  -ei',  the  "1"  is  not  doubled. 

while  in  travel,  trai/elling,  (fee,  it  is  doubled,  although 

the  accent  is  on  the  first  syllable.) 

**  Angel,"  Greek  aggelos,  a  messenger.    (In  Greek  g  before  gr  =  '*  n." 
"Angle,"  Old  English  angel,  genitive  angles,  a  fish  hook. 

Angelica,  an.geV-l-kdh  not  an' -ge, lee". hah,    A  plant. 

So  called  from  the  "  angelic  "  virtues  of  its  seeds  and  root. 

Anger,  ang'.er,  angered  (2  syl.),  angering  (Rule  ii.) 
Old  English  ange,  vexation ;  Latin  angor,  sorrow. 

Angina,  an.ji.nah  (Latin).    A  disease  affecting  respiration. 

Angle,  a  comer.    Angel,  a  heavenly  being.    (See  Angel.) 

Anglican,  an'.gU.kan.    Belonging  to  England. 

Anglice,  an'.gltse  (adverb).    In  English. 

Anglicism,  an'.glttizm.    An  English  idiom. 

Anglicise,  Anglicised  (3  syl.),  Anglicis-ing.    (Note  s  not  z,) 
Anglo-  (prefix)  English :  as  Anglo -SeLx.on,  Anglo-1^ ormaji,  <fec. 

Old  English  Angel-/  as  angel-cyning,  the  English  Kg. :  angel-thedd, 
the  English  nation.    Angle  or  Engle,  the  Angles  or  English. 

Angnail,  not  agnail  nor  hangnail. 

Old  English  ang-ncegl,  a  nail-trouble.    Similarly  ang-hrei/gt^  a  chest- 
trouble  ^asthma),  ang-mo'd,  a  mind-trouble  (vexation). 

Angry  with  you,  not  "  angry  at  you,"    Angri-ly. 

Anhydrite  not  anhydrate,  an.hy'-drite ;  anhy'drons. 

The  "h"  is  needless.    The  Greek  is  anudria,  and  &vv^pos.    Greek 

an  hvdor,  without  water.    It  would  be  impossible,  in  Greek,  to 
express  by  letters  such  a  word  as  Anhydrite.    (Rule  Ixx.) 

Aniline,  an'.i.ftn.    An  oily  liquid  used  in  "  mauve  "  dyes. 
Arabic  anil,  indigo ;  from  which  it  may  be  obtained. 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  23 

Animalcdle,  plural  animalcnlea,  an'-ljmSV'kule,  an^-tmaV'-kUlz  ; 
or,  an'iinal''ciiliiin,  plural  an'imarcula. 
Latin  anXmal-ctU'um  (-culum,  a  diminutive). 

Anlmalise,  an'imalisa^'tion  (with  a  not  z,    Bule  xzxL) 

Anker,  ten  gallons.    Anchor  (of  a  ship).    {See  Anchor.) 

Ankle,  an,k'l    Part  of  the  leg.    (Old  English.) 

Annals  (no  singnlar).    History  arranged  by  years  (double  n). 
Latin  anncUis,  f xom  cmfMM,  a  year. 

Annates,  an'.nates,    First-firnits  on  presentation  to  a  living. 
Latin  awMu,  [the  valne  of  one]  year's  income. 

Annelida,  see  Anelida  (with  one  n). 

Annex,  an\nex  (noun),  an.nea^  (verb).    Rule  1. 
Latin  an  [ad]  neseus,  tied  to  [another  thing]. 

Annihilate,  a7i.m'.M{.a^«,  annihilated,  annibilat-ing,  annihilat-or, 
annihilation.    (Double  n.)    In  Latin  the  -ni-  is  short. 
Latin  an  [ad]  n^ilum,  [to  redace]  to  nothing. 

Anniversary,  plu,  anniyeisaiies,  an'-nuver"-sS-r^,    The  return 
of  the  time-of-the-year  at  which  an  event  happened. 
Latin  anntu  versus,  [the  time  of  the]  year  returned. 
Announce,  an-nounce'  not  a.nounce' ;  annonnce'ment. 

Frendi  annoneer;  Latin  an  [ad]  nund^,  to  tell  to  [others]. 
Annoy,  annoyance,  anmoy',  an,noy\ance  (Bule  xxiv.) 

Italian  annoiare  :  Latin  an  [ad]  nocto,  to  incommode. 
Annual.    Yearly.    In   compounds,  -ennial;  as  hi-ermial,  tri- 
ennialf  per-ennialf  &c,    (Double  n.)    Latin  annus. 

Annuitant.  One  who  receives  an  annuity.  The  i  in  tbe^e 
words  is  a  blunder  taken  from  the  French,  just  as  well 
write  annuilly. 

Annuity,  an.nu\l.ty  not  a.nu'.i.ty,    A  yearly  payment. 

French  annuUd;  Latin  awn/uMim,  yearly,  ann%LaUa. 
Annul',  annull'-er,  annulled'  (2  syl.),  annull'-ing.    (Rule  1.) 

French  annuller  ;  Latin  an  [ad]  nullum,  [to  bring]  to  nothing. 

Annular  not  annz^^r;  annulated;  Skmn]loBe,an'.nu.loze;  annu- 
losa,  an.nu.lo'.8a.    Earth-worms,  (fee,  composed  of  rings. 
Latin  anniilus,  a  ring ;  annularius,  ringed,  full  of  rings. 
Annunciate,  an.nun^sh^.ate  not  a.nun^she.ate ;  annunciator. 

Latin  an  [ad]  nuncidre,  to  cany  tidings  to  one. 
Anode,  an\ode.    The  positive  pole  of  a  voltaic  battery.    (The 
opposite  pole  is  called  the  Cathode.)    Rule  Ixx. 
Greek  aiuirddos,  the  way  up  ;  kata-odos,  the  way  down  (JiodosJ. 
Anodon,  plu.  anodons  or  anodonta,  an\5.don,  <fec.    The  river 
mussel. 
Oreek  an  ddontoi,  without  teeth. 


24  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Anodyne,  an\8.dine,    A  medicine  to  relieve  pain. 
Greek  an  ddHni,  destroyer  of  pain. 

Anoint,  an.oint'  not  a.noinf.    (Note  only  one  n.) 
Norman-French  enoindre  ;  Latin  inungo^  to  anoint. 

Anomaly,  plural  anomalies,  a.nom'M.ly,  a.nom\a,Uz,    In  tfae 
Greek  word  the  o  is  long,  to  compensate  for  the  lost  h, 
Greek  andmalos,  irregular  {h&mdlds,  like).    £ule  Ixx. 

Anomopteris,  an'-6.m8p"-te-ri8.    Fossil  ferns. 
Greek  andmos  pUhris,  anomalous  fern. 

Anonymous,  a.non\y.rrms.    The  name  suppressed. 
Latin  anonymxu  ;  Greek  an  dnifma,  ^thout  a  name. 

Anoplotherium,  plu.  anoplotheria,  arC-op-lo.Thee'-ri-um,  an'-op- 
lo.Theef-ri-dh,      An   extinct  quadruped   without  horns, 
tusks,  claws,  or  other  weapons  of  defence.     (Rule  Ixx.) 
Greek  andplds,  unarmed  (an  kSplos,  but  AvorXos,  without  h). 
-anse.     No  word  in  the  language  has  this  terminadoD. 
Anserine,  an^s^.rine.    Of  the  goose  tribe.    (Lat.  anser,  a  goose.) 

-ant  (Latin  participle  sufl&x).      **  A  "  is  merely  the  vowel  copula 
of  words  beloDging  to  the  first  conjugation. 

Ant-  (Greek  prefix),  contraction  of  antL    "  Opposite  to." 

Ant,  dntj  an  insect.    Aunt,  a  relation.    Haunt,  plaee  of  resort. 

"Ant,"  corruption  of  Old  English  asmete  fcem'tj,  an  emmet. 
"Aunt,"  corruption  of  Latin  amita  fam'tj,  an  aunt. 
"  Haunt,"  French  hanter^  to  frequent  a  house  or  place. 

Antacid,  ant-a^-ld  not  an'-tta^^-id.    Acid  counteracter. 

Antacrid,  ant-ahf-rid  not  an'-ttak'-rid.    Acrid  counteracter. 

Antarctic,  ant.ar¥.tlk  not  an.tar^.tic.     Opposite  the  arctic. 

Greek  anti  arktos,  opposite  the  Northern  Bear. 
Ante-  (Latin  prefix),  "  before,"  as  antedate. 

Antecede,  an\tS.ceed  (not  one  of  the  3  m-ceed).    Rule  xxvii. 

Antecedent,  antecedence,  not  antecedant,  antecedance. 
Latin  ante  cecUfre,  to  go  before.    (Not  of  the  Ist  conjugation.) 

Antediluvian,  an''t^-di.lu".vtan.    Existing  before  the  Deluge. 
Latin  ante  dllUvium,  before  the  Deluge. 

Antelope,  avf.t^.lope,    A  corruption  of  antholope. 

Greek  anthos  ops,  beautiful  eye. 
Antemeridian,  an''te.me-rid"-i-an.    Before  noon. 

Latin  antimiridianus. 
Antenna,  plural  antenna  (Latin).    The  feelers  of  insects. 

Anten'ula,  plu.  anten'ulsd  (Latin)  diminutive. 

The  singular,  antenna,  is  veiy  rarely  used. 


AND  OF  SPELLING,  25 

Antepenult,  an'-t^-p^-nulf  not  an'-t^.pee''-mUt, 

Latin  anti fOnif  lUHmtu,  before  the  almost  last  (syL) 

Pene  uUimtu,  the  laat-but-one ;  ante  penultimtu,  the  last-but-two. 

Anthelion,  phi,  Anthelia,  ant.Jiee\U,ah.    A  bright  spot  opposite 

the  sun.     The  *'  h  "  is  needless.     (Rule  Ixx.) 

Oreek  antSlios,  dvri^Xios  (anti  MUoSf  opposite  the  son). 

Anthelix,  anth\S.lix,  The  part  of  the  ear  opposite  the  "  helix." 
The  th  of  this  word  belongs  to  the  first  syl.    (Rule  Ixx.) 

^them,  an'.rhem,  A  corruption  of  the  Old  English  antefen 
(anVfen,  anfem)j  same  as  antiphorij  Greek  antiphdnSs, 
sounds  or  Toices  from  opposite  choirs.  Anthym  (anti- 
humnos)  might  he  "  a  hymn  sung  by  two  opposite  choirs," 
but  anthem  can  only  be  Greek  anthemU^  avdefds,  q.v. 

Anthemis,  anWh^.mU,    Chamomile  and  its  group  of  plants. 

Greek  antMrniSf  verb  anthiA,  I  blossom  [abundantly]. 
Anfherozoides,  an'-rh&r'd.zoi^^'deez,    life-giving  corpuscules  of 
algse,  ferns,  mosses,  and  lichens  {li'.kenz), 

Greek  aidher  mi-eidoa,  life-like  anthers. 
Anfhesis,  an.rhee'Ms  not  an\ThSM8,    In  Botany, 

Greek  amXh^aiSf  the  bursting  or  opening  of  a  flower. 
Anfhodium,  an,TW ,d\,um.    The  flower-head  of  comp.  plants. 

Greek  amlMdia,  fall  of  florets  (amthoa  duo,  I  put  on  flowers). 
Anfholites,  an',ThS,Ute8.    Fossil  impressions  of  flowei*s. 

Greek  <mtho8  litha$,  fossil  or  stone  flower. 
Anthophore,  an'.rho.fore.  The  column  which  supports  the  petals. 

Greek  antho-p?ioros,  the  flower  supporter. 
Anthophylite,  an.Thof\U.ite.     Species  of  hornblende. 

Greek  anthophulUm,  a  clove  (which  it  resembles  in  colour). 
Anthozoa,  an''Tho.zo"-ah,    Sea-anemones,  &c. 

Greek  anthos  z6a,  flower  animals. 
Anthracite,  an^rhrajiite,    Cannel-coal  (Greek  anthrax,  coal). 
Anthracosanrus,   plural   anthracosauri)    an'-Thrdk-o.8aw"-ril.<t. 

Anthracosaur,  plural  anthracosaurs.     An  extinct  saurian. 

Greek  aiUhrax  sauros,  lizard  of  the  coal-measures. 
Anthracotherium,  an'-Thrdk-5.Thee'-ri-um.    An  extinct  beast. 

Greek  anthrax  thirlon,  a  wild  beast  of  the  coal-measures. 
Anthrakerpeton,  an^-Thray.ker".pe-ton.    An  extinct  reptile. 

Greek  anthrax  erpeton,  a  reptile  of  the  coal-measures. 
Anthropophagi  (plural),  an'-Thro.pof'-a-ji.    Cannibals. 

Greek  anthrdpot  pfiagein,  to  eat  men. 
Anti-  (Greek  prefix), "  opposed  to,"  "the  opposite  of: "  as  anfidote. 

See  Ante-. 
Antichrist,  an'-ti.krist.    A  false  Christ,  a  foe  to  Christ. 

Greek  anti  ChrUtos,  antagonist  of  Christ. 


26  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 


Anticipate,  an.tiss'.tpate.      To  forestall.     Anticipat-ing,  anti- 
cipation, anticipator,  anticipa'tory. 

Latin  anticipdre  (ante  capifrej,  to  take  beforehand.  This  word  and 
cmtiquarian,  antiquity,  Ac,  are  the  only  instances  of  anii-  signi- 
fying b^ore  in  time,  fante-J,  instead  of  antagowistic  (anti-). 

Anticlinal,  an'-ti.kW-naL    (Geology,)    Applied  to  strata. 

Greek  anti  Minein,  [strata]  dipping  in  opposite  directions. 
Anticolic  not  anticholic,    (Latin  colic  [us  J), 
Antipathy,  plu.  antipathies,  an.tijp'.a.Thy^  an.tip'.a.TMz. 

Greek  anti  patMs,  a  feeling  repugnant  to  [something]. 
Antiphonal,   an,tif\o.naL      Eesponsive   or   alternate   singing. 
(This  word  ought  to  be  an,ti.fo'-naL    An,tif*-5-nal  means 
"mutual  slaughter" — dvri'tpSvos.) 
Greek  anti  pkdnos,  6jrri-<l>(OP0St  responsive  singing. 

Antiphrasis,  anM/'-rdsis,    Irony. 

Greek  anti  phrdsis,  [meaning]  opposite  to  the  words  expressed. 
Antipode,  plu.  antipodes,  an'-tl-pode  ;  anMp'-o-deez, 

Greek  anti  podoi,  [people  whose  feet  are]  opposite  to  our  feet 

Antiquary,  an'.ttqua.ry.  A  person  fond  of  antiquities.  Not 
antiquarian  which  is  an  adjective. 

Antiqnate,  an'.ti.quate,  an'dquated,  an'tiquating. 

Antique  (Fr.),  an.teeJsf;  antiquely,  an.teek'.ly  ;  antiqneness. 

Antiquity  (former  ages),   plu,  antiquities,  an,tikf.tDt.tiz, 

Relics  of  olden  times. 
Latin  antiqua^tis,  from  ante  before ;  anticus,  one  before  ns. 

Antiseptic,  an^-ti^ep"-tlk  not  an'-tLskep^-tic,  "Antiseptic'* 
means  a  preventive  of  putridity,  but  "  anti^keptic  "  would 
mean  oue  who  is  not  sceptical  or  a  disbeliever. 

Greek  anti  af-ptikos,  opposed  to  putridity  ((rijircy). 

Antithesis,  plural  antitheses,  an,tith\^.8i8,  an.tith\S.seez, 

Greek  anti  thisiSy  words  set  in  contrast. 
Anvil,  an',vil.    A  smith's  iron  block,    (Old  Eng.  anfilt.  an  anvil.) 
Anxiety,  plu.  anxieties,  anx.l'.SMz.    Distress  of  mind. 

Anxious,  angk'.shus;  anxiousness,  anxiously. 

Latin  anxietaa,  arurius,  from  anxi,  I  have  vexed. 

Any,  en'.ny  not  an'.ny.    Old  English  enig  or  cenig. 

Aorta,  a.or^.tah.    The  great  or  trunk  artery.    (Greek  aorti.) 

Ap-  (prefix),  Latin  preposition  ad  before  p. 

Apartment,  a.part'.ment  (with  one  p).    A  room  set  "  apart.** 

The   corresponding  French  word  has  double  "p"  appartemaid; 
ap  [ad]  parti,  parted  off  for  you. 

Apathy,  ajj'.a.r/i^r;  apathetic,  op'.a.TTwf.tfc.  Without  sympathy. 
Greek  a  pdtMs,  without  passion  or  emotion  of  mind. 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  27 

Apatite,  ap*.a.Hte,  a  phosphate  of  lime.    Appetite  (for  food). 

"Apatite,"  Greek  (Mpati,  deceit ;  so  celled  because  it  appears  in  every 

TuAetj  of  colour  and  form,  so  that  it  ia  often  mistaken. 
"Appetite,"  Latin  ap  [ad]  petitus  (appito,  to  seek  for  [food])t. 

Ape,  male  dog-ape,  female  hitch-ape.     (Old  Eng.  opa,  an  ape.) 

Apennine,  Ap\^.nine,    A  range  of  mountains  in  Italy. 

Latin  Apenniiws.    (Single  p,  double  n. ) 
Aperient,  a,pee'.ri,ent,    (The  "  e  "  of  this  word  is  short  in  Latin.) 

Latin  ap^Hent,  opening.    (A  laxative  medicine.  X 
Aperture,  ap\er,ture.    An  opening.    (Only  one  p.) 

Latin  dpertura,  (dp^rio,  to  open). 
Apex,  plu,  apexes  or  apices ;  a.pext  pin.  a\pex.es  or  ap'X,9eez, 

Latin  apex,  plural  dplces,  the  summit  of  ansrthing.  ^ 
Aphelion,  plural  aphelia ;  af,hee'.U.ony  af.hee\ltdh.    The  posi- 
tion of  a  planet  when  it  is  furthest  from  the  sun.    Peri- 
helion is  its  position  when  nearest  to  the  sun. 
Greek  apo  hilios,  away  from  the  sun.     Peri,  near.    (In  Greek  it 
would  be  ap6lion,  similar  to  dTrf\t(irr7js  not  diprjXuanji.) 

Aphis,  plwal  aphides,  a'.fis,  afXdeez,    The  plant-louse.    (Lat.) 

Aphorism,  af\S.rizm,    A  maxim  expressed  with  antithesis. 

Greek  aphdrismds,  distinction  {aphorizd,  to  separate). 
Apiary,  plu,  apiaries,  ap\l.a.riz,    A  place  for  bees  (Eule  Iv.) 

Latin  dpidrivm  (dpis,  a  bee). 
Apiocrinite,  ap'-%.ok''-ri-nite,    A  fossil  sea-lily  or  "  eu'crinite." 

Greek  apion  krinon,  pear  [shaped]  lily  [zoOphyte]. 
Apo-  (prefix)  Greek  preposition,  equivalent  to  the  Latin  "ab,"  q,v. 

Apocalypse,  a-poh^MMps.    The  Book  of  the  Revelation. 

Greek  apokalupsia,  from  apo  kaluptd,  to  un-cover  or  reveal. 
Apocrypha,  apok.ri.fdh.    The  uncanonical  Scriptures. 

Greek  apo  hrS^ha,  things  hidden  from  [the  general]. 
Apocryphal,  a,pokf.ri.fdl.    Belonging  to  the  Apocrypha,  false. 

Apode,  ap\ode.  Fish  without  ventral  fins,  like  sword-fish,  eels,  &c. 

Greek  a  podoi,  without  feet  (or  ventral  fins). 
Apodons,  ap\o.d&n8.    A  generic  name  for  "  apodes  "  (ap'.odes). 

Apogee,  ap\5.jee.    That  point  in  a  planet's  orbit  fiirthest  from 
our  earth.    (The  point  nearest  to  our  earth  is  the  perigee). 

Greek  apo  g4,  away  from  the  earth  {peri  ge,  near  the  earth). 
Apollyon,  A.poV.yon,    The  destroyer  {Rev.  ix.  11). 

Greek  apolliian,  destroying  (Angel  of  the  bottomless  jAt). 

Apology,  plu.  apologies,  a.poV.o^iz,  excuses ;  aporogist. 
Apologetdc,  apologet'ical,  apologet'ically,  apologet'ics. 
Apologize,  apologized,  &c.  (Greek  apo-logizomai.  R.  xxxii.) 
Greek  apdldgia,  an  excuse ;  Latin  apolog€ticii8,  apologetic. 


28  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Apophthegm  not  apothegm,  ap'-S.Them.    A  sententicnis  raying. 

Greek  apo  phtMgma,  [a  Baying  made]  by  a  word. 
Apoplexy,  ap'.S.plex.y,     Suspension  of  the  action  of  the  brain. 

Greek  apopUxia  (apo  pliktos,  one  struck  by  a  fit): 
Apostasy  not  apostacy,  a.po8\td.8y.    Falling  off  from  the  faith. 

Greek  apostdsia  (apo  stasis,  a  standing  away  from  the  faith.) 
Apostatize  not  apostatise,  a.pos\ta-tize.  To  become  apostate. 

Greek  apo  stdtizd,  to  place  oneself  away  from  [the  faith]. 

A  posteriori  (Lat.)  a  po8.ter'ry.d".ri.  Causes  inferred  from  effects. 
(The  opposite  is  a  priori,  effects  predicated  from  known 
causes.  Natural  Philosophy,  being  based  on  data,  is  an 
example  of  the  former ;  Mathematics  of  the  latter.) 

Apostolic,  a.pos.toVXk  not  a.pos^t'lMj  adjective  of  apostle. 

Greek  apostolikos  (apostdlos,  apo  stelo,  to  send  off  on  a  message). 
Apostrophe,  plu.  apostrophes  (Greek),  a.pos'.tro.f^,  a.pos\tro.fiz, 
Apos'trophise,  apos'trophised  (4  syl.),  apos'trophising. 

Greek  apoetropM.    ("Apostrophise  "  is  not  a  Greek  word.    B.  xxxiii.) 
Apothecary,  plu.  apothecaries,  a.poth'.e.ka.riz,     A  druggist. 

Greek  apoihikS,  a  place  for  stores.    "  Apothecary  "  a  drug-storer. 

Apotheosis,  generally  called  ap'-o-rheco^'-siSj  but  more  correctly 
ap'-o.Th^-o'\8is  (ixoOiwa-is).    Deification. 
Greek  apo  the6sis,  [placed  with  the  gods]  by  deification. 
Appal,  appalled  (2  syl.),  appall-ing,  appall-ingly.     (Rule  1.) 
(This  word  would  be  better  with  double  "I" — appalL) 
Latin  ap  [ad]  pall  [co],  to  turn  very  pale. 
Appanage,  ap'.pa.ndje.    Lands  assigned  to  younger  sons. 

Med.  Lat.  ap  [a,d\  pandgium,  f  br  maintenance  (pants,  bread). 
In  French  one  "  p,"  apanage. 

Apparatus,  ap' -pa.ra" -tiis  not  ap* -pa.raf -us  nor  a-par^rat-us, 

Latin  ad  [ad]  pardtvs,  [instruments]  prepared  for  [experiments]. 
Apparel,  apparelled  (3  syl.),  apparell-ing.     (Rule  iii  -el.) 

French  appareU  ;  Latin  ojp  [ad]  paro,  to  dress  thoroughly. 
Apparent,  ap.pair^.ent  not  a.pair\ent.    Evident. 

Latin  ap  [ad]  parens,  parentlis],  visible  to  [men]. 
Appeal,  ap.peaV  not  a.peaV,    To  refer  to  a  higher  court. 

Latin  ap  [ad]  pelldre,  to  drive  or  refer  to  [another  court]. 

Appearance.     (The  spelling  of  this  word  is  quite  indefensible.) 
It  ought  to  be  appearence,  as  "  apparent." 
Latin  ap  [ad] parens;  Med.  Latin  apparentia;  French  apparence. 
Appease,  ap.peez'  not  a'.peez*.    To  pacify.     (Double^.) 

Latin  ap  [ad]  pac^fico  ;  French  one  "  p,"  apaiser  (pax,  peace). 
Appellant,  ap.peV.lanU    One  who  removes  his  suit  to  a  higher 
court. 
Latin  ap  [ad]  peilo.    Medieval  Latin  appellans  (a  noun). 


AND  OF  SPELLTNG.  29 

Appendage,  ap.pen\dage  not  a.  pen'.dage.    Something  added. 
Medieval  Latin  ap  [ad]  peridUia,  hong  on  to  [something  else]. 

Appendant,  appendance.  (These  words  ought  to  he  appendent, 
appendence,  as  dependent,  dependence,  independent,  inde- 
pendence, pendent,  impendent.) 

Latin  ap  [ad]  pendent,  hanging  on  to  [something]. 

Appen'dix,  plural  appen'dixes  or  appen'dices  (4  syl.)    A  sup- 
plement. 
Latin  appendix,  plural  appendices  (4  B7I.) 

Appetite,  ap\p^.tite.    Natural  desire  for  food.    {See  Apatite.; 
Latin  ap  [ad]  petUua  (ap-peto,  to  seek  for  [food]). 

Applaud,  ap.plawd'  not  a.plawd^.    To  praise  hy  clapping  hands. 
Applause,  ap.plawz'  not  a.plawz'.    To  clap  the  hands. 
Latin  ap  [ad]  plavdo,  to  clap  the  hands  [in  approval]. 

Applicahle,  ap\pVLkd.b'l  not  a.pli¥.a.b'le,    Suitahle. 
Latin  ap  [ad]  plicaMlia,  fit  to  be  folded  to  [something]. 

Apply,  applies  (2  syl.),  applied  (2  syl.),  applier,  appli-able,  appli- 
ance, appli-cahle,  appli-cability,  but  apply -ing. 

Latin  ap  [ad]  plico,  to  fold  to  (or)  against  something. 
To  "apply  a  blister,'*  is  to  fold  it  to  the  skin.    To  "apply  to  your 
books,"  is  to  fold  your  attention  or  thoughts  on  them. 

Appoggiatora,  aj^-pof-ja.til"-rdh  not  a-podg'-y-too^-rah.  A 
grace-note  m  Music,     (Italian.) 

Italian  appoggiare,  to  lean  on  something.    A  grace-note  "leans  on  " 
the  note  preceding  it. 

Appoint,  ap.poinf  not  S.poinf  ;  appointment  (double  p). 

French  appointer,  to  give  a  salary  to  a  person. 
(It  is  incorrect  to  say  a  person  is  "  appointed  "  on  a  committee  or 
board,  if  no  "pay'*  is  attached  to  the  office.) 

Apportioned,  appor^^shund  not  a.pot'jihtmd.    Assigned. 
Latin  ap  [ad]  partio,  [to  give]  to  one  his  portion. 

Apposite,  ap\po.zite.    To  the  point.    In  Grammar,  an  amplifi- 
cation without  a  connecting  word:  as  "  Victoiia,  daughter 
[of  the  duke  of  Kent]. 
Latin  ap  [ad]  poHtus,  placed  (or)  put  to  [the  other]. 

Appreciate,  ap.pree'.8he.ate  not  d.pree'.8he.ate, 

Fr.  appredvr.   Lat  ap  [ad]  prtiiiuin,  [to  value]  according  to  its  price. 

Apprehend,  ap.pre.hend',  apprehend-er,  apprehend-ing  (from  the 
root),  apprehens-ible,  apprehens-ion,  apprehens-ive  (from 
the  supine). 
Latin  ap  [ad]  prehend-^re,  appreheM-um,  to  seize  on. 

Apprentice,  ap.pren\ti8  not  d.pren\tlz.    One  bound  to  a  trade. 

French  apprenti,  a  learner  {apprendre,  to  learn) ;  Latin  apprehendo 
or  apjfrmdo,  to  learn. 


30  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Apprise,  ap.prizef.    To  inform,  to  give  one  notice  of  [something]. 

French  appris,  participle  of  apprendre,  to  learn. 
Approach,  ap.proctch'  not  d.proacK ;  approacliable. 

French  approcher  (proche,  near),  to  draw  near. 
Approbation,  ap'-pro.hay"'Shun.    Approval.    (Double  p.) 

Latin  ap  [ad]  prohdtio,  proof  or  satisfaction  given  to  [the  judgment]. 
Appropriate,  ap.pro\pri.ate  not  a.pro\pH.ate  ;  appropriator. 

French  approprier,    Latin  ap  [ad]  proprius,  [to  take]  to  one's  self. 
Approve,  ap.proov*  not  a.proov\    To  admit  the  propriety  ofl 

Latin  ap  [ad]  proho^  to  prove  to  (or)  satisfy  [the  judgment]. 
Approximate,  ap.proa^ .Inmate  not  S>.proz\tmate. 

Latin  ap  [ad]  progdmarey  to  draw  next  to  some  one. 
Appui,  ap\pwe\    (In  honemanship)  reciprocity  between  horse 
and  rider.    If  the  mouth  of  the  horse  answers  readily  to 
the  bit,  the  horse  has  a  good  appui.    If  the  rider  manages 
his  reins  skilfully,  he  has  a  good  appui. 

French  appui,  a  support  or  fulcrum  ;  the  two  ends  of  the  lever  are 
the  reins  and  bit,  the  power  is  applied  by  the  hand  of  the  rider, 
the  fulcrum  is  the  comer  of  the  horse's  mouth.  "Appui"  is  a 
nice  adjustment  of  power  in  the  rider,  and  a  sensitive  response  in 
the  mouth  of  the  horse. 

Appurtenance,  ap.pw/ .tS.nance  not  a.pwr^ .tS.nance.     (The  spell- 
ing of  this  word  is  quite  indefensible.) 
Latin  ap  [ad]  pertinenSt  pertaining  to ;  French  appartejianot. 
A  priori  (Latin),  a  pri.o\ri.    Premising  the  effects  of  a  cause. 

In  Mathematics^  we  argue  a  priori :  thus,  knowing  the 
value  of  2  and  4,  we  conclude  that  2x4=  8,  4-^2  =  2. 

In  Natural  Philosophy  we  proceed  the  other  way  (a  poste- 
riori) :  thus,  we  find  all  unsupported  bodies  fall  to  the 
earth,  and  from  this  fact  we  assume  there  is  a  power  in 
the  earth  to  cause  it.     The  power  we  call  "  gravitation." 

Apron,  a\pron  not  a\pun.  "  An  apron  "  corruption  of  a  nape- 
ron  (French),  a  large  cloth  (nappe^  a  table-cloth). 

Apse  CI  syl.)  of  a  church.  The  bay  or  curved  part  behind  the 
altar.     This  word  ought  to  he  hapse  (Greek  d^/j.) 

Apsis,  plu.  apsides,  ap'.sis,  ap'.si.deez.  Two  points  in  the  orbit 
of  planets,  one  nearest  the  sun,  and  the  other  furthest 
off.    (This  word  ought  to  he  hapsis,  hapsides.) 

Greek  hapsis^  a  hoop,  arch,  bow  {jkrj/ls). 

Aptera,   ap'.tS.ruh.     Wingless  insects,  as  spiders,  fleas,  &c. 
(For  the  singular  we  use  the  word  ap'teran.) 
Greek  a  ptira,  without  wings. 
Aquatic,  a.quat'.ik.    Pertaining  to  water,  living  in  water. 
(In  Latin,  the  second  "  a  "  of  this  word  is  long.) 
Ijatin  agudtictta,  aquatic  (aqua,  water). 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  81 

Aquazinm,  plural  aqnaria  or  aqnaiimns.  Cases  for  the  exhi- 
bition  of  marine  animals  and  plants.  (Thii  word  should 
be  aqna-Ylvarium,  as  the  Latin  word  **  aquarium  "  means 
a  "place  for  watering  cattle,*') 

Aqnednet,  not  aquaduc  nor  aquaduct,  a'.qu^.duct. 

Latin  aqw^-dudtu,  a  duct  or  conduit  for  water.     (Aquse,  gen.  case.) 

Aqueous,  a\qtte.us.  Watery.  (Latin  ?  aqu^.)  (Note,  ague  not 
aqua,)    {The  spelling  of  this  word  is  indefensible.) 

Aquilegia,  a'-quLlee^-gi-ah.    The  Columbine  plants. 

(This  word  is  most  improper  to  express  "An  eagle-like 

plant"    It  exists  in Latin^  and  means  " vessels  to  collect 

water  **  (aqua-lego).   Aqui,  a  cont.  of  the  old  foiTU  aqtuii.) 

Xatin  aquila,  an  eagle ;  from  a  fanciful  resemblance  of  the  flower  to 
eagle's  claws.  "  Columbine  "  is  from  Columba,  a  dove  ;  from  a 
limilar  resemblance  to  the  claws  of  a  pigeoa.  Probably  it  is  a 
corruption  of  aquila-chilea—cheU,  a  bird's  claw  (the  eagle'i-claw). 

Aquiline,  a1(f.qut,line.    Hooked  like  an  eagle's  beak. 
Latin  dquiliniia,  like  an  ei^le  {dgvXla,  an  eagle). 

Ar-  (prefix)  is  the  Latin  preposition  ad  before  r. 

■Mr,  (termination)  of  adjectives  is  the  Latin  -r[t»]  preceded  by 
**a,"  as  vulgar,  ** pertaining  to**  the  vulgus  (mob). 

-«r,  termination  of  native  nouns,  "  agents  " — beggar. 

Aiabeiqne,  Ar^.a.hesk.   Moorish  ornamentation. 
•esque  (French  postfix  for  like\  Arab-like. 

Arabic,  Ar'r&.blk  not  A.rah'.&k.    The  Arabian  language,  from 
Arabia,  Arabian  :  as  gum-arabic. 

Arable,  ar'ra.b'l.    Fit  for  tillage,  cultivated  by  the  plough. 
(This  word  in  Latin  has  the  second  "  a  "  long.) 
Latin  eurdbttis  (verb  arare,  to  plough).  It  is  the  long  a  of  the  1st  conj. 

Arachnoid,  a.rakfnoid.    A  membrane   of  the  brain   fine  and 
delicate  as  a  cobweb.     In  Botany,  soft  downy  fibres. 
Greek  aracni^eidos,  like  a  cobweb. 

AraneideB,  a.rain'.Ldeez,    The  spider  family. 

The  genus  is  called  arachnida,  d.rakf.ntdah. 
latin  ardneoridds,  the  spider  family. 

Arbitrary,  ar^.bi.trar"rp  not  af^.btter"ry.    Dogmatic. 

Latin  arhitrarius  (dra  Mto,  to  go  to  the  altar  to  give  judgment.  In 
swearing,  the  Romans  touched  the  horns  of  the  altar,  hence  the 
phrase  tuque  ad  aras,  to  assert  on  oath). 

Arbitrarily,  ar^.bl.trai^ry.ly  not  aj^M.ter"ry.ly.    Dogmatically. 

Arbitrator,  feminine  arbitratriz.    An  umpire  (Law  Latin). 

Arboretum,  plu.  arboreta,   ar'-bosee^-tum,  ar'-bcree'^tah.     A 
pleasure  ground  of  rare  shrubs  and  trees  (Latin). 


32 


ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 


Arbour  (of  a  garden)  not  harbour.  Harbour  (for  ships)  not  arhowr. 

"Arbour,"  Latin  arbor,  a  tree  (a  seat  under  a  tree). 
"  Harbour,"  Old  English  here-berga^  an  army-station,  hence  a  place 
for  a  fleet,  and  hence  a  place  for  shiiM  in  general. 

Arbutus,  ar*.bu.tu8  not  ar.bu'.tus  (Latin).     The  strawberry-tree. 

Arc,  part  of  a  circle ;  Arch  (in  architecture). 

Latin  arcus,  a  bow.  "Arch"— this  word  is  a  blunder,  from  the 
supposition  that  architect  means  a  maker  of  arches,  and  not  a 
"directing  builder"  (Greek  oArchiteetdn,  archi  tektOn),  where  the 
prefix  ar^ir  is  from  the  verb  arc/id,  to  direct,  and  not  from  the 
Latin  a/reue,  a  bow. 

Arcanum,  'plu.  arcana   (Latin),  ar.kaif.numy  ar.kay\ndh,     A 
secret  [preparation],  the  secrets  of  a  secret  society. 

Arch-  (prefix),  Teutonic  arg,  "  crafty,**  "  waggish,"  as  archness. 

Arch-  (prefix),  Greek  arkos,  "  chief,"  as  arc/ibishop. 

EuiiE  i. — Arch-  followed  by  a  consonant  is  pronounced  arch. 
EuiiE  ii. — ^Arch-  followed  by  a  yowel  is  pronounced  ark. 
Examples  of  Bule  i. — 


CH-bish'op 

ARCH- duke 

ARCH-mar'shal 

-bish'opric 

-duke'dom 

-ness 

(Archiepiscopal,  E. 

ii.)    -du'cal 

-pas'tor 

-bml'der 

-duch'y 

-philos'opher 

-butler 

-duch'ess 

-po'et 

-but' tress 

-fel'on 

-pon'tiff 

-cham'berlain 

-fiend 

-prel'ate 

-chan'cellor 

-flam'en 

•pres'byter 

-conspir'ator 

-flatt'erer 

-priest 

-crit'ic 

.foe 

-pri'mate 

-dea'con 

-gov'ernor 

-proph'et 

-dea'conry 

-her'etic 

-stone 

-dea'conship 

-her'esy 

-trait'ors 

( Archidiaconite,  E. 

.ii.)    -hyp'ocrit© 

-trea'son 

-di'ocese 

-like 

-ty'rant 

-Dru'id 

-ly 

-wise 

Examples  of  Bule  ii. — 

ARCH-aism                  ARCH.i.epis'copate 

ARCH'.i.tect 

-fle.ol'ogy 

-i.epis'copal 

-Itecture 

-an'gel 

-il 

-Ltrave 

-angel'ic 

-i.loch'ian 

-i.volt 

-e.go.sau'rus 

-ima'gus 

-ives 

-e.type 

-ee.im'edes 

-on 

-ical 

-i.perago 

•on.ship 

-idiac'cnal 

Exceptions: — 

ARCH-apos'tAte 

not  ark. 

.apos'tate 

ARCH-apos'tle 

not  ark 

.apotftle 

ARCH-er,  ARCH-ery,  ARCH-ed,  ABCH-es,  ABCH-ing,  &c. 


AND  OF  SPELLING,  33 

Archives,  ark.ives  not  ar'.cheevz.   Historical  records,  their  d6pdt. 

Greek  archeian,  a  public  building,  residence  of  the  chief  magistrates 
under  whose  charge  the  public  records  were  placed. 

Arctic,  arVMh  not  af.tih.    Pertaining  to  the  North  Pole. 
Greek  arktos^  the  [Great]  Bear,  the  chief  northern  constellation. 

-ard  (native  suffix),  "  species,"  "  kind : "  dotard,  dmnkard — one  of 
the  doting  kind,  one  of  the  drunken  kind. 

Ardent,  ardent-ly,  ardency.     (Latin  ardens,  ardentU,  burning.) 

Ardour,  ar^,dor,    Fervency.     (Latin  ardor,  French  ardeur.) 

Are,  dr  not  air.     The  old  Norse  "we,  you,  they  are"  has 
superseded  the  older  form  of  aynd  or  sinden. 

Areca,  a.reef.li&h.    The  betel-nut  tree.    (Malabar  areek.) 

Arena,  plural  arenoB  or  arenas,  a.ree'.nah,  a.retf.nee,  a.ree^.ndz. 

Latin  arSna^  sand ;  that  part  of  the  amphitheatre  where  the  gladia- 
tors fought,  which  was  always  well  sanded. 

Aieola,  plural  areolad,  a.ree'.dMh,  (sing.),  means  the  coloured 
circle  round  the  nipple  of  the  breast ;  a.ree'.o,lee  (plural) 
means  the  spaces  in  the  wings  of  insects  between  the 
nervures  (2  syl.)    Aurelia^  ^'V.,  is  quite  another  word. 

Areopagus,  afree.op^-a-giis  not  ar*ree'-o,pay"^gu8. 

Greek  Ares  pagSs,  Mars'  Hill  (a  cotirt  of  justice  in  Athens). 

Argentine,  ar'.genUln  (a  mineral) ;  ar'.gen.tine  (adj.),  like  silver, 
belonging  to  the  republic  of  La  Plata. 
Latin  argentum,  silver.    (The  metal  is  also  called  orgeuton.) 

Argil,  ar'.gil,  clay ;  argill-aceous,  argiU^iferous,  argill-ite,  argiU- 
itic,  argill-ous,  <fcc.  (with  double  I),    (Kule  iii.  -il.) 

Argonantie,  ar^-go.naufik  not  ar^-g5.nawk''-t%k.    Pertaining  to 
the  argonauts.     (Greek  Argo  nauSy  the  ship  "  Argo.") 

Argue,  ar^.gu;  argues,  af.giize;  argued,  ar^.gude;  arguer, 
ar^.gu.er;  ar'gument  not  arguement,  ar'gmnenta'^tion, 
ar'gumen'^tatiyet  ar^gumen^'tatively.  (The  "e"  in  ar- 
gue is  a  blunder.)  (This  is  the  only  word,  except  four 
verbs  in  "-dgei"  which  drops  the  **e"  before  **ment") 
Rule  xviii. 
French  argu[er]^  a/rgumenif  argumentation,  &c. ;  Latin  arguo. 

Arise,  past  tense  arose,  past  part,  arisen.    Aris-ing. 
A.rize\  a.roze^,  a.rii'M,  a.rize'.ing.    To  rise  up. 
Old  English  arisian],  past  ards,  past  participle  arisen. 

Aristocracy,  plu.  aristocracies,  ar'ris,tok'''ra-8p,  ar'ris.  tokf-ra-siz. 

It  U  now  cuM^mary  to  spell  all  the  words  from  the  Greek  kratia 
"cracy,"  not  crasy  :  thus,  aristocraci/,  autocrocy,  democracy,  with 
the  hybrid  mohocracy.  The  ending  -cy  denotes  ' '  rank, "  • '  office, "  &o. 

Greek  aristokratia  faHston  kraieinj,  rule  of  the  best-bom. 

0 


36  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Ascaris,  plural  ascarides,  asf.kd.ris,  as.kar^ry.deez, 
Greek  ctskdrit,  afl.  intestinal  thread-worm. 

Ascend,  ascended  (3  syl.) :  -ed  after  "d"  or  "t"  forms  a  sepa- 
rate syUable. 

Ascension  not  -tion :  after  "  d,"  "  de,"  or  "  t,"  -sion  and  not 
-Hon  is  added. 

Ascendency,  ascendant  ought  to  be  ascendent  (not  the  Ist 
Latin  conjugation). 

Ascendal^le,  one  of  the  abnormal  words  in  ^ble.     (Rule 

xxiii.)    It  ought  to  be  ascendible,  like  "  descendible.*' 
Latin  as  [ad]  scend^re  (ie.,  scandere),  to  climb  up  to  [something]. 

Ascertain,  as'ser.tain'.    To  make  oneself  sure  by  investigation. 

Latin  cm  [ad]  certus,  to  assure  oneself. 
Ascetic,  08.861' Xk,  a  hermit ;  acetic,  a.8ee\tikj  sour.        • 

Greek  askitds  [asked,  to  honour  a  diyinity). 

Ascii,  as'si-i.    Those  who  have  no  shadow  [at  noon].    For  the 
singular  we  use  the  word  as'cian. 
Greek  a  skia,  without  shadow  (people  in  the  torrid  zone). 

Ashamed,  a.thamed'  not  as^shamed^    "  To  be  ashamed,"  and 
'*To  be  glad,"  are  deponent  verbs,  that  is,  passive  in  form 
but  active  in  sense. 
Old  English  a-scamian,  to  be  ashamed  ;  gladian,  to  be  glad. 

Ask,  dsk  not  ask  (ax  is  a  vulgarism).     Old  English  asc[ian'\, 

-asm  (Greek  termination  -sm  [o«]  preceded  by  "  a."    It  is  added 
to  nouns),  "  system  of,"  "  state  of" — enthusiasm. 

Asparagus,  as.par'ra.gus  not  spar'row. grass  nor  grass. 

Greek  aspdr&gHs,  a  plant  with  turios,  i.e.,  unexpanded  shoots. 
Asperse,  aspersed'  (2  syl.),  aspersMng,  aspers'-er,  aspers'-ion. 

Latin  aspergo,  supine  a^persum,  to  sprinkle. 
Asphodel,  a^.fo.del  not  as.fd'.deh    The  day-lily,  or  Eing's-spear. 

Greek  asphUdSUis  [spdcUfs,  ashesX  from  its  use  in  funerals. 
Asphyxia,  a^.fix'Xuh.    A  lull  in  the  action  of  the  heart. 

Greek  a  sphvais,  without  pulse  (frcmi  suffocation,  &c  ) 
Aspire',  aspired  (2  syl.),  aspir'-ing,  aspir'-er,  aspirant. 
As'pirate,  as'pirated,  as'pirat-ing,  a8'pira"tion. 

Latin  as  [ad]  spirdre,  to  breathe  towards  or  aim  at  [something]. 

>a88  (French  termination  -a^se  added  to  nouns),  means  "  made 
of,"  as  cuirass,  made  of  leather  [cuir). 

Afls,  possessive  case  ass's,  ass'Jlz  ;  plural  assea,  ass\ez. 
Aaeail,  assailed  (2  syl.),  assail-ing,  assail-er.    (Kule  iL) 

Aflsailable,  a8.sail'a.Vl  not  a.sait.a,b'l,    (Rule  xxiii.) 
Latin  a$  [ad]  tolfrs,  to  leap  on  one. 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  'S: 


»in,  <u.ia;^s\n.     One  who  attempts  murder  by  surprise. 

AxmeniAn  hashishin,  hemp-eaters  (Lank)  :  hoMo,,  to  lie  in  ambush 
in  order  to  kill  (Volne y).    (06«en«  double  s  twice. ) 

AssaBsinate,  oiJiojif  .i\n.ate.  To  kill  by  surprise.  (Double  « twicv .) 

Assault,  as^salf  not  a^aawlf.     To  attack  violently. 

Latin  aa  [ad]  aaUvmy  to  leap  on  another. 
Assay,  past  tense  assayed  not  assaid.    It  is  no  comp.  of  **  say." 

French  essayer,  to  try ;  Medietal  Latin  assaia,  assay. 

Assemble,   assembled,   as.8em'.Vld^  assem'bl4ng,    assem'bl-er 
assem'bl-y,  assem'bl-age.     (Double  s  throughout.) 

French  assembler,  to  gather  persons  together ;  Med.  Latin  OMeni- 
hUUio,  (as  ladj  aimvX  hUttio,  to  chat  together). 

Assent,  as.senf  not  a.sent\    To  admit  as  true. 

Latin  as  [ad]  sentio,  to  think  as  ynu  think. 

Assertion,  as.sef.shun  not  d.ser' .shun.    An  affirmation. 

Latin  as  [ad]  sertwm.  Not  the  supine  of  "sero,"  to  sow,  which  is 
sdtum,  but  of  ser»«  to  knit  or  weave;  whence  serire  isollomiia 
(Livy),  and  seri^re  sermdnes  (Plautus).  Conversation  Ls  a  "  web  of 
words,"  or  "  knitting  thoughts  with  words." 

Assessor,  as-ses'^sSr  not  a.ses\ser.  One  who  assesses.  (E.  xxxvii.) 

Assessable,  one  of  the  abnormal  words  in  -able,    (R.  xxiii.) 
Latin  as  [ad]  sessor^  a  sitter  [at  a  board  for  adjusting  taxes]. 

AsBets,  as^setsf  (plu.)    Property  available  for  payment  of  debts. 
Latin  as  [ad]  satis,  [to  be  taken  till  there  is]  enough  to  [pay  all]. 

Aflseyerate,  as.sev\e.rate^  assev'erat-ed,  assev'erat-ing,  assev'e- 
rat-or,  assev'era"tion.     To  declare  positively. 

Latin  as  [ad]  severdre,  to  speak  according  to  the  truth. 

AsBidnous,  as.sid'.u.u8  not  dMd'.ju.us.    Industrious. 
Latin  as  [ad]  sedifo,  to  sit  dose  to  [work]. 

Assign,  asMne  not  d-sine^.    To  make  over  to  another. 
Assignor,  as^stnor  not  as.sig\noT  nor  as. sine'. en- . 
Assignee,  a^'.s\.nee  not  as.sig'.nee  nor  as.8ine\nee. 
Assignment,  as.sine'.ment  not  d.sine\nient,    (Double  s.) 
Latin  as  [ad]  sigrio,  to  mark  out  for  another. 

Assimilate,  asMm*.%.late  not  dMrn' .U.late.     To  make  like. 

Assim'ilat-ed,  assim'ilat-ing,  assim'ilat-or,  assim'ila"tion. 
Latin  as  [ad]  simildre,  to  liken  to  something  else  (-mi-  not  -mu-J. 

Assistant,  assistance,  as.sis'.tanty  a8.8is\tance  (Rule  xxiv.) 
Latin  aa  [ad]  aistens,  standing  by  or  near  another. 

Asdze,  plu.  assizes,  as.size',  as.size'.ez.    (Double  s.) 
Law  Latin  osstsa  ^os  [ad]  sessioj,  a  sitting  to  [hear  trials]. 


40  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Atrocious,  a.tro'.shu8  not  at.tro'.shu8.    Very  heinous. 
Latin  o^ox,  atrddSy  black,  heinous. 

Atrocity,  a.tros'.i.ty ;  atrocionsness,  a.tro. shits. ness^ 
(In  Latin  the  "  o  "  of  atrocity  is  long.)    (Atrddta^J 

Attach,  attach' ;  attachment,  at,tach\ment.     (Doable  U) 
French  attadier,  to  bind  to  another.    Low  Latin  attachidre. 

Attack,  attacked,  at.takf  not  d.takf.    To  assault. 

French  attaguer;  Latin  at  [ad]  Greek  ta^sgo,  to  put  an  army  in  array; 
hence  the  Latin  word  tactici,  those  who  array  an  army. 

Attain,  attain.    To  touch  on,  not  to  complete.    Thus  a  man 
attains  his  50th  year  on  his  50th  birthday. 
Attainment,  attainable  (double  t).    Eule  xxiii. 
Latin  at  [ad]  tingre  [tenere],  to  touch  on,  to  reach  till  yon  tonch. 

Attainted,  attaint'. ed  not  a.taint.ed.    Condemned  to  lose  one's 
civil  rights,  stained  with  the  charge  of  treason. 
Latin  at  [ad]  tinctus  {tin^o,  to  dye  ;  Greek  teggo—tengo). 
Attempt,  attempt'  not  d.tempt    An  effort,  to  try. 

Latin  at  [ad]  tento^  to  try  to  [do  something]. 
Attend,  attention,  at. tend',  atten'.shun,    (Double  t.)    To  stretch 
the  mind  to  follow  a  person's  thoughts,  hence  to  follow. 
Latin  at  [ad]  tendo,  to  stretch  out  to  something. 

Attendance,  attendant.    These  should  be  attendence,  attendent : 
as  superintendent,  superintendence.  (Rules  xxiv.  and  xxv.) 
Latin  attendens,  attendentis,  verb  attendi^re,  to  attend. 

Attenuate,  atten'.u.ate  not  d.ten'.u.ate.    To  make  thin. 

Atten'uated,  atten'uat-ing,  atten'ua"tion,  atten'uat-or. 
Latin  at  [ad]  tenuo,  to  make  very  thin. 

Attestation,  aV-tes.tay^-shun  not  d-tes.tay^-shun.    Attestator. 
Latin  at  [ad]  testdri,  to  bear  witness  to  [a  document]. 

Attire,  at.tire'  not  d.tire'.    A  dress,  to  dress  or  adorn. 
Attired'  (2  syl.),  attiK-ing,  attir'-er. 

French  atour,  a  head-dress  ;  dame  d'atour,  lady  of  the  bed-chamber. 
Attorney,  attur'.ney,  plu.  attorneys  not  attomies. 

Law  Latin  attomdtus,  one  who  takes  the  tun  or  place  of  [his  client]. 

Attorney-general,  plu.  attorney-generals,  not  attorDeys-general. 
In  this  compound  '*  general "  is  not  an  adjective,  but  a 
noun.  The  word  does  not  mean  general  or  common 
attornies,  but  head  or  crown  attorneys.  Similarly  lieu- 
tenant-generals,  brigadier -generals,  major-generals^  &c. 

Attraction,  at.trac'.shun  not  d.trac'.shun. 

Latin  at  [ad]  tractio,  a  drawing  towards  something. 

Attractable,  attractability.  These  ought  to  be  attractible,  at- 
tractibilityy  as  contractible,  contractibility  (Bole  xxiii.) 


AND  OF  SPELLING,  41 

Attribute,  af.tH,bute  (noun) ;  at.trih\ute  (verb)  (Rule  1.) 
Latin  at  [ad]  iriJyuifre,  to  give  or  ascribe  to  someone. 

Attributable,  contributaftZ^,  diatribntable  (Rule  xxiii.) 

Attrition,  at.irish^on  not  a.trUK.on.    Wearing  by  fnctiou. 

Latin  at  [ad]  trUtu,  [one  thing]  nibbed  against  another. 
Attune,  at.tunef  not  d.tune* ;  attuned  (2  syl.);  attun'-ing. 

Latin  at  [ad]  tonuSf  to  put  in  tune  [with  other  instruments]. 
Auction,  awW^ihun  not  ok^shun.    A  sale  by  bidding. 

Latin  audio  (avgeo,  to  increase  [the  amount  of  each  bid]). 
Aucnba,  au^ku.bah  not  a.ku'.ba7i.    A  Japanese  plant. 
Audacious,  au.day'shus  not  ou.day'^shus.    Bold,  impudent. 

French  attdadeux,  Latin  audaa,  atuidds,  bold. 
Audible,  not  audable ;  6o  inaudible.     (Not  the  1st  Lat.  coiij.) 

Latin  avdirei  to  hear ;  avdibilis,  What  may  be  heard. 
Audience.     "  A.B.  had  an  audience  of  Her  Majesty,"  not  "  an 
audience  with — ; "  "  the  queen  gave  an  audience  to — " 

Augean,  Au'.j^.an  not  Au.jee'.an  (short  e).    The  king's  name 
iv&Q  AugSaa  not  Augeas.    A  mythical  king  of  Elis  (Greece.; 

Aught  and  naught ;  ought  and  nought. 

Old  English  dht,  anything ;  ndht  (ne  dhtj,  nothing. 
Also,  6Mf  anything ;  ndht  (ne  dht),  nothing. 

Aiigment,  aug'.ment  (noun) ;  aug.menf  (verb).    Rule  1. 

August,  au\gu8t  (nouH);  au.gusf  (adjective). 

Augustins,  not  Augustines,    Of  the  order  of  St.  Augustin. 

Aimt  not  ant,  a  corruption  of  ami.    Ant,  ant  not  amt. 

Latin  amit[a]  shortened  to  am't ;  similarly  "  ant "  is  a  corruption 
of  emt;  i.e.,  emit  shortened  to  em't.    Incorrectly  emmit. 

Amelia,  au.ree'.li.ah.    It  ought  to  be  au.rel'.tah. 

Latin  aurum,  gold,  with  the  diminutive  ^el,  and  the  termination 
•ia,  the  little  gold  creature.  The  Greek  chrusallis  i&  the  same : — 
(hrusas,  gold ;  chrusallis,  the  little  gold  creature  (our  "  chrysalis  "). 

Anieola,  au'.rS.S.ldh  not  au.red.o.ldh  nor  au.re.d'.lah.     The 
circle  of  gold  or  *•  glory  '*  round  portraits  of  saints. 
Latin  auridlus,  golden ;  auf€(Ha,  the  golden  nimbus  (aurumj. 
Amicula,  au.rikf.u.lah.    The  plant  called  "  bear's-ear." 

Latin  auriSy  and  the  diminutive  -cula,  a  little  ear ;  so  called  because 
the  leaves  resemble  in  sh&pe  a  bear's  ear. 

Auspice,  plu.  auspices,  aiLs'.pUy  au8\pi.8iz.    Augury. 
Auspicious,  aus.pUh'.us,    Lucliy ;  of  good  auj<ury. 
Latin  aiMpictum,  divination  from  birds  [aves  specto,  I  inspect  birds). 

AHfltere,  ausUear^,  comp.  auster'er,  sup.  auster'est. 
Austerity,  plu.  austerities,  avsdey.rXdiz. 
Latin  austirus,  rough;  anuUritas;  Greek  ausUrds,  attstirdtis. 


42  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Anthentic  and  Genxiine,  au.Thcn/.fiky  genf.u.in, 

*'  Authentic  "  book,  one  true  in  what  it  states, 
"  Genuine  "  book,  one  written  by  the  person  to  whom  it 
is  ascribed. 

Author,  feminine  authoress  or  author.  (Latin  autJiorf  E.  xxxvii.) 

Authorise,  not  authorize,    (It  is  not  a  Greek  word.  Eule  xxxi.) 

Autocracy  not  autocrasy.    (See  Aristocracy.) 

Greek  autd-krdtSs,  mling  by  oneself,  absolute. 
Autocrat,  feminine  autocratrix,  au\to,krat,  au,toh,rd-tr%x. 

Greek  auiUkrdt&r,  an  absolute  monarch. 
Auto-da-f6  not  auto-de-fe^  pronounce  au'-to  da-fay'  (Port.) 
Autom'aton,  pin.  autom'ata  or  autom'atons. 

Greek  automaton  (atUos  mattd,  to  work  of  oneself). 
Autumn,  aw'.tum ;  autum'naL     (Latin  autumnvs.) 

Auxiliary,  plu.  auxiliaries,  atuciV.iM.riz,  not  aux.iVM.riz, 

Latin  avxilium,  hdp ;  auaMXdres,  avaUXwriuSy  sent  from  allies ;  verb 
auxUVlor^  to  help,  from  auglo,  perf.  avxi,  to  increase. 

Avail,  a.vair, avail-able,  avail- ableness, avail-ability, <fcc.  (Il.xxiii.) 

Latin  a  [ad]  vaUre,  to  be  strong  against  [an  adversary]. 
Avalanche,  av\a.lansh',    A  vast  body  of  snow  sliding  down  a 
mountain. 
French  avaUmge;   Latin  a  [ad]  vailem  landndre,  to    tear  sway 
towards  the  valley. 

Avarice,  av*.a.r^ ;  avaricious,  avM.rish'.us  ;  avariciousness. 

Latin  avaritla,  avarice ;  avdrus,  a  covetous  man. 
Avenge,  a.venge' ;  avenged'  (2  syl.),  aveng'-ing,  aveng'-er. 

Old  French  avenffier,  to  revenge ;  Latin  a  [ad]  vindicdre* 
Aver,  averred',  averr-ing,  a.ver^y  a.verd\  a.ver'.ing.    (Bule  L) 
Averse,  a.verse' ;  averse-ly,  averse' -ness,  aver'sion. 
Averf,  avert'ed,  av^rt'ing,  avert'-er. 

Latin  a  verto,  to  turn  away,  supine  aversum. 
Aviary,  pLu.  aviaries,  av'X,d.riz.    A  place  for  fancy  birds. 

Latin  dvidriurfiy  an  aviary  {dviiy  a  bird). 

Avocation,  av\o.kay'',8hun.  An  occupation  distinct  from  your 
regular  trade  or  profession.  It  is  incorrect  to  call  your 
ordinary  business  your  avocation^  it  is  your  vocation. 
Thus  building  is  the  **  vocation"  of  a  builder,  gardening 
may  be  his  "  avocation." 
Latin  a-vocation,  a  calling  away  [from  business]. 
Avoid,  a.void\  avoid-able,  avoid-ance,  avoid-er, 

Latin  a  vitdre,  to  shun  from  [seeing  a  person]. 
Avoirdupois,  ai/.wor.du.poiz".     The  ordinary  trade  weights. 

Corruption  of  the  Old  French  a^ers  "goods  in  general,"  du  '*  of,"  and 
poiM  "  weight.*'    A  system  of  weights  for  goods  "  sold  by  wfidght.** 


AND   OF  SPELLING,  4S 

Awake,  piist  awoke  or  [aiDaked,  2  syl.  ],  pcut  part,  awoke  or 
lawaken] ;  awak-iug,  a.%Da1ce\ing.    To  rouse  from  sleep. 
Old  Eng.  aiM(e[a»],  past  aicdc,  past  pi^.  awacen,  to  awake. 

Awaken,  past  part,  awakened  (3  syl.)    (In  a  religious  sense.) 
out  English  awcecnlicmlt  past  avHBcnede,  past  part,  avxxcned. 

Awe,  aw-ing,  aw-ful,  aw-fully,  aw-fulness ;  hut  awe-struck,  awe- 
less.  '   Old  English  ^ge,  dread.  (Rules  xvii.  and  xix.) 

Awkward  means  left  handed;  hence  ungracefuly  clumsy, 

French  gau<^.     Awk,  the  left  hand.     ''The  awke  or  left  hand" 
(HoUand's  "  Plutarch  "). 

Awl,  a  shoemaker's  tool  for  boring  holes.    All,  every- one. 

Haxd,  a  catch  of  fishes.    Hall  (of  a  house),  a  mansion. 

"  Awl,"  Old  Eng.  afl  or  aioel.  »n  awl.     "  AU,"  Old  Eng.  al  or  al. 
"Haul,"  French  haUr,  to  haul.     •'HaU,*'  Old  Eng.  hecdU  a  haU. 

Axil,  aaf.il,  the  armpit.    Axle,  ax.H  (of  a  wheel). 

AyHj  ax'ill-ar,  ax'ill-ary.    (Latin  axilla,  the  armpit.) 

Axle,  axle-tree.    Axled,  a^'.ild.    (Latin  axis,  an  axis.) 

AxiB,  plu.  axes  (Latin),  ax'.iss,  ax'.eez    (The  plural  of  Axe  is 
also  axes,  but  pronouriced  ax'ez.) 

Ay  or  aye  (meaning  yes),  plu.  ayes,  eye,  eyes.    No,  plu,  noes. 

Aye,  a,  meaning  always.     Old  English  awa,  always  ;  Greek  ai. 

Azalea  not  alalia,  ajsay\lif.ah,     A  genus  of  shrubs. 
Greek  azalifos,  dry :  so  called  because  it  loves  a  dry  soil. 

Azoic,  a.zo.ik.     Where  no  trace  of  life  exists,  as  "  azoic  rocks." 
Greek  a  z6on,  without  a  living  creature. 

■ 

Babble,  bab'.h%  to  prate.    Babel,  Barbel  (Gen.  xi.  9). 
Babbled,  bab',b'ld ;  babbler,  babbling.     (Double  b.) 
French  bdbiller,  to  prattle. 

Baboon,  bd.bocm'.    A  large  monkey.     (One  b.)    Rale  Ixi. 
French  boMne,  a  lip,  and  -oon,  augmentative  (large-lipped). 

Baby,  plu.  babies,  bay'. by,  bay'.bez ;  also  babe,  babes  (1  syl.) 
A  word  common  to  the  whole  Aryan  family  of  languages. 

Bacchanal,  hah'.ka.nul;  Bacchanalian.     (Double  c.) 
Greek  Bakt^s,  the  wine-god.    Latin  Bacckdndlis,  Bacchus. 

Bachelor,  batcK.^.lor;  feminine  spinster,  maid. 

Backgammon,  back-gam! .iriSn.     (Double  m.) 

Either  Old  English  hac-gomen,  the  back  game  ;  because  the  art  is  to 

bring  all  the  pieces  back  into  the  adversary's  table. 
Or  Welsh  ba£h  cammaun,  a  little  battle. 
Or  Danish  baJdee  gammen,  a  tray  game. 

Backward  (adj.),  duU.    Backwards  (adv.),  in  a  back  direction. 


44  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Bad,  worse  (comparative  deg.),  worst  (superlative  deg.)    Worse, 
worst,  are  the  degrees  of  the  obsolete  word  wear  (bad). 

Bade,  had  (past  tense  of  *<  bid").    The  final «  is  to  compensate 
for  the  diphthong  in  bced, 

"  Bad  "  is  probably  an  ecclesiastical  word,  taken  from  Bev.  ix.  11 ; 
'*  Abaddon,"  from  the  verb  dbad,  to  be  lost.  If  so,  bad  means 
"lost  eternally." 

Badinage,  had'.Lnarje  not  had'.tnazh  nor  had*X.naje^     Banter. 
Bag,  bagged  (1  syl.),  bagg-ing,  bagg-age  (Rule  i.) 
Bagatelle,  hag'.a.telV  (French).    A  trifle,  a  game. 
Bagnio,  plu.  bagnios,  ban*. yd,  ban'.ydze  (Rule  xlii.) 

Bail,  surety.    Bale,  a  packet.    (Both  pronounced  alike.) 

•'  Bail,"  French  bailler,  to  give  or  deliver. 
**  Bale,"  French  balle,  a  pedlar's  pack. 

Bailiff,  a  steward,  an  officer  of  justice.    Bailey,  a  prison  (R.  vi.) 

"  Bailiff,"  Law  Latin  balllviLs,  a  bailiff. 

"Bailey/*  Law  Latin  ballium,  the  enclostire  6f  a  fortress. 

Bait,  lure  for  fish,  refreshment  for  a  horse.    Bate,  to  lessen. 
"  Bait, "  Old  English  b(U[anl    • '  Bate  '*  or  *'  abate, "  French  dbattn. 

Baize,  coarse  woollen  cloth.    Bays,  plu.  of  bay  (laurel). 
'*  Baize,"  Spanish  bayita  ;  called  in  French  tspagnoletU. 

Balance  not  hallance.    A  pair  of  scales.    (Only  one  "  L") 
Latin  bt-^laruxs,  two  dishes  or  platters.    French  balance. 

Balcony,  pUi.  balconies,  baV.ko.nlz.    Window  platforms. 
In  the  Italian  the  "  o  "  is  long:  balcone  fbal.k&.nej. 

Bald,  bawld  not  bawl.     Without  hair.    Baldness  not  bawl.ness. 

Bale,  a  packet.    Bail,  surety.    {See  Bail.) 

Balk,  bawk.     Old  English  balca,  a  balk. 

Ball,  retains  double  Hn  all  its  compounds !  as  ball-oon,  ball-ot, 
ball-room,  football,  snowball,  <fec.     (Rule  x.) 

Ballad,  Ballet,  Ballot,  bdV.ldd,  baV.lay,  baV.lot, 

Ballad.     A  song  containing  a  tale.     (French  ballade.) 

Ballet.     A  theatrical  dance.    (French  ballet.) 

Ballot,     "  A  little  ball "  used  in  voting.    (French  baUotte,) 

Balloon,  bal.loon\     Ball  with  -oon  augmentative.    (Rule  Ixi.) 

Balluster,  baV.lus.ter.     A  short  ornamental  pillar. 

(The  guard  of  a  staircase  is  corruptly  called  banister.) 

Ballustrade,  bal'.us.trdde\    A  set  of  ballusters. 
French  baliLsire,  balustrade. 

Balm  (the  herb).    Barm,  ferment,  leaven. 

"  Balm,"  contraction  of  haUam  (bal'm),  Latin. 
*'  Barm,"  Old  Bnglish  heortna,  leaven. 


AND  OF  SPELLING,  45 

Bamboo,  plural  bamboos  (Malay),  ham^hoo'^  ham'.hooz*. 

Ban,  banned  (1  syl.),  bann-ing.    Banns  (of  marriflge).     Eule  i. 

Latin  hannum,  a  ban  ;  tanna  (matrimonialia),  banns. 
Banana  (Spanish),  hamdh'.nah  not  hd.nay'.nah. 

Bandit,  plural  bandits  or  banditti,  han.ditf,  han.ditf.ty, 

Italian  "banditio,  plural  handittiy  outlaws. 
Bandrol,  hand\rol.    The  little  flag  attached  to  a  trumpet. 

French  haiideroU  (2  sjL),  hande  and  -role  (diminutive). 
Bandyi  plural  bandies  (2  syl.),  ban'died  (2  syL),  ban'di-er,  hut 
ban'dy-ing,  ban'dy-legs,  <fec.     (Rule  xi.) 

Banian  (days)  han'.yan'.    Days  when  no  meat  is  served.    The 
Banians  of  India  abstain  from  animal  food. 

Ban'ister.     The  guard  of  a  staircase.    Corruption  of  ballnster. 

Bankmpt,  banhf.rupt  not  bankf.rup.     One  who  has  failed. 

Bankmptcy,  not  bankrupcy.    State  of  being  a  bankrupt. 

Italian  banco-ruttOf  broken-bench;  because  when  a  money-lender 
failed,  his  bench  was  broken,  and  he  was  expeUed  from  his  office. 

Banner,  ban'.ner,    A  4ag.     (Double  n.) 

Latin  panntM;  Welsh  baniar;  French  bannUre. 
Banns  (of  marriage),  not  bans  nor  bands.    {See  Ban.) 
Ban'qnet,  ban'quet^ed,  ban'quet-er,  ban'quet-ing.     (Rule  iii.) 

i-ed  forms  a  distinct  syL  after  dl  or  i.)    French  banquet. 
Baptize'  not  baptise,  bap'tism,  bap'tiat.    Baptized'  (2  syl.),  bap. 
tiz'-ing. 

Greek  baptiad,  baptisma,  baptiatos. 
Bar,  barred  (1  syl.),  barr-ing,  barr-ister,  barr-ier,    barr-icade, 
barr-ulet,  barr^y.     (Rule  i.)    French  barrer,  to  bar. 

Barbarize,  bar^.ba^rize  not  barbarise.    To  make  barbarous. 

Greek  barbdrizd,  to  make  barbarous. 
BarT)erry.     A  corruption  of  berbery,    (Genus  herheris.) 

Barefoot  or  barefooted.  *' Walking  naked  and  barefoot." 
(Isa.  XX.  2.)     Old  English  bcer-f6t,  bare- foot. 

Barley.  The  plural  barleys  means  different  specimens  or  sorts, 
the  general  crop :  as,  The  barleys  look  well  (the  general 
crop).  Barleys  were  higher  (the  specimens  offered  for 
sale).     Welsh  bar  a  Wy«[iaw],  bread  plants. 

Barm,  leaven.    Bahn,  balsam.    {See  Balm.) 

Baron,  a  lord  (one  r).    Barren,  not  fertile  (double  r). 

Baron,  feminine  baroness.    Baronry,  baronet,  baroniaL 
fca'.ron,  bd^ron.ess,  bd\ron.ryy  ba\ron.et,  but  bd.rU\nl.al. 

"Baron,"  Latin  ftoro  (a  dolt) ;  Barones  dicuntur  servi  militum,  qui 
utique  ttultisaimi  sunt,  servi  videlicet  stultorum^'  (Scholiaatj. 
First  a  serving  soldier,  then  a  military  chief,  then  a  lord. 


46  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Barouche,  ba.roushf.    A  four -wheel  coach  with  a  falling  top. 

Latin  blrdta,  a  cart  with  two  pair  of  wheels  (bis  rota),  through  the 
German  barutsche. 

Barrack,  plural  harracks.  The  plural  is  more  generally  used. 
The  singular  is  used  in  compound  words  as  barrack- 
master,  barrack-life, 

Bar'rel,  bar'relled  (2  syl.)^  bar'relling.    (Eule  iii.  -Eii.) 
Spani^  barrel.    In  Welsh  and  French  barilf  only  one  "  r." 

Barren,  not  fi-uitful.    Baron,  a  lord.    {See  Baron.) 

Barricade,  bar*.ri.hade!.  Originally  meant  to  block  up  a 
thoroughfare  with  barrels  (French  barriques)  filled  with 
stones  or  earth.    (French  barricader,  to  barricade.) 

Barrier,  banvLer.    A  bar  to  keep  out  intruders. 

French  barri^e,  from  barre^  a  bar;  Welsh  bdr,  a  bar. 

Barrister,  har^ris.ter.    One  called  to  the  bar,  a  pleader. 
Bar  and  the  Old  Eng.  termination  -ster,  business,  habit. 

Baryta,  bar^ry.tah,  incorrectly  ba.ryf.tah,     A  heavy  mineral. 
Greek  bariiUs,  heaviness;  so  called  from  its  weight.    (See  next.) 

Barytone,  bdr^ry.tone.    A  deep  tenor  voice. 
Greek  barUa  t&nds,  heavy  tone  of  voice. 

Base,  vile.     Bass  (voice).     Both  pronounced  alike. 
"  Base,"  Welsh  bds,  low,  mean.    **  Bass,"  Italian  baaso. 

Bashaw,  now  called  "  Pasha,"  pah'. shah. 

Basilisk,  ba^.tlisk.    The  cockatrice.    Basilic,  adj.  of  basilica. 

LaUn  basiliseus  (Greek  bastteiis,  a  king).     The  *'  king  serpent ; "  to 

cail«d  from  a  crest  on  its  head  like  a  crown. 
**  Basilica,"  a  royal  hall  of  justice ;  such  a  hall  used  for  a  church. 

Basin,  ba'sin  not  bason.    (The  French  word  has  double  «). 

Basis,  plural  bases  (Latin),  bay'. sis,  bay'.seez.    {See  Base.) 

Bass,  plural  basses;  or  basso,  plural  bassos:  base,  base'.ez; 
bos'. 80,  bas^soze.    {See  Base.)    Kule  xlil. 

Bass-relief,  plural  bass-reliefs;  or  basso-relievo,  plural  baaao- 
relievos:  base  re-leef\  base  re-leefs' ;  ot  bas'-so  rel.i.a\vo, 
bas'-so  rel.l.a\vdze.     (Rule  xlii.) 

Bassoon,  ba8.zoon\    A  deep  bass  wind-instrument. 

Bass  and  -0(m  (augmentative).    Italian  ba^sone;  French  bamm. 

Bastille,  bos.  teeV.    A  State  prison  in  Paris.    (Not  bastile,) 
French  bastir  now  bdtir,  io  build.    It  means  the  building. 

Bastinado,  plural  bastinadoes,  bas'-ti.nah"-doze.     (Rule  xlii.) 

Bat,  batt-ed,  batt-ing.    Bat  (the  winged  mouse),  batt-ish.    B.  i 

"Bat, "  Old  English  bat,  a  bat    French  battre,  to  beat 
'*Bat "  (the  animal),  Welsh  batlwr.  a  dormouse. 


AND  OF  SPELLING. 


Bftto,  contraetkni  of  abate.    Bait,  refreshment.    {See  Bait) 

Bath,  tdXh  not  hath  (noun);  bathe,  hathe  (verb).     Bule  11. 

Bathos,   hatlUiSt   mock  sublime.      Pathos,  patKos,      Words 

which  excite  a  feeling  of  grief. 

^*  Bathos  **  (Gxeek),  depth  ;  the  rerene  of  tviblitu. 
<' Pathos"  (Greek),  feeling  of  grief. 

Baton  (French),  hat.tone.  A  small  staff  used  by  the  leader  of 
«n  orchestra,  a  marshal's  staff  of  office,  &.c. 

Batrachiana,  bo.  tra1i^X.am,    The  frog  order  of  reptiles. 

Greeik  hcdrdLchott  a  frog. 
Battalion  (double  t  and  one  Z),  but  in  French  hata%ll<m, 

Latin  batuo,  to  fight ;  Italian  haUaglUnt 
Battery,  plu.  batteries,  hatfAe.riz,    (French  batterie,) 

Battle,  balf.t'lf  battled,  batted,  battling,  battlement. 

Wiflsh  hatd.    French  bataUle.    Italian  hattaglia.    Spanish  baiaUa. 

Bazaar,  bdjsar^y  a  depot  of  fancy  articles.    Bizarre,  fantastic. 
**  Bazaar,"  Persian  bazar,  a  maiket.    *'  Bizarre  "  (French),  fantastic 

Be-  ^Hrefix)  added  to  nouns,  y^bs,  prepositions,  and  conjunc- 
tions. Added  to  nouns,  it  converts  tbem  into  verbs,  as 
he-friend.  Added  to  verbty  it  intensifies  them,  or  adds 
the  idea  of  about,  at,  before,  for,  in,  on,  over,  <fec.  In 
prepositions  and  conjunctions  it  has  the  force  of  by  or  in. 

e  (▼erb).     Bee  (insect).     "  Be  "  forms  parts  of  the  verb  "  To 

Be."    It  is  used  in  hypothetical  propositions,  as  :  "  If  I 

be,*'  that  is,  "  If  I  should  be.** 

**  Be  "(verb),  Old  English  bedn;  present  tense  <e  be6,  thii  b^st,  he 

hfih. ;  plural  be6th  faU  personsj. 
**Bee  "  insect,  beo,  plural  beon  (without  accent). 

veh,  coast.    Beech,  a  tree.     (Both  pronounced  beech.) 

''Beach,"  Old  £ng.  becc,  a  brook.     *'  Beech,"  Old  £ng.  bice,  a  beech. 

die,  bee'.dl.    A  church  officer.    {See  Bedell.) 

Old  English  badel,  one  who  bids  or  cites  [to  a  court  of  law]. 

l-ioll  not  bead-rol.    A  list  of  those  to  be  prayed  for.    (R.  x.) 

Beadsman,  feminine  beadswoman ;  plu.  beadsmen,  beads- 
women.    One  employed  to  pray  for  another's  welfeure. 

3ld  English  bead  or  bid,  a  prayer, 
pulse.    Been,  bin,  past  participle  of  "To  be." 
Id  English  bean,  pulse.    "  Been,"  Old  English  ben  of  the  verb  beon. 
o  carry),  pa^t  bore  [bare],  po^t participle  borne. 

*r  (to  bring  forth),  past  bore  [bare],  jpa««  part.  bom. 
tear"  (to  carry,  to  produce),  O.  Eng.  birian],  past  beer,  p.p.  boren. 

X  (a  wild  beast) ;  he -bear,  she-bear.    Bare,  naked, 
ear  "  (the  animaU  Old  Mng.  bera.     "  Bare, "  Old  Eng.  bMiomA. 


4«  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Beast,   heest,   beast-ly,  beast-liness :    hut   beBt-ial,  best-iality, 
bestially  (without  "a").    (The  "a*'  of  beast  is  inserted 
to  distinguish  the  word  from  **be8t.") 
-  Latin  bestia,  a  beast ;  hestidlis,  bestial. 

Beat,  to  strike.     Beet,  a  root.    (Both  pronounced  beet.) 

Beat,  past  beat,  past  part,  beaten  or  beat.    (We  say: 

"  He  was  dead  beat,"  but  beaten  is  the  general  past  part. 

Old  English  bedtlan],  past  bedt,  past  part,  bedten. 

'*  Beet  '  (the  root),  German  beete;  Latin  beta;  French  betU. 

Beatify,  be.af.i.fy;    beat'ify-ing ;    but  beatified  (be,afA.Jide) ; 

beat'ifi-ca"tion,  beatif'i-cal.     (Rule  xi.) 
Latin,  bedtus  facto,  to  make  happy. 
Bean,  60,  a  fop.     Bo  I  an  exclamation  to  frighten  children. 

Bow,  plural   bows,   an   instrument   to  propel   arrows. 

(Bow  to  rhyme  with  grow.) 

Beau,  plural   beaux,   65,    boze;    feminine   belle,  plural 
belles,  bell,  bells  (French).  Gentlemen  and  ladies  admire^* 
Latin  bellus,  beautiful.    Beau  is  a  contraction  of  bellus  (be'u*). 

Beau  ideal,  plural  beaux  ideals,  bo  i.dee\al,  boze  i.dee'.al 
(French.)    A  fauoy  model  of  beauty  or  excellency. 

Beau  monde,  bo  mdnd  (French).     The  fashionable  world. 

Beauty,  plural  beauties,  bu'.tiz ;  beautirful,  beauti-rfully,  beauti« 
fy,  beauti-fying,  beauti-fied  (3  syl.),  beauti-fi-er  (Rule 
xi.) :  beaute-ous,  beaute-ously,  beaute-ousness  (with  e). 

French' &6aitM.  (There  is  no  sufficient  refison  for  the  change  of  voweL) 
Beautiful,  bu.Hful.    In  poetry  the  superlative  beautifulest  is 

sometimes  used. 
Becafico,  ought  to  be  beccafico,  be¥^kafee''-ko.    The  fig-pecker. 

Italian  beccafico  (becearejico,  to  pick  the  fig  or  fig-tree). 
Becalm,  be.carrnf  not  be.calm ;  becalmed,  be.carmd. 

Fr.  calme:  Ital.  and  Sp.  calma,  quiet,  with  prefix  5e-,  '*to  make.** 
Become,  past  became,  past  part,  become,  pres.  part,  becom-iiig. 

Old  English  becum{an'\,  past  becom,  past  part.  becv/iMn. 
Bed,  bedded,  bedd-ing;  but  bedpost,  bedstead,  &c.    (Rule  i) 

Old  English  bed  or  bced  (noun) ;  bed[ian\  to  go  to  bed. 
Bed-clothes,  bed-cloze  (no  sing.)    Sheets,  blankets,  and  quilt. 

Bedell  not  beadle,  bee'. dell.    A  university  or  court  mace-bearer. 

Always  styled  the  Squire  bedell.    (Latin  bedellus.) 
Bedim,  be.dim\  bedimmed  (2  syl.),  bedimm-ing.    (Rule  i.) 

Old  Eng.  dim,  dark,  with  prefix  &e<,  which  converts  nouns  to  TertM. 
Bedlam,  bed'lum.    Corruption  of  Bethlehem,  the  name  of  a 
religious  house  converted  into  a  lunatic  asylum. 

Bedouin,  Bed'.win,    An  Arab  tribe  (dwellers  in  the  desert). 
Arabic  bedawi  (from  bodw  or  bedto,  a  desert). 


AXD  OF  SPELLING,  4f) 

Bee,  the  insect.    Old  £ng.  heo.    Be  (the  verb).    Old  Eng.  he6. 

{See  Be.) 
Beech,  a  tree.    Beach,  a  coast.    {See  Beach.) 

Beef,  the  flesh  of   slain  oxen;  plural  beevet,  living  oxen. 
(Rnle  xxxviii) 
Frendi  bmi/,  plural  hce^f$  ;  Latin  hoves,  oxen. 

Beef'^teak,  beef  stake  not  beef-steek. 

**  Steak  "  iB  Old  None  tUk ;  Danish  tUg,  a  broil,  or  sUce  to  roast. 

Beef-^ateiB,  beef  .eat.er8.    Yeomen  of  the  guard. 

Korman  French  bvffetien  or  boufititrs^  waiters  at  the  boufets. 

Been,  bin,  past  part  of  ''  To  be."    Bin  (for  com,  wine,  refuse.) 
''Been,**  Old  Eng.  be&n.  "Bin,"  Old  Eng.  bin  or  binn,  a  crib,  hutch,  &c. 

Beer,  malt  liquor.    Bier,  beer,  barrow  for  the  dead. 

"  Beer/*  Old  English  bear,    **  Bier,"  Old  English  bdr, 
BeeetingB,  beest.ingz  not  beestlings.    First  milk  after  calving. 

Old  English  batting,  which  is  the  better  spelling,  and  sing,  number. 

Beet,  a  root.    Beat,  to  strike.    (See  Beat.) 

Beetle,  be^.t%  an  insect;  a  mallet.    Betel,  beg'M,  a  shrub. 

Old  English  beM  or  biM^  a  beetle ;  bytel  or  bytl,  a  mallet. 
''Betel/'  an  East  Indian  plant,  the  leaf  of  which  is  much  used. 

Beeves,  beevz,  black  cattle ;  plural  of  beef.     (See  Beef.) 

BefisU,  befell,  befallen ;  not  befal,  befel,  befalen.    (Rule  x.) 

Beftf ,  befitt-ed,  befitt-ing.    To  suit,  to  become.    (Bule  i.) 

Befool,  Old  Eng.  prefix  be-  makes  verbs  of  nouns.    (Eule  Ixii.) 

Beg,  begged  (1  syl.),  begg-ing,  begg-ar,  beggared  (2  syl.)  beggar- 
ing,  beggarly,  beggarh-ness,  beggary,  beggar  man  (all  with 
double  g.)  Rule  i.  "  I  beg  to  inform  you  "  means  *'  I 
beg  leave  to  inform  you." 

Beggar,  a  corruption  of  begiarer  (Norse).    This  accounts 
for  the  termination  "  -ar." 

Begef,  past  begot"  [begat],  past  part,  begotten   [begot],  be- 
gett-er,  begett-ing,  begott-en.     (Rule  i.) 
Old  English  beged^an],  past  begedt,  past  part,  begoten. 
Begin",  p<ut  began'  [begun],  past  part,  begun,  beginn-ing, 
beginn-er.    To  commence,  <fec.     (Rule  i.) 
Old  Eng.  begiwn{(m'],  past  began,  past  participle  begunnen. 

Begird,  pa^t  beglrded,  past  part,  begirded  or  begirt. 

Old  English  begyrdlan],  past  begyrde,  past  participle  btgyrded. 
Begonia,  |>2ura{  begonias,  be.gd'.nlMh,  Elephant's  ears  (a  plant.) 

So  called  from  M.  JBegon,  French  botanist. 
BegidiiB,  Beg'.winz,    A  sect  of  religious  women  of  Germany. 
So  caUed  from  a  linen  cap  (or  beguin)  which  they  wear. 


I 


60  ERROnS  OF  SPEECH 

Behalf.    A  cormption  of  the  Old  English  heh€fe  fhenefit). 

Behold,  past  and  past  participle  beheld.     The  more  ancient 
participle  beholden  means  "  under  an  obligation." 
Old  English  Uheald\!am.\  past  hiiuold,  past  pari  behealden. 
Behoof  (noun),  behove  (verb),  Old  Eng.  be.h6f[ian].    Rule  li. 

Belay,  past  a.nd.  past  part,  belayed  (2  syl.),  not  belaid.  (R.  xiv.) 

Old  English  beldw[an],  past  beldtode,  past  part,  heldwed.  LdwOf  a 
betrayer,  and  prefix  be-  which  converts  nouns  into  verbs.  It  has 
no  connection  with  the  verb  "lay."    (Old  English  lecgan.) 

Beldam  (French  belle  dame).  A  euphemism  for  "  an  old  hag.** 
Similarly  the  French  say  bel  age  for  great  age. 

Belemnite,  beV.em.nite  not  beV .emdte.    **  Thunderbolt." 

Greek  hSUlntmony  a  dart.    (These  "  stones  "  are  fossil  molltucs.) 

Belie,  be.ll\  past  be.lied',  part.  pres.  bely'-ing.    {See  b^y.^ 
Old  Eng.  helec^an\,  past  htlege,  past  participle  beled. 

Belief  {noun),  believe  {verb);  be.leef,  be.leeve.    (Rule  K.) 

Believe,  believ-ab)e,  believ-er,  believ-ing,  beliov-ingly. 

Belle,  plural  belles,  feminine  of  Beau,  plural  beaux  (French), 
belly  bells  ;  bo,  boze.    Pretty  girls  and  their  admirers. 

Belles  lettres  (plu),  bel  lettr.    Polite  literature.    (French.) 

Bello^ni  (plural),  may  refer  to  a  single  pair,  but  always  requires 
a  plural  construction  :  **  The  bellows  are  broken." 
Old  English  bylig,  bellows  (from  bcelg,  a  bag). 
Belly,  plural  bellies,  beV.llz ;  bellied,  beV.lld.     (Rule  zi.) 
Belly-ing,  belly-ache,  belly-ful.    {See  Belie.) 
Old  English  belig  (from  bcelg,  a  bag) ;  Welsh  boly. 
Belong  requires  to  after  it :  as  **  This  belongs  to  me." 
Old  English  gelang,  belonging  to,  property  of. 

Belvedere,  beV.ve.deer^.    A  lookout  in  a  garden. 
Italian  bel  vedere,  fine  sight ;  Latin  bellus  videre 

Bend,  past  and  past  part,  bent;   bended  (a^j.),  as  '*0n-  my 
bended  knee." 
Old  English  bend[an],  past  bende,  past  participle  bended. 
Beneath,  be.neetK  not  be.neerK.     Old  English  beneothan. 

Benedick  or  Benedict.  A  man  who  vows  not  to  many. 
"  Benedick ''  (in  Miu:h  Ado  about  Nothing)  vows  he  will 
not  marry,  but  afterwards  marries  Beatrice.  "  Benedict" 
is  a  play  on  the  proper  name.  It  means  **  Blessed,"  or 
"  Made  happy,"  and  is  applied  to  an  old  bachelor  who 
has  become  a  bridegroom. 

Benefactor,  feminine  benefactress,  ben.ef&kf.tor,  ben.e.faW.tren. 
-or  is  more  common  than  -er  after  t  and  s.    Unhappily 
no  uniform  rule  is  observed. 
Lattn  hmspKio,  tedo  well ;  benefieivm,  a  benefit  or  good -deed,  fte. 


AND  OF  SPELUNG.  (A 


Benefit*  poM  and  past  part,  benefited  not  "benefitted  ;  benefiting 
not  benefitting.    (Latin  beneficio.)    Hole  iii. 

Bemgn,  benignly,  bejititufy  be.niiU'.ly  ;  but  benignant,  benig- 
nantly,  benignity,  be.nig" .nant,  be.nig\ni.ty,  &c. 
Latin  henigntu,  benignant  (b^n%u  old  form  of  b&ims,  goodX 

Benmnb,  be.num'.    To  make  numb  or  insensible  from  cold. 

Old  English  .&enim[an],  past  bendm,  past  participle  henumen,  to  stn- 
T^ty,  to  bennmb.    (The  b  is  interpolated.) 

Benzine,  benjseen\    A  fluid  obtained  from  coal-tar. 

Better  BenzolB,  ben-zoUf  as  tbe  termination  -ine  denotes 
a  gas.  So  called  by  Mitscberlich,  who  obtained  it  from 
benzoic  a^id.  It  was  Ftuuday  who  discovered  it  in  whale 
oil  and  coal  tar. 

Benzoin,  &en.2;a^n^  resin  of  the  Benzoin  plant  (Styrax  Benx<nn), 
In  French  Styrax  Benjoin,  and  hence  called  *'  Gum  Benjamin." 

Benzoine,  benjso^ln  not  ben.zoin\  Obtained  from  bitter  almonds. 
Beqneef  (noun),  bequeath  (verb),  be.kweeth\  0.  Eng.  bectoHhlan], 
Berbeiis,  ber^M.ris  (Latin).    The  barbeiiy  genus  of  plants. 

Bereave,  past  and  past  part,  bereft  or  bereaved  (2  syl.) 
Old  Sng.  bered{f[ian],  past  bered^ode,  past  part,  beredfod. 

Berg,  a  mountain.    Burg  or  burgh,  a  fortified  place :  as 
"  Heidelberg,"  the  heather-hill  (Germany) ; 
"  Edinburg,"  the  fortified  town  of  Dimedin  (Scotland). 
Old  English  berg,  a  hilL    Bwrh,  genitive  bwrQe,  a  f<Mrt. 

Bemardine,  Be'/.nar.dine  not  Ber.nar^.dine.    Adj.  of  the  next. 

Bemardins,  Ber^.nar.dins.     So  called  from  St.  Ber'nard. 

Berry,  plu.  berries,  ber'.rizy  a  fruit.  Bury,  to  inter  (only  one  "  r  "). 
Both  Old  Eng. :  Berie  (only  one  "  r  "),  a  berry.    Buriian],  to  bnry. 

Berth,  a  place  to  sleep  in.    Birth,  the  act  of  being  bom. 
Both  Old  Eng. :  Btir,  a  bed-room  ;  Beorth  or  berth,  birth, 

Beiyl,  ber^.nl.    A  precious  stone  somewhat  like  an  emerald. 

Greek  hirullda.    (In  tbe  Greek  word  the  "  e  "  is  long.) 
Beseech,  pMt  and  past  part,  besought.  (The  "  g  "  is  interpolated.) 

Old  Eng.  besedian] ;  past  besdht ;  past  part,  besffht. 

Beset',  past  and  past  part,  beset ;  pres.  part,  besett-ing  (R.  i.) 
Old  English  besettan;  past  besette;  past  part  beseten  or  beaetten. 

Beside,  by  the  side  of.     Besides,  in  addition  to,  moreover. 
Besom,  beei'.zum  not  bee^sum.    A  large  broom.     (0.  Eng.  besm.) 
Besot',  besott-ed,  besott-edly,  besott-edness,  besott-ing,  besott- 

ingly.     (Old  English  besot.)    Bule  i. 
Bespeak',  pcut  bespoke;  past  participle  bespoken  [bespoke]. 
Old  English  &espr^e[an] ;  past  be^prcec;  past  participle  besprooen. 


52  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Besprinkle,  past  besprinkled,  past  part,  besprinkled  or  be- 
sprent.    (The  prefix  be-  added  to  verbs  intensifies  them.) 

Old  English  bespren^an],  past  hesprengde,  past  participle  he*prenged  ; 
also  hesprinciim^f  past  hespranc,  past  participle  bespruncen. 

Best  (superlative  deg.)  Good,  better,  best.  (Obsolete  positive 
bet  more.*)  At  best;  at  the  best :  as  ''Life,  at  best,  is  but 
a  shadow ;  *'  "  Life,  at  the  best,  is  but  a  shadow."  "  Life 
at  best"  means — to  say  the  best  of  it,  "Life  at  the  best  " 
means — in  its  best  condition^  taking  the  most  favourable 
example.     The  two  ideas  are  not  identical. 

Bestial,  bestiality,  bestially  (Latin  bestia).    See  Beast. 
Bestir",  bestirred  (2  syl),  bestirr-ing.     {Be-  intensifies  "  stir.") 

Old  Eng.  bestyT^ian],  past  bestyrde,  past  participle  bestyred. 
Bestrew,  past  bestrewed  (2  syl.),  past  part,  bestrewed  or  be- 
strewn. (The  prefix  be-  added  to  verbs  intensifies  them.) 

Bestrew,  past  bestrewed  (2  syl,),  past  part,  bestrewed  or 

bestrewn.     To  scatter  thoroughly,  to  strew,  well. 
Old  English  be8treow[ian],  past  bestreowode,  past  part,  besbrwwod. 
Bestride,  past  bestrode  or  bestrid,  past  part,  bestridden. 

Old  Eng.  bestT(Bd{(m\y  past  bestrode,  past  part,  bestrxeelen.. 
Bestud,  past  bestudd-ed,  pa>st  part,  bestndd-ed  or  bestad,  be- 
studd-ing.    To  decorate  with  studs.     (Rule  i.) 
Old  Eng.  stvdUy  %  stnd.  Be-  added  to  noons  converts  them  into  yerbs. 
Bet,  pa^t  and  paxt  part,  bet  or  betted.   Bett-or,  bett-ing.   (R.  i) 
(**  Bettor,*'  with  -or,  to  distinguish  it  from  the  adjective.) 
Old  Eng.  I>eu2[tan],  past  badode,  past  participle  badod. 
Betake,  pa^t  betook,  past  part,  betaken ;  pres.  part,  betaV-ing. 

Old  English  betd(ian\  past  betdhte,  past  participle  betdht. 
Bethink,  past  and  past  part,  bethought.    To  call  to  mind  by 
thinking.    (The  "  g  "  is  interpolated.) 
Old  English  bethenc[an],  past  bethdhte,  past  participle  bethdhi. 
Betray",  betrayed'  (2  syl.),  betra/ing,  betray  al,  betray'er.  (R.xiii.) 
The  prefix  be-  added  to  "  traitor  "  converts  it  into  a  verb. 
Betroth,  be.trSth  not  be.troth.     To  pledge  to  marry. 

Old  Eng.  tr^owth,  troth,  pledge.  The  prefix  be-  makes  verbs  of  noiuu. 
Better,  more  good.    Bettor,  one  who  bets.    {See  Best.) 
Betonia  (no  such  word).    It  should  be  Petunia,  pe.tu\ni,aK 
Bevel,  bevelled  (2  syl.),  bevell-ing,  bevell-er.     (Rule  iiL  -el.) 

French  biviau  or  biveavk  (nonn),  a  sloping  edge. 
Beware-of.  No  past  tense,  participle,  or  gerund.  Without  an 
auxiliary  it  is  used  only  in  tbe  Imperative  and  Infinitive 
present.  {The  auxiliaries  used  with  it  are  shall  and 
should,  may  and  might,  also  the  verbs  must,  needn,  can, 
and  could,  but  not  do  or  did,  have  or  had,  am,  be,  or  was.) 
Old  Eng.  «M^,  caution.    Prefix  be-  converts  nouns  to  verbs. 


AND  OF  SPELLING,  53 

Bey,  a  Turkish  prince.    Bay,  a  smaU  gulf;  a  laurel. 

"  Be^,"  Tnzkish  Ug     "  Bay,"  French  bote,  Old  French  b^ 

Bi- or  Bis- (prefix).  Latin  &M.  Twofold,  doable.  "Bis  "drops 
the  8  before  consonants.  The  two  exceptions  are  biscuit 
and  histextile.  Before  "  o  "  it  is  written  bin  as  bin-oxidf, 
bin-oxaZaU,  &o.  (This  prefix  it  often  added  to  Greek 
words,  instead  of  dis.) 

In  Chemical  nomenclature  the  Greek  and  Latin 
numeral  prefixes  have  an  arbitrary  force :  Thus  in  meta- 
loids,  if  the  base  is  in  excess  the  Greek  prefixes  are 
employed :  di-  (2),  tris-  (3),  &c. ;  but  if  the  gas  is  in 
excess  the  Latin  prefixes  are  used :  pro-  (1),  sesqui-  (li), 
di-  (2),  ter-  (3),  &c.  Thus  a  "  dinoxide  of  A  "  (tlie  base), 
wotdd  mean  2  quotas  of  A  to  one  of  oxygen  ;  but  "  bin- 
oxide  of  A"  would  mean  2  quotas  of  oxygen  to  one  of  A 
(the  base). 

Bias,  ii^xu,  A  leaning  or  tendency  in  one  particular  way, 
(verb)  bi'assed  (2  syL),  bi^ass-ing.  (French  biaiSy  bias.) 
The  doubling  of  the  s  in  this  verb  is  an  outrage.    (B.  ii.; 

Kb|  bibbed  (1  syL),  bibb-er,  bibb-ing  (Rule  i.),  but  bib-a^cious, 

bib-aclty,  bib'-ulous,  bib'-io  (the  wine-fly). 

Latin  bibo,  to  drink ;  bihaXf  genitive  bibdcis,  given  to  drink ;  M6iUu«, 
having  the  ci^iacity  to  sop  up  like  sponge. 

BtUe,  bi.ble.     The  Book  [of  Books].     (Li  Greek,  the  t  is  short.) 

BibMI.cal,  bib'Ji.og"-ra-pher,  bIb'-H-o.ma"-ni-a,  bib'.U.pole. 

"Bible)'*  Greek  bibUfs,  a  book. 

*'Bibli(%rapher,"  Greek  biblidgrapTios  or  bihlio-grapter,  a  writer  of 

books. 
''Bibliomania,"  Greek  bibli(Hnomia,  book  madness. 
"Bibliopole,"  Greek  biblio-pdUs,  a  bookseller  (pdUo,  to  sell). 

SSoarbonate,  bi.kayM.natA,     A  salt  with  two  equivalents  of 
carbonic  acid  to  one  of  a  base. 

Latin  bi  [bis]  ca/rbo  (-aU,  in  Chem.,  means  a  salt  formed  by  the  anion 
of  an  add  with  a  base).    The  ' '  acid  "  two  to  one  of  the  ' '  base. " 

Biocaroon.    No  such  word.   S6€Bigaroon.   A  white-heart  cherry. 

Biceps,  biceps.     Any  muscle  with  two  heads,  as  that  between 
the  shoulders  and  elbow.    Bicipital,  not  bicepitaly  bicipl- 
tous.    (Note  -ci,  not  -ce.) 
Latin  bi  [bis]  capui,  genitive  HcflpiHtf  with  double  head. 

Bicephalous,  bi,8ef\d,hu.    Having  two  heads. 

An  ill-oomponnded  word:  Latin  bi  [bis],  Greek  kgphdlSt  a  head. 
(It  ought  to  be  dicephalovs :  Greek  di  [dis]  kephaU,) 

Bfeliiomate,   bi.kro\mate.      A  salt  with    two    equivalents   of 

chromic  acid  to  one  of  the  base. 

Latin  bi  [bis],  Greek  chrdma  {-ate,  in  Chem.,  means  a  salt  formed 
by  ihe  union  of  an  acid  with  a  base).  Bi-  is  used  in  Chemical 
nomenclature  to  denote  that  the  gas  prevails.  JH-  (Greek)  to 
denote  that  the  base  prevails. 


I 


54  ERRORS  OF  8PEECB 

■» 

Bicuspid,  }n,lnu'.pid.     Having  two  points  or  two  fangs. 

Latin  hi  [bis]  cuapis,  two  spear-points  (as  a  tooth  with  two  itaiffi). 

Bid,  past  bade  (bad),  past  part,  bidden  [bid].    {Bod  is  a  tuI- 
garism.)    Bidd-er,  bidding,  bidd-en  (Rnlei.) 
Old  English  bidd[an],  past  bad,  past  participle  hedm,  to  M«L 

Bide,  past  bode  or  bided,  past  part,  bided,  bV.ded.     To  abide. 

Old  EngUah  bid[an],  past  bdd,  past  participle  Hdtn,  to  aUde. 
Biennial,  huen^niMl.    Lasting  two  years,  once  in  two  years. 
It  should  never  be  used  in  the  sense  of  "  twice  a  year." 
(See  Bi-monthly.)    Annual  becomes  -ennial  in  the  com- 
pounds bi-ennialy  tri-ennial,  per -ennial,  &c.    (Double  n.) 
Latin  biennis  (Jbis  annus,  doable  year),  one  year  twice  over. 
Bier,  a  barrow  for  the  dead.    Beer,  malt  liquor.    {See  Beer.) 

Biestings  or  beestings.     The  first  milk  of  a  cow  after  calving. 

Old  English,  bystingi,  byst,  or  beast. 
Biffin,  bif\Jm,  An  apple  which  is  dried  in  an  oven  and  flattened. 

Bifurcated,  bi.fw/'ka-ted.    Forked,  divided  into  two  branches. 

Latin  bi  [bis]  f'ttirea,  [like  the]  two  prongs  of  a  fork. 
Big,  bigg-er,  bigg-est ;  big-ness,  big-ly  (Rule  i.) 

Cormption  of  ''btig,"  swollen.    (Old  £ng.  verb  fttigfcm],  to  fwelL) 
Bigamy,  big\a.mp  ;  big^amist.    A  man  with  two  living  wives. 

An  ill-compounded  word :  Latin  bi  [bis],  Greek  gdmds,  donble  mar- 
riage.   The  word  ought  to  be  digamy.    Greek  dir^amos. 

Bigaroon,  hi(f.&.roon\     Corruption  of  Bigarreau. 

French  bigarreau,  the  mottley  cherry  (a  "White-heart ") ;  Low  Latin 
bigarella,  a  corruption  of  bivarella  (bis  variiu,  doubly  mottled). 

Bight,  a  small  bay.    Bite  (with  the  te+'th).    (Both  bite.) 

*',Bight,"  Old  Eng.  biga,  a  bay.    "  Bite/*  Old  Eng.  &«[on],  to  bite. 

Bignonia,  big.nd\ni.dh.    The  trumpet  flower,  yellow  jasmine,  *c. 

So  called  by  Toumefort  from  the  abb6  Bignon,  a  botanist. 

BignoniacesB,  big-nd'-ni.a'*-8^-e.    The  order  of  which  Bignonias 
are  types  (-acea,  in  Botany,  denotes  an  order). 

Bigot,  big\ot,  bigoted  not  bigotted.   A  religious  zealot.   (B.  iiL) 

Old  Eng.  b{f^an\  to  worship.    Suffix  -ot,  dim.  or  depreciatory. 
Bijou,  plu.  bijoux  (French),  bee\zho&,  bee'jshooz\    Trinkets. 
Bijoutry  (French),  bejshoo\try  not  b^outery.    Jewellery. 
Bilbo,  j^^u.  bilboes.    The  singular  means  a  "rapier,"  so  eaDed 
from   Bilbao,  in   Spain.     The  plural  means  "fetters.** 
Latin  bi  [bis]  boia,  double  collar  of  iron. 
Bilious,  biV.yus,  having  the  bile  out  of  order.    {N,B, — One  I.) 
Biliary,  biV.tS.ry  not  biWd.ry.    Relating  to  the  bile. 
BHiary  duct,  MV.tS.ry  duct  not  biVM.ry  due, 
UUn  biliOsus,  full  of  bUe  (Jbilis,  bUe). 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  55 

Billet,  &ir.l^    A  log  of  wood;  to  quarter  soldierg.     BiU'et-ed, 
bill'et-ing.     (One  t.    Kule  iii.) 

"BiUet  of  wood,'*  French  hilUt.  "BiUet"  (to  quarter  •oldiert). 
French  biUet,  s  ticket  (Latin  hyUa^  a  seal  to  authenticate  the 
order)  ;  Low  Latin  bUetuty  a  billets 

BOlei-doiix,  pttL,  billets-doux,  bee'.ya.doo',  he€\yu.dooze\  not 
billo.doo,  billy.dooze  (French).    A  love-letter. 

Billian,  biV.ytm.    A  million  million. 

L«Un  &i  [bis]  million,  a  milUoa  twice  over. 
Billy-goat,  a  male  goat.     Nanny-goat,  a  female  goat. 

Bilobate,  ln.W-hate,     (Botany,)     A  leaf  with  two  lobes.     This 
word  is  wrong.    The  o  is  short,  and  the  Bi  should  be  Di. 
Oreek  di  Wwm.    '*  Bilobate  "  is  part  Latin  part  Greek. 
Bimana,  ln.7na^-ndh  not  bima'nia.    It  ought  to  be  hV.mdn-ah. 
Animals  with  two  hands  like  men.    ("  Bima'nia  "  would 
mean  triad  on  two  subjects^  double  madness.) 
Latin  hi  [bisl  mdnu9,  having  two  hands. 
BiiDoiithly,  bi.manth'ly.    Twice  a  month.    In  this  sense  tbe 
word  is  quite  indefensible.    It  can  only  mean  "Every 
two  months; "  as  Biennial^  "every  two  years."    Besides, 
bi  (Latin)  monthly  (Anglo-Saxon)  is  a  filse  compound. 
It  should  be  Tifrymonthly  (twice  montlily). 

Binade,  bin*.a.cle.      Corruption   of  the  French   habitfacle  or 

'bitacle,    a    box    containing  the    compass    and    lights. 

Bin'ode,  a  telescope  with  two  tubes. 

"  Binacle,"  Latin  hahitdcutwrn,  a  small  house  or  abode. 
"Binocle,"  Latin  Mn  [bis]  oaUtu,  for  both  the  eyes.    (Set  B1-.) 

Binary,  bi\nii.ry  not  bin'.a.ry.    Combination  of  two  bodies  (as 

double  stars),  two  compounds,  two  figures,  <fcc. 

Latin  blndrinii  (binus,  Le.,  bi  [bis]  unus,  one  twice). 

Bind,  past  and  past  participle  bound,   to  fasten  by  bonds. 

Boiinden  (adjective),  obligatory  :  as  *•  My  bouuden  duty." 

Old  English  bindian],  past  band,  pa«t  participle  bunden. 

Binnacle  or  binacle.     (See  Binacle.) 

Binoxalate,  bin.ox' .&.late.  Binoxide,  bin.ox\ide.  In  Chemistry 
the  Latin  numerical  prefixes  j>ro-  (1),  sesqui-  (li),  hi-  (2), 
ter-  (3),  denote  that  the  ga^  is  the  part  refeiTed  to,  and 
prevails.  The  Greek  di-  (2),  tris-  (:)),  <tc.,  denote  that 
the  base  is  the  part  referred  to,  and  is  2,  3,  <fec.,  to  one  of 
the  gas.  {See  Bi-.) 
Latin  bin  [bis],  Greek  oxMis,, 
Biography,  bl.og'.rd.fy.     The  written  history  of  a  person's  life. 

Greek  bios  grapho,  I  write  the  person's  life. 
Bblogy,  M.oV.d.gy.    The  science  which  investigates  the  pheno- 
mena of  life,  whether  animal  or  vegetable. 
Oreek  bios  logos,  a  treatise  or  discourse  about  "  life." 


56  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Biped,  bi\ped.     One  who  has  two  feet,  like  men  and  birds. 

Latin  M  [bis]  pifdes,  two  feet 
Bipennate  or  bipinnate,  bLpen\nate  or  M.pin^nate, 

Latin  b%  [bis]  penna  or  pinna,  having  two  wings. 

Bird  {common  gender).    Cook-bird  (male\  hen-bird  (female). 
Old  Eng.  bird,  a  bird ;  brid,  a  young  bird  or  a  brood. 

Birr,  ber^  a  whirring  noise.    Burr,  a  prickly  plant. 

"  Birr/'  an  on'omatope  (4  syL)  "  Burr,"  Old  Eng.  bwre,  the  bnrdock. 

Birth,  act  of  being  bom.    Berth,  a  sleeping-place.    {See  Berth.) 

Bis-  (prefix),  Latin  bis,  "two,"  "twofold,"  "double."  The  "s"  is 
dropped  before  consonants  (except  in  bis-cuit  and  bU-sex- 
tile.  Before  "  o  "  it  becomes  bin-,  as  bin-ode^  bin-oxide. 
In  Chemical  nomenclature  it  denotes  that  the  gas  is  two- 
fold the  quantity  of  the  base.  Thus  bi-carbonate  of 
potash  means :  two  equivalents  of  carbonic  acid  gas  to 
one  of  potash. 

Biscuit,  bis'.kit  (Ft.  bis-cuit,  twice  cooked ;  Lat.  bis  coctlus]). 

l?his  word  and  "  bis-sextile "  are  the  only  two  which 
retain  the  8  of  "bis"  before  a  consonant. 

Bisected,   bi.sek\ted.    Cut  into  two  equal*  parts. 

Latin  bi  [bis]  sectua,  cut  into  two  parts  (called  biseg'ments). 

Bishop.    In  the  Saxon  period  called  bisceop  or  biscop,  and  his 
diocese  a  bisceopdom  or  biscopdom.    Contraction  of  Greek 
episkdpos,     Latin  episcopus  ('piscop'). 
Greek  epi  8k6p6$,  an  overseer  (of  the  clergy) ;  verb  dOpfy,  to  look. 

Bismuth,  biz.mUth  not  biss.muth  (French).    A  metaL 

In  German  it  is  h^mulh  or  vfismnth. 
Bison,  bi'.8on  (Greek  bison).    A  wild  ox  with  a  hunch. 
Bissextile,  bis. ses^. tile.    Leap-year.    {See  Biscuit.) 

Latin  bis  sextilU,  the  sixth  [of  the  calends  of  March  or  February  24, 
*       counted]  twice.    Now,  a  day  (29;  is  added  to  February. 

Bisulphate,  bi.suV-fate,    A  salt  containing  two  equivalents  of 
sulphuric  acid  to  one  of  the  base. 

Latin  hi  [bis]  mlphur,  sulphur  twice.  The  suffix  -ate  denotes  a  salt 
where  the  acid  is  mo<tt  oxidised,  and  therefore  ends  \n  -ic:  as 
sulphu'ric  acid  ;  -ite  denotes  a  salt  where  the  acid  is  less  oxidised, 
and  therefore  ends  in  -ou«,  as  sulphite  a  salt  formed  of  suXphUnnu 
add  with  a  base. 

Bit,  a  morseL    Bitts  (plural),  two  pieces  of  timber  in  the  fore- 
part of  a  ship  round  which  cables  are  fastened. 

Bit,  bitt-ed,  bitt-ing.     To  put  the  bit  into  a  borse's  mouth. 

Bitt,  to  put  the  cable  round  the  bitts ;  bitt-ed,  bitt-ing. 

"  Bit,*'  Old  Eng.  U^anl  P^t  hdt,  past  part,  hiten,  to  bite. 
"  Bitt,"  Old  Eng.  hitol,  a  bridle  fa  cable  is  the  ship's  bridle]. 
{The  second  "t "  i«  added  to  distinguish  the  ttoo  vords.) 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  57 

Bitch,  femxnine  of  dog.    Also  a  gender-word  as  hitch-fox^  dog- 
fox ;  biteh-ape,  dog-ape ;  bitch-otter,  dog-otter,  &o. 
Old  English  bioee  or  bycge,  s  bitch. 
Bite  (with  the  teeth).     Bight,  a  bay.     {See  Bight.) 

Bite,  past  hit,  past  part,  bitten  [bit] ;  bit-ing,  bit-er.  H.  xiz. 

Bitter,  bi1f.tert  aeiid.    Biter,  bVAer,  one  who  bites. 

*'  Ktter,"  Old  £ng.  biter,  bitter.    **  Biter/'  Old  Eng.  bitt,  s  moraeL 
BittB  (for  cables).     Bits  (for  horses).    See  Bit. 
Bitumen,  bttu\men  not  b%f,u.men.     Mineral  pitch  or  tar. 

Bitn'miniae,  bita'minisa"tion  (s  not  "z.")    Kule  xxxi. 

Latin  bitumen;  (Greek  pUia,  pitch  or  tar.) 

BiYonao  (French),  biv\oo,ak.    To  encamp  in  the  open  air. 

It  onght  to  be  pronounced  biv.wdkf  '*  on  **  in  French  being  equal  to 
«:  thus  "25ouave'*  (1  syL),  Zwarve,  "Edouard,"  Ed.ward. 

Biweekly,  bi.weekly.  Twice  a  week.  This  word  is  quit<«  inde- 
fensible. It  means  **  Every  two  weeks "  (once  a  forr- 
night).  The  compound  is  also  abnormal.  Bi  (Latin) 
weekly  (Ang.-Sax.)  It  should  be  Twyweekly,  twice  a  week. 

Bizam  not  bizzarre  (French),  &i.za/.    Fantastic. 

Bazaar  is  a  mart  or  d^pdt  of  fancy  articles.    (See  Bazaar. ) 
Blab,  blabbed  (1  syl.),  blabb-ing,  blabb-er  (to  tell  tales).     (R.  i.) 

Norse  blahble,  to  gabble ;  QArman  plappem,  to  blab. 
Sadder  (double  d).    The  old  form  has  but  one  "  d,"  blcedre." 
Blain,  a  sore.    The  old  form  was  bUegen. 

Same,   blam-able   (not  blame-able),  blam-ably   (B.  xix.  xx.), 
blame-ful,  blame-less,  &c,,  blame- worthy.    (Rule  xvii.) 
{Only  words  ending  in  "  -ce  *'  and  "  -ge  "  retain  the  "  e  " 
before  the  postfix  "-able.") 

Blancmange,  blam-mo'nj\    A  white  jelly-like  confection. 

An  English  i)erver8ion  of  the  French  blancmanger. 

Blaze,  blair  (like  a  cow).    Blear,  ble'-ar,  sore :  as  "  blear-eyes." 

"  Blare,**  Low  Oerman  blarren,  to  cry.  "  Blear,"  Danish  blcere,  a  sore. 

Bbufpheme',  blasphe'ming,  blasphemed'  (2  syl.),  blasphe'raer ; 

but  blas'phSmous,  blas'phSmously,  blas'phSmy.      (The 

"  6  "  long  in  Greek.) 

QnekbUuphimed  (blapris  ph4mi),  to  opeak  hnrtfol  words.     "Blas- 
phSmy/'  Greek  iUupfUmia;  "  blasphemous,"  Greek  blaspMmds. 

-Ue  (postfix)  Lat.  -bil[i8],  added  to  nouns :  "  able  to,"  "full  of,"&c. 
Bfeach,  bleech.    To  whiten.    (The  '  *  ea  "  is  the  diphthong  d.) 

Old  Eni^h  Uddian]  or  blddiicm],  to  bleach. 
Bleak,  bUek,     Cold.    (The  *•  ea  "  is  the  diphthong  d.) 

Old  Eng.  bUhe  or  bUUs,  pale,  bleak.    So  Lat.  pallidiis,  pale,  bleak. 
Bear,  bleer,  sore.    Blare,  blare,  to  bellow.    {See  Blare.) 


58  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

^BA&bX,  hleet  (like  a  sheep).    (The  "  e&"  is  the  diphthong  a). 

Old  Eng.  hUxt^  a  bleating ;  verb  hlasUm,  to  bleat. 
Bleed,  past  B^ndi  past  participle  Ued;  blooded,  by  venesection. 

Old  English  bUdJian\,  to  bleed,  or  to  draw  blood. 
Blend,  past  blended,  past  participle  blended  or  blent. 

Old  English  &2encl[an],  past  blond,  past  participle  bUmden. 
-blende,  a  word  added  to  several  metals :  as  "  horn-blende,'*  &c. 

German  hlendejit  to  dazzle.    The  metals  so  named  are  Instrow. 
Bless,  to  make  happy.    Bliss,  happiness.    Old  Eng.  hliSy  joy. 
Bless,  past  blessed  (1  syL)  or  blest,  past  participle  blest 

Blessed    (a4j.,   "happy,"    "extolled"),    bUss'-ed    (2    syl.) 

(Blessed  be  the  dead  which  die  in  the  Lord. — ^Rev.  xiv. 

Blessed  be  the  God  of  Abraham.)    Similarly,  blessedly, 

bless'. eddy  ;  blessedness,  ble82f.ed.ness. 

Old  English  hU88[ian\,  xMut  hUstode,  past  participle  hltuodf  to  bless. 

Blight,  blite.    A  disease  of  plants  by  which  they  are  withered. 
Old  English  btoctA,  nut,  mildew. 

Bliss  (Old  English  &2m,  joy).    Bless  (Old  English  bUs»\ianlX/o 
make  joyful). 

Blithe,  not  bllrh,  cheerful    Old  English  blUhCy  joyful. 

Blithely,  blitheful,  blithesome,  blithesomeness,blithesomely. 
(Only  "  whole"  "  due,"  and  "  true"  drop  the  "  e  "  before  -ly,) 

Bloat,  blote ;  bloated,  bloater.    A  herring  slightly  dried. 

Blond  (adj.) ;  blonde  (noun),  a  woman  of  fair  complexion  and 
light  hair.    A  dark  woman  is  a  brunette.     (French.) 

Blossom  (double  s).    The  old  form  had  but  one  "  s,"  bldsm. 

Blood,  bliid ;  bloody ;  bloodi-er,  blud\\.er ;  bloodi-est,  blud^'X^estt 
bloodi-ly,  blud\i.ly ;  bloodi-ness,  blud'.i.ness. 
Old  Eng.  bldd,  blood ;  bUSdig,  bloody ;  blddgian  (verb). 

Bloom,  not  blume.    Old  Eng.  bldsm,  softened  into  bWm  (B.  Ixi) 
Old  Eng.  bl6sm\ian\,  past  bldsmode,  past  part,  bldsmod,  to  bloom. 

Blot,  blott-ed,  blott-ing,  blott-er,  blott-y  (Rule  i.) 

Old  Eng.  bldt,  black  [spot] ;  verb  blatian],  past  blatode,  p.  p.  blatod. 

Blouse,  blooz  not  blduze.    A  short  blue  smock-frock  worn  by 
French  artisans.    German  blau-los,  loose  blue. 

Blow,  past  blew,  past  participle  blown. 

Old  Eng.  bMtcian],  past  bUow,  past  part,  bldtoen,  to  blow,  or  bresQM; 
but  bl&w[ian],  past  bl&wode.  past  part.  bl&u)oa,  to  blow  or  blossom. 
"  Let  the  pealing  organ  blow,"  is  correct,  because  ths  organ  toundi 
only  when  the  organ  pipes  "  blow  "  or  trantmit  the  blast  of  the  M- 
lows.  "  Let  the  fire  blow,"  would  be  nonsense,  beeaui*  the  fire  dom 
not  bum  by  trammUiing  ike  liUuA  qf  t/M  beUotos. 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  69 

flue,  a  colour.    Old  Eng.  hUo.    Blew  (did  blow),  tee  above. 

BlneneaB,  blnebeU,  <fec.    **  A  fit  of  the  bliies,"  spleen  (B.  xvii.) 
Bla-ish,  blu-ishly,  blu-ishness  (Bule  xix.) 

nor,  blurred  (1  syl),  blorr-ing.    To  blemish.    (Bule  i.) 

Soft  (a  serpent),  hd'jih.    Boar  (a  pig),  hd\ar.    Bore  (to  make  ^ 
hole),  tore.    Boor  (a  rustic),  hoo'r. 

"Boa,"  Latin  hoa,  from  hos,  s  cow,  which  it  was  snpposed  to  snok. 
"  Boar,"  O.  Eng.  Mr.  "  Bore,"  0.  Eng.  h&r,  %  bore ;  Mrfian],  to  bore. 
"  Boot,**  Ihiteh  how,  a  farmer ;  Old  luglish  ne-hir,  s  nutic. 

kMT,  bd^MT,  a  male  pig ;  female  BCfW,    {See  Boa.) 

kMxd,  hdrd,  a  plank ;  to  famish  with  lodgings  and  meals. 

Bored,  bordy  perforated.    Bawd,  a  procnress. 

"Board,"  Old  Eng.  hdrd,  a  plank ;  alio  "food  and  lodging." 
**Bored,"  Old  Eng.  bdr[ian],  past  bdrode,  past  part,  bdrod,  to  bore. 
"Bawd,"  French  haude  (baudir,  to  incite.) 

Board-of-Trade,  plural  Boards-of-Trade,  &c. 

{Phrases  compounded  with  aprep.pluralise  only  the  Ist  word.) 

Boarder,  one  who  boards.    Border,  an  edging.   (Both  alike.) 

Borderer,  one  who  lives  on  a  frontier  or  border-land. 

Boarding,  pree,  part,  ef  board.  Bordering,  making  a  border. 

BoMt,  botte ;  boaster,  boasting,  boast'fol,  boast'fully,  &c. 

Welah  host,  a  boast ;  hostiad,  a  boasting ;  hostiior,  a  boaster ;  hostio,  v. 
Boit,  bote,  a  vessel  urged  by  oars.    Boot  (for  the  foot). 

Boated,  past  tense  of  boat.    Booted  (wearing  boots). 

Boating.    Boatswain,  a  ship's  officer  in  charge  of  the  boats. 

Boatman,  one  whose  trade  is  to  manage  a  boat. 

Boatsman,  an  amateur  manager  of  boats :  as  Lord  Star  is 

a  good  boatsman,  not  boatman. 
Old  English  hdt,  a  boat ;  hdt-swdn,  a  boatswain. 

Bob,  bobbed  (1  syL),  bobb-ing.     To  fish  with  a  bob,  <fcc.  (B.  i.) 
Bop.     (Provincial.)    To  duck  to  avoid  something. 

Bobbin.    A  spool  on  which  cotton  is  wound.    (Double  b.) 

French  bcibine  (only  one  h).    Bobbin,  in  French,  means  "  bobbinet." 

)ode;  boded,  bo\ded;  bod-ing,  bonding.    To  portend. 
Bodied,  bod\ed,  is  the  past  tense  of  body,  bodying,  &c. 
"Bode,"  Old  English  bodiian],  past  badode^  past  part,  bodod. 

lodioe,  bod\is8,  a  corset.    Bodies,  bod'.iz^  plu.  of  body. 

Old  Eng.  hodig  utu,  a  restraint  or  stay  for  the  trunk.    {See  Body.) 

Odleian  (library),  Bod\le.an.    A  library  at  Oxford.     So  called 
in  honour  of  Sir  T.  Bodley,  its  founder. 


60  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Body,  plu.  bodies,  bod\iz  ;  bodied,  bod\ed  ;  bod'i-ly,  bod'i-less ; 
possessive  singular  hod^y'^y  possessive  plural  bodies';  body- 
guard, body-lmen,  body-politio  (Rule  x.) 
Old  Eng.  hodig,  the  trunk  of  a  man,  the  whole  body  was  called  Uc 

Bog,  boggy  (full  of  bogs).    Bogy,  ho.gy,  a  hobgoblin. 

*         Bog,  Gaelic ;  Irish  hogcuik,    **  Bogj,"  Welsh  bwg,  with  -y  diminntive. 

Boisterous,    'boice\te.rus ;     boisterously,    boisterOusness,    not 
hoistrouSy  hoistroushff  boistrousness, 
Welsh  hwystiis,  savage,  ferocious  (Jbwyst,  a  savage,  f eroci^X 
Bold,  intrepid.    Bowled,  6oM,  past  tense  of  "  to  bowL** 

"  Bold,"  Old  Eng.  h6ld  or  hiUd.    "  Bowled,"  French  hotUe,  a  bowL 
Bolder  (more  bold).    Boulder,  a  large  rounded  stone. 

Bole  (1  syl.),  the  truilk  of  a  tree.    Bowl,  bole,  a  basin. 

"  Bole,"  Welsh  hoi,  the  belly.    "  Bowl,"  Old  Eng.  bolla,  a  basin. 

Bolero,  plu,  boleros^  bo,lai'/,ro,  bodair^,oee,    A  Spanisb  dance. 

Boletus,  ho.leel'.tus  (Latin).    A  species  of  fungus* 

Bolster,  a  long  pillow.    Bolsterer,  one  who  bolsters-up  another. 

Old  English  holfter,  a  pillow ;  i.e.,  bol,  a  sleeping-room,  -ster,  some- 
thing habitual  or  common  to  a  bedroom.    (See  -ster.) 

Bomb,  bom,  an  explosive  shell.    Boom  (of  a  ship). 

"  Bomb,"  Latin  bomhiis,  a  blast.     *'  Boom,*'  Dutch  boom,  a  spar. 

Bombardier  (Fr.),  bSm' -bar, deer".    The  soldier  who  fires  bombs. 

Bombasine,  b8m\ba.zeen.    A  cloth  made  of  sUk  and  cotton. 
It  ought  to  be  bombycine,  bom\by.tiin, 

Ladn  btymbydCnva,  made  of  silk  (hombyx,  silk  or  fine  cotton  jram ; 
Qreek  bombux,  the  silk- worm). 

Bon  mot  (French),  bohn  mo,    A  witticism. 

Bon  ton  (French),  boKn  to'gn.    Good  in  the  opinion  of  fashion. 

Bon  vivant  (French),  boh*n  veeiVah'gn,    One  who  loves  to  eat. 

Bonne  bouche  (French),  bon  bou^cK    A  dainty  or  "  tit  bit.*' 

Bona  fide  (Latin),  bo\nafi\dS,  In  good  faith,  without  deception. 

Bona  fides,  bo\nafi\deez.    An  equitable  intention. 

-bond  (postfix,  Latin  -bund[vs])k    Added  to  gerundial  nouns : 
as  vagabond,  a  wandering  person  or  vagrant. 

Bond-man,  /<m<  bond-woman,  plu,  bond-men,  -women,  a  slave. 

Bonds-man,  fern,  bonds-woman,  a  surety. 

Bone  (1  syl.),  boned  (1  syl.),  bon-ing,  bon-y.    Bon  (Fr.),  good. 
'*  Bone,"  Old  Eng.  Mit,  a  bone.    "  Bon,"  Latin  bonlus],  good. 

Bonito,   plur,  bonitoes  (Spanish),  boMee\toze,     A  species  of 
tunny-fish. 


AND  OF  SPELLING. 


Boa'^net  (for  the  head).    Bonnette,  him'et  (in  fortification). 

doQ^neted,  bon'neting  (with  only  one  t).    Role  ii. 

Both  French  (eonnected  witii  hen,  tiie  head  or  top,  as  Ben-NeTU). 

Bonny,  bon\ny  (jolly) ;  boni-ly.    Bony,  bd'.ny,  full  of  bones. 

*'  Bonny,"  Latin  bomu,  good,  with  -y  diminutive. 
"Bony,"  Old  English  bdnen,  adjectiye  of  bdn,  bone. 

Booby,  plu.  boobies;  pos.  sing,  booby's,  pos.pla,  boobies',  hoo'.'bez, 

Spanish  b^bo,  a  dolt. 

Book,  booh  not  hooke,    (Old  English  h6c.)    Rule  Ix. 

Boom  (of  a  ship).    Bomb,  &^,  an  explosive  shell.    {See  Bomb.) 
Dat<di  hoom,  a  spar.    Bonunon,  to  sound  like  %n  emptj  tub  (B.  IxL) 

Boon,  a  &YOur ;  corruption  of  the  Old  Eng.  &^,  a  petition. 
Boon  (companion) ;  Latin  bonus,  good  (Rule  Ixi.) 

Boor,  a  rustic.  Bore,  to  perforate.  Boar  (pig).  Boa,  a  serpent,  q.v. 

Boot  (for  the  foot).    Boat,  bote  (for  the  water).    {See  Boat) 

French  botte,  a  boot    "  Boot,"  profit.  Old  Eng.  Me,  profit  (B.  IxL  / ) 

Bootes,  Bo.d\teez,  a  constellation.    (Greek  bodtia,  a  herdsman.) 

Booth,  boothe  not  boorh,  a  shed.    Both,  both,  the  two  (R.  Ixii.  b). 

**  Booth,"  Gaelic  bdth :  Law  Latin  botha,  a  tent 
"Both,**  Old  English  bd-t%od,  both  two. 

Booty,  spoiL  Beauty,  bu\ty,  what  is  handsome,  Botty,  priggish. 

"  Booty,**  French  bwtin,  spoil    "  Beauty,  French  heaut4, 
"Botty,"  Welsh  bostiwr,  a  boaster ;  verb  bostio,  to  brag. 

Borado,  bo,ras',lky  adjective  of  "  borax."    (French.) 

Borage,  hS'.rSge  not  bur.ridge.    A  herb. 

Corruption  of  Garage,  Latin  eor-ago,  to  act  on  the  heart :  so  called 
from  its  cordial  virtues :  Ego  Bardgo  gaudia  semper  ago :  that  is. 
"  Burrage  gives  courage,"  or  "  Borage,  X  ween,  drives  away  spleen." 

lorder,  baw\der,  an  edging.    Boarder,  one  who  boards,  q.v, 
tore,  to  perforate.  Boor,  &oo'r,  a  rustic.  Boa,  &d.a^,  a  serpent,  g.v. 
oreoole,  bdr.kdle  (a  vegetable).    Welsh  bore  cawl,  early  cabbage. 

am  (to  life).    Borne,  bom,  carried.    Bourn,  bo'um,  a  Hmit. 

"  Bom  "  and  '*  Borne,"  Old  English  boren,  verb  birianl  to  bear. 
"  Bourn,"  French  borne,  a  limit  or  boundary. 

rough.  Burrow,  Borrow,  Barrow. 

Borough,  bur'rdh,  a  town  "  represented,"  but  not  episcopal 

Burrow,  bur^ro,  a  rabbit's  lodge. 

Borrow,  bor^ro,  to  take  on  loan. 

Barrow,  bar^ro,  a  hand-cart,  a  mound  over  the  dead. 


''Borough,"  Old  English  buruh  or  burug,  a  city.    Also  bturh. 
"Burrow,    Old  English  hurigen,  a  sepulchre,  or  bwruh,  a  dwelling. 


"Borrow,"  Old  English  horhor  boro,  a  loan. 

mi   " 


"Barrow,"  Old  EngUsh  bereiM,  a  wheelbarrow :  htorga,  a  mound, 
tw,  see  above.    (Double  r.) 


62  ERRORS  Oh  SPEECH 

Bob  (in  Zo6logy)y  the  ox  gena«  of  animaXs.    Boss,  a  knob. 

"  Bos,"  Latin  &o«,  ox,  bull,  cow,  &e.    ''Bou,"  French  hoitt,  %  hump. 

Boeom,  hooz\om  not  buzzum.    Old  Eng.  b^m.    (Rule  Ix.  <L) 

Botany,  bot.a.ny,  (Greek  hotanS,  herbage.)  This  word  sboold 
be  limited  to  fodder  and  herbage.  The  science  of  plants 
should  be  phytology,  fi.toV.o.gy.  (Greek  phutSn  ldg58, 
plants  the  subject.) 

Both,  both  not  borth.  Booth,  boothe,  A  tent-shop.   {See  Booth.) 

Both  of  tlLem,  "  Both-of ''  has  an  adverbial  sense.  It  does 
not  mean  both  out  of  them,  but  them  both4y  or  both- 
together.    {See  All.    All  of  them.) 

Bottle,  botf.tl  (for  wine,  &c,)    Bottel,  a  bundle  (bottel  of  hay). 

"  Bottle,"  French  bouteille;  Low  Lathi  btsHeiUa  or  huUieuia,  a  littl* 

6u«aor  *butt" 
"  Bottel,*^  French  boUU  a  little  botte  or  bundle. 

Bottom  (double  t).    The  older  form  was  botm. 
Boudoir  (French),  boo'.dwor,    A  lady's  private  room. 
Bough,  bow  (of  a  tree).    Bow  (of  a  boat),  to  bend  the  head. 

*'  Bough,"  Old  English  boh,  genitive  boges  (2  lyL) 

"Bow,"  to  bend  the  head,  Old  English  biig[<m]  imperfect  &if^ 

Boulder,  bold\er,  a  large  rounded  stone.    Bolder  (more  bold). 

"Boulder,"  corruption  of  Ixnolder,  a  [stone  which  has  heen]  bowled 

about. 
"Bolder,"  Old  English  hdldra,  more  b<dd  fb(UdJ. 

Bounty,    plu.    bounties,    boun.tiz ;    bounti-ful,    bonjitt4iiIly, 
bounti-fulness ;   but  bounte-ous,  bounte-ously^  bonnte- 
ouBDess.    [There  is  no  sufficient  reason  for  this  change  of 
the  vowel.    See  Beauty.) 
French  h<mt4,  Latin  bdnitas,  goodness  (bdnus  good). 

Bouquet,  plural  bouquets  (French),  boo\kay\  boo.haze^. 

Bourgeois,  bourjshwoiz  (sing  and  plural).  A  citizen,  a  burgess. 
(Pronounced  bour-zhwoi  in  French.) 

Bourn,  bo'um  not  bom,  ia  limit,  a  country.  Bom,  brought  fbrtli. 
Borne,  carried.    {See  Bom.) 

Bow,  biHw  (to  rhyme  with  now) :  (1)  a  salutation  with  the  heed, 
(2)  the  fore  part  of  a  boat  or  ship,  (3)  to  bend.  Bough 
(of  a  tree).    See  Bough. 

Bow,  bow  (to  rhyme  with  grow):  (1)  the  propeller  of  arrows, 
(2)  a  curve,  (3)  an  instrument  used  with  a  violin,  Ste, 

**  Bttw  •*  (to  bend) :  tM.  Eng.  he^an\  h€6i^an\  or  bUf^anl 
**  Bow  "  (for  shooting  arrows)  is  from  the  same  verb. 

%*  Compounds  in  which  "  bow  '*  rhymes  with  v<m  : — 

£5w-grace  (sea  term),  bdwman  (first  oar),  bdwpieee  (of  a 
ship),  bdwline  (in  ships),  the  Spanish  bolina. 


AXD  OF  BPELLING,  63 

%•  Gompounds  in  which  **  bow  "  rhymes  with  grow  : — 

Bow-bearer,  bow-bent,  bow-dye  (so  called  from  Bow,  near 
London),  bow-hand,  bow-instruments  (as  violins,  &c.\ 
bdw-legged,  bow-less,  bow-man  (an  archer),  bow-net,  bow- 
saw, bow-shot,  bow-sprit,  b$w«string,  bow- window,  &c. 

Bows,  bSwz  (of  a  ship).  Bows,  bdwz  (of  a  saddle).  Bouse, 
to  drink.    French  huveWy  a  drinker,  boire ;  L.  Lat.  buo. 

Bowed,  bSwd  (term  in  heraldry).  Bowed,  bowd,  bent. 
Bode,  to  portend.    Old  English  bod[ian'\,  to  tell. 

Bowing,  bSW'ing,  saluting.    Bowing,  bow-ingy  curviDg. 

{Am  "  bSw  '*  and  "  bow  "  are  from  the  same  verb,  the  only 
excuse  for  the  twofold  pron/tmeiation  is  that  of  making 
the  ttnse  more  clear,) 

Bowel,  |)2tiraZ  boweb,  bSw.elj  bSw.elz  ("h6w"  to  rhyme  with 
voir),  bowell-ed,  bowell-ing.    (Bale  iii.  -el.) 
French  hod,  Latin  boteUtu,  the  gut 
Bower,  bdwer  (in  a  garden),  a  boudoir.    Old  Eng.  biir,  a  bower. 

Bower-anchor,  bihvxr  an.kor  not  bow.er  an.kor.  The 
second  anchor,  carried  at  the  ship's  bdws. 

Bowie  Knife,  bow\ee  nife  not  bSw'.ee  nife.  Used  in  North 
America.  So  called  from  "  Jim  Bowie,"  one  of  the  most 
daring  characters  of  the  United  States. 

Bowl,  bowl,  a  basin.    Bole,  a  clayey  earth. 

"  Bowl,"  French  houU,  a  bowL    ** Bole,"  Greek  bdlds,  a  elod. 

Bowler,  bowLer  not  b8w,ler.    One  who  bowls. 

Bowling'-green,  bowl.ing  green  not  bSw.Ung  green, 

Bo^ed,  bowld  not  bSwld,    Bold,  intrepid.    {See  Bold.) 

Boy,  plu.  boys,  feminine  Girl,  plu.  girls.    Buoy,  a  float. 

"B07,"  Old  English  byre,  a  son  (verb  byriiari],  to  raise). 
"  Buoy/'  French  houie;  Butch  boH,  a  float. 

Brace,  a  tie ;  two  head  of  game,  <S;o.    Brass,  a  mixt  metal. 

Brace  (verb),  braced  (1  syl.),  brac-ing,  brac-er ;  but  brace-let. 

"Brace,"  French  brat,  the  arms,  hence  embosser,  to  hug. 
"Brass/*  Old  English  brcu,  hvass. 

Brachial,  bray\ki,dL    Pertaining  to  the  arms. 

Latin  brdehicUis  (Jbrdehlwn,  the  arm) ;  Greek  brachidn. 

Brachiopod,  plu.  brachiopods  or  brachiopoda,  brdk\td.pdd, 
ln'Sk'.i.5p'\S.day,    Molluscs  with  feet  like  arms. 

Greek  brachidn  potts  fpodotj,  arms  [for]  feet. 

Brag,  bragged  (1  syl.),  bragg-ing,  bragg-ingly,  bragg-er,  braggart. 

Braggadocio,  plu.  braggadocios.     (Bule  xlii.) 

Old  EngUah  braglani  to  pretend  to  arrogate  to  oneself. 


64  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Brahman  or  Brahmin,  plu.   Brahmanf  or  Brahmins,  never 

Brahmen,    The  termination  -man  is  merely  bj  accident 

like  our  word  **  man/'  as  Boiman,  &c.    It  arises  from  the 

addition  of  -n  to  a  noun  ending  in  -mat  as  Brahma[n], 

Boma[n].    Brahmanlc,  Brahminlcal,  Brah'manism. 

**  Brahman,"  from  BrahmA  :  *'  Brahmin,"  from  Brahm, 
Brahma  or  Brahm,  chief  of  the  Hindti  Trinity. 

Braid,  brdde,  trimming.  Brayed,  past  tense  of  bray.  (See  Bray.) 
"  Braid/'  Old  English  hrede  (verb  hredian],  to  weave). 

Brain,  brcme  (of  the  head).    Old  English  IrcBgen^  the  brain. 
Brake.    A  female  fern,  a  skid,  a  carriage  for  training  horses,  (fee 

Break,  brakes  to  fracture 

"  Brake  "  Cbl  fem\  Danish  hregns.    Welsh  bnog,  bracken. 
''Brake  "  (a  skid),  Latin  brodiiiifit,  an  arm,  a  lever. 
*'  Brake  "  (a  carriage),  Old  Eng.  brecCt  a  [carriage  for]  breaking-in. 
*'  Break  "  (to  fractnre).  Old  English  breeian],  to  rupture. 

Bramble,  bram\b'l.    The  older  spelling  is  brarnbel  or  brembeL 

Bran,  brSn.    The  husk  of  ground  com.    Brann-y.    (Bule  i.) 
French  bran :  as  bran  de  scU,  sawdust. 

Bran-new.    Quite  new,  with  the  sheen  or  brightness  still  there. 

Old  Eng.  breTie  or  bryne,  shining ;  verb  bymian],  brennlan],  to  bum. 
The  word  occurs  with  a  difference  in  "  Brown  "  bnin,  tiie  colour  of 
things  burnt :  "brim-stone,"  burning  stone ;  "brand"  fhran^J  d 
being  added  to  convert  the  participle  into  a  noun  ;  "Bum-idi," 
to  make  the  surface  glow.    Not  a  corruption  of  Brandrnno, 

Brandy,  plural  brandies,  bran'.diz ;  brandied,  bran*. did, 
(German  brannt-wdn,  Dutch  brandTvrijn,  burnt-wine. 

Brass,  brds  (a  mizt  metal).  Brasses,  monumental  slabs  of  brass. 
Brassy,  brassi-ness ;  brazen,  brazier  (a  worker  in  brass). 
Old  Eng.  brcBSf  brass ;  brcesen,  braien  :  bratian,  to  brase. 

BT2LYSud.o,plu,hiAYSud.oea,bra.vah'.do,bra.vah\doze.  Brag,  (xlii) 
Spanish  bravdta,  the  brag  of  a  bully  ;  braveadir,  a  bullj. 

Brave,  braver  or  more  brave  (eomp.)y  bravest  or  most  brave  (sup,), 
braved  (1  syl.),  brav-ing,  brav-ery,  brave-ly.   (Fr.  bnive.) 

Bravo,  plu.  bravos,  brah\voze.    Assassins  for  hire.    (Rule  xlii) 
Italian  brdvo  (noun  and  adj.)  ;  Spanish  brdvo  (adj.),  ferocious. 

Bray,  brays,  brayed  (1  syl.),  bray-ing,  bray-er.  (Fr.  braire.)  R.  xiii. 

Braze,  to  solder  with  brass.    Braise,  charcoal  used  in  a  brasier. 

Braize,  a  method  of  cooking  over  a  slow  fire.  Bn^ya,  Srd 
per.  sing,  of  bray.    Breeze,  refuse  coke,  &q. 

"  Braze,"  Old  English  brcuiianl,  to  cover  with  brass. 

"  Braise,"  French,  prepared  charcoal  for  cooking  purposes. 

"  Braise."  French  hraiMT,  to  bake  over  braise. 

"  Brays  "  (i>oubds  in  a  mortar).  Old  Eng.  &roe[an].  to  bruise. 

'  Breese,"  French  bn«tf,  broken ;  Latin  briso,  something  trodden  on. 


tt 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  65 

Brazen,  ought  to  be  hasen^  adj.  of  hratt,  not  "  soldered." 
Old  Engliah  brauen,  made  of  brass  [hrcu). 

Brazier,  one  who  brazes  or  works  in  brass.    Brasier,  a  pan 
to  hold.  "  braise  "  or  charcoal  in  ignition. 

Breach,  breechy  a  gap.    Breech,  the  thick  end  of  a  gun,  &c. 

**  Breach/'  Old  Eng.  brice  (c=ch),  a  fracture  :  French  breche. 
**  Breech  "  (the  hinder  part  or  bottom),  Old  Eng.  briCf  breeches. 

Bread,  hrSdy  food.    Bred,  past  and  past  part,  of  breed. 

*'  Bread.**  Old  Eng.  bread  or  bread,  bread,  food  generallf. 
"  Bred/^  Old  Eng.  breed  of  the  verb  6r^cQan],  to  nourish. 

Bi-eadth.  "Length,"  "depth,"  "breadth;"  "height"  not  heighth. 

Old  Eng.  brddy  broad,  with  -tk.    This  suffix  added  to  adjectives 
converts  them  into  abstract  nouns,  as  strong,  gtrengih;  &c. 

Break,  brake  not  breeky  to  rupture.     Brake,  a  female  fern. 
Break,  pa«t  broke  [brake],  j7a«t  part,  broken  [broke]. 

BreakfjEUStt,  brek'.fdsU    The  morning  meal  (break  [the]  fast). 

Breaking,  brdke.ing  not  breek.ing.    (See  Break.) 

Bream,  a  fish  of  the  carp  family.    Brim,  brim,  a  rim,  a  brink. 

"  Bream,"  French  britne  {bramd].     **  Brim,"  Old  Eng.  brymme. 
Breast,  brest  (of  the  body).    Old  Eng.  bredst,  the  breast. 
Breath,  brith  (noun) ;  breathe,  breethe  (verb).    Bule  li. 

Breath  (6r^tA),  breath'-less,  breath'-lessly,breath'-les8ness. 

Breathe  (breethe)  y  breathed  (1  syl.),  breath' -ing,   breathes 

(1  syl.),  breath'-er,  breath'-ing-time. 

Old  Eng.  brdthy  breath,  an  odour,  exhalation. 

Breccia,  brech\e.&h,    A  rocky  mass  of  angular  fragments.    A 

mass  of  rounded  fragments  is  a  Conglomerate. 

It  ought  to  be  bricia  (Italian),  a  fragment.    The  Italian  word  breccia 
means  a  "breach." 

Breech,  plural  breeches,  breech,  britch\ez.    In  the  singular  it 
means  the  hinder  part,  as  the  "  breech  "  of  a  gun.    In 
the  plural  it  means  trousers  terminating  at  the  knees. 
The  verb  (breech)  means  to  flog ;  and  also  to  change  the 
petticoat-suit  of  young  boys  for  jacket  and  trousers. 
Breach,  breech,  a  gap,  an  opening.     (See  Breach.) 
Breed,  bredey  to  hatch,  to  generate.    Bread,  bred,  food,  q.v. 
Breed,  past  bred,  past  participle  bred. 
Old  English  br4d{an],  past  brdd,  past  part.  brSden,  to  nourish. 
Breeze,  refuse  coke.    A  gentle  wind.    A  gad-fly. 

** Breeze"  (refuse  coke),  French  bris^,  broken  ;  Latin  brisa. 

"  Breeze"  (a  gentle  wind),  French  brise,  a  breeze. 

**  Breeze"  (a  gad-fly),  also  spelt  Brlse,  Old  Eag.  briose,  a  gad-fly. 

BresBommer.    It  ought  to  be  Bretsumer,  a  beam  over  a  shop 

window,  <fec.,  to  support  the  weight  above  it. 

German  bret,  a  plank  or  beam,  and  tvrnier  (Welsh)  supporter. 

E 


66  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 


Brethren,  plural  of  brother,  chiefly  need  in  Scripture  language 

For  all  general  purposes  the  plural  of  brother  is  bioUierB. 

"  Brethren  "  is  altogether  a  Unnder.    The  Old  BagUah  was  tfr&thor, 
plural  brdthra  or  brdthru^  later  form  tnithft. 

Breve  (1  syl.),  &  note  in  Music.    Brief,  brefe  (of  a  barrister). 

*'  Breve."  not  Ital  but  French  hrboeOn  Mtuic).    Ital.  is noto iiUierm. 
''Brief/'  Latin  ItrevU,  short.    A  short  sumnuuy  of  a  oaase. 

Brevet,  brev\et  [rank].    An  honorary  degree  in  the  army,  being 
one  grade  higher  than  that  which  takes  the  pay. 

French  hrtwt,  brevet  rank,  a  commission. 
Brevier,  brev,veet^.    A  small  type,  like  that  used  in  this  line. 

Latin  hr§vi$t  small    Said  to  have  been  tbe  type  of  brwvUvrim. 

Bridal,  bruddl,  acljective  of  bride.    Bridle,  bri.d%  for  a  horse. 

BHddl  or  Brydal  was  the  marriage  feast,  the  "bride  ale."     The 

adjective  of  bride  in  Old  English  is  ftridUc  or  brydMc. 
*'  Bridle,"  Old  £ng.  bridel  ox  brydd  (verb  brid\icm],  to  eurbX 

Bride,  moiculine  bridegroom,  a  corruption  of  bridegume. 

Old  Eng.  brid  or  bryd ;  brid  or  bryd  gvma 

N.B. — Gum-  (prefix)  denotes  excellence.  Oumrmann,  the  famous  man. 

Oum-eyntif  man-kind;  Gttmo,  man  "iMur  raroellence." 

Bridesmaid,  attendant  on  the  bride.  Best  man,  attend- 
ant on  the  bridegroom,  (JBrtdcmaid  is  incorrect.  It 
does  not  mean  the  bridal  maid,  as  "  bridecake"  means 
the  bridal  cake,  but  the  maid  of  the  bride* 

Brideca.ke,  not  bridescake.  It  means  the  bridal  cake  not 
the  cake  of  the  bride. 

Bridge  (over  a  river).    Brig,  a  ship  with  two  masts. 

"  Bridge,"  Old  Eng.  bricg.    "  Brig,"  a  contraction  of  brxgantin€. 

Bridle,  bri\d'l  (for  a  horse).    Bridal,  br%\dal,  adj.  of  l»ide,  q.v. 

Bridled,  br%\d'ld;  bridling,  brWd'ling;  bridler,  bri^A'Ur, 

Brief,  brefe,  the  summary  of  a  cause.    Breve  (in  Music),  q.v. 

Brier  or  briar  (a  plant).    Briery  (Old  Eng.  brter,  a  brier). 

Brigade  Major,  plwral  brigade  majors,  bri.gdde',  <fec. 

Brigade  General,  plural  brigade  generals,  bri.gdde\  &c. 
Bright,  brUe,  shining,  clear.  (0.  Eng.  beorht  corrupted  to  breoM^ 

Brighfen  (verb),  brightened  (2  syL),  brightening. 

Bright-ly,  bnght-ness,  bright-eyed,  bright-shining,  &c. 

Brilliant,  briV.yanU    (French  brilUmt,  verb  briller,  to  shine.) 

Brim,  a  rim.    Bream,  a  fish  of  the  carp  family.    {See  Bream.) 

Brimm-er,  brimmed  (1  syl.),  brimm-ing.    (Rule  i.) 

Brim-lesB,  brim-ful  (fall  to  the  brim). 

("Full,"  "fill,"  and  "all,"  drop  one  I  in  the  compounds.) 

Bzim3toii6|  tnlphiir.    (Old  Eng.  bryne-8t<me,  the  homing  stone.) 


1 

1 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  67 


ftrinded,  tabl^,  streaked.    Brindled  (diminative  of  the  aome)* 

Italian  trfnofo,  ^eokled,  spotted. 
Brine,  bdn-ish,  brin.islmess,  brin-y  (t  long).     Rale  xvii. 

Old  Bug.  Wync,  lalt  iiqvor.    {jBrgnt,  Iramia^,  hat  no  aoeani.) 
Bring,  fast  liimiglLt,  past  part,  biougtit.     To  carry  to  the  place 
where  wt  art,  to  carry  elsewhere  is  <*  to  take." 
Bring-er  and  bring-ing,  not  briti-ger  and  brin-ging  like 
finger  and  fingering,  where  the  n  stands  for.y  f jigger). 
0.  Eng.  hrin{fiflm>\  past  }yr4Me  or  bran^,  part  part.  xft-hroM  or  bnMt(7«nw 
Bristle,   bristles,    bristled,   brlttl-ing,  bristl-y,  bristli-ness, 
hri^.^1,  hri^Ji'U,  brU'yid,  bristling,  brU'.ly,  brig'.li.nets. 
Old  Eng:  hfrrt,  a  bristle.    Bj  metatj^esia  bry«i  and  dim.  le. 
BSTFAIir,  Briir:n;  Briton,  Brit  Jin;  British  (one  t). 

Britut'iiiA,  Britan'nie.    {Latin  Britannia,  Britannicus*) 
Briftany.    (Doable  t.    The  y  is  diminutive.) 

"Britain/'  Old  Eng.  Brittan,  Brytten,  Bryten,  Brtoten,  Ac. 

"Britisli,''  Old  Eng.  BHttise,  BryttUe. 

''Briton/'  Old  Bng.  BrU  or  BritU,  plu.  Brittas  (i  or  y). 

Brittle,  1nitf.t'l;    brittler  or  more  brittle,  farittlest,  or  most 
brittle;  not  britteler,  hrittelest.    Easily  broken. 
Old  Eng.  hrytlic,  rerb  hrv^anlf  to  break. 

Britzska,  Mts'^kdh  or  briz.kah,    Bussian  britshka.    An  open 
carriage  which  can  be  closed  at  pleasore. 

Broach,  to  tap.    Brooch,  an  ornament  for  the  neck  or  breast. 

'^ Broach,"  Fr.  broche,  a  qpigot.    **  Brooch/'  8p.  hroche,  a  clasp. 

Broad,  hrawd,  wide.  Brod,  a  sharp-pointed  instrument  Brood. 

"Broad."  Old  Eng.  hrdd  or  brdd,  broad. 

"  Brod,   same  as  prod,  an  awl,  a  goad  ;  Danish  broad,  a  goad. 

"Brood,"  Old  Eng.  brdd,  a  brood ;  brddig,  brooding. 

Broadwise,  not  broadways.    In  the  direction  of  the  broad  part. 

Old  Eng.  suffix  -iois,  in  the  direction  of ;  wisa,  a  director. 
Brooooli,  plural  biocoolis,  brok\  kd.li,  brok'.ko.lxz  not  hroccolow. 

Frendi  brocoH  (one  e),  a  spring  eanliflover.    (Not  Italian.) 
Brogue,  brog  {g  hard),  a  twang  in  speech,  as  the  ''Irish  brogue." 

Gaelic  brog,  a  shoe  made  of  rough  hide. 
Bzomelia,  bro.me\U.dh.    A  genus  of  plants.    So  named  from 
Olans  Bromel,  a  Swedish  naturalist.    The  pine  apple,  &c. 
Bromeliacen,  bro-m^-li.a*'-ae-e.  The  order  containing  the  above. 

In  Botany  -acem  denotes  an  order. 
Brome  (I  syl.),  or  BromiBe,  bromln.    A  non-metaUic  element. 
Brom-al,  a  fluid  obtained  flrom  brome  by  alchohol. 
Brom-ide,  a  non-a/sid  combination  of  brome  and  oxygen. 
Bxom-ic,  an  octd  combination  of  brome  and  oxygen. 
Bcom-ate,  a  salt  from  the  union  of  bromie  acid  and  a  base. 
Greek  br&mMt  txBUx.    (So  called  from  its  fetid  smell.) 


68  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Bronchia,  plural  Bronchisa,  hr^\k\.ah,  hron* , kl.ee.  The  rami- 
fications of  the  tubes  called  bronchi,  terminating  in  the 
vesicles  of  the  lungs.    Bron'chial,  bron\kl.al  (adj.) 

Bronchos,  plural  bronchi,  br&n\ku8j  bron\ki.    Bronchns, 
either  of  the  two  branches  of  the  windpipe  (bronchus 
dexter  or  bronchus  sinU^ter)^  the  two  are  the  bronchi. 
Greek  brdgehds,  the  windpiiM.    (Note  "  g  "  before  g  or  ch=**  n.**) 

Bronchitis,  hron.ki\ti8.    Inflammation  of  the  bron'chns. 

In  Medical  phraseology  the  snffix  -itis  denotes  "  inflammation  ; "  as 
carditis,  inflammation  of  the  heart ;  periton%<i«,  inflammation  of 
the  peritoneum ;  pneumonitis,  inflammation  of  the  longs. 

Bronze  (1  syl.),  bronzed  (1  syl.),  bronz-ing,  bronzes  (2  syl.), 
bronz-ite,  bronz-y.    (Italian  bronzOy  bronze.)    Bule  adx. 

Brooch,  an  ornament.    Broach,  to  tap.    {See  Broach.) 

Brood,  a  progeny;  (verb)  to  sit  to  hatch.  Broad,  hrawd^  wide  (q.v,) 
Old  English  brdd,  a  brood ;  hrddig,  brooding.    Brdd,  broad. 

Brook,  a  stream.    Broke,  broke^  past  tense  of  break,  brake. 

*'  Brook,"  Old  Eng.  brde,  a  rivulet.    "  Broke,"  broedian],  brae,  broeen. 

Broom,  a  brush.    Brougham,  broom  {q.v.)    Brome  {q.v.) 
**  Broom,"  Old  English  brdm,  the  broom  shrub. 

Broth,  brauth  not  broth.    (Old  Eng.  brdth^  broth.) 

Brothel,  broth\el.    Corruption  of  the  Fr.  bordel.    Ital.  bordeUo. 

Brother,  plu.  brothers.  In  Scripture  language,  plu.  brethren  (q.v.) 
Brother,  feminine  sister,  plural  sisters. 

Brother-in-law,  plural  brothers-in-law,  by  marriage. 

Step-brother,  plural  step-brothers,  sons  of  different  fami. 
lies  made  brothers  by  the  second  marriage  of  their  sur- 
viving parents. 
Old  Eng.  step[an],  to  bereave.    Brothers  bereaved  of  one  parent, 

Foster-brother,  plural  foster-brothers,  nursed  together. 

Old  Eng.  fdsteTy  to  feed.    Food-brothers,  fed  by  the  same  parent. 
Old  Eng.  br6ihor,  plural  br6ihra  or  hrdthrUy  later  form  br&ih/rt. 

Brougham,  broom  not  broo\am.  A  light  four-wheeled  carriage. 
So  named  from  Lord  Brougham,  whose  name,  says  Lord 
Byron,  "is  pronounced  Broom  from  Trent  to  Tay." 
Similarly  Vaughan  is  Fatim,  and  Maughan  is  Mom. 

Brow,  br5w  to  rhyme  with  "  now, "  not  brow  to  rhyme  with  **  grow/ 
Old  English  brcBto,  the  eye-brow. 

Brown,  brown  to  rhyme  with  "  gown,**  not  with  grown. 

Old  Eng.  hnin,  the  colour  of  burnt  things,  brunen  or  bumen,  bumL 
Browse  (1  syl.),  to  graze.    Brows,  eye^-brows.    {See  Brow.) 
'Browse,"  Greek  [bijbr^skd,  to  eat ;  brdHa,  food. 


<f  - 


AND   OF  SPELLING,  69 


Bmcine  or  Bmoiiia,  hru',sin  or  hru' jii.nSh.  An  extract  some- 
what  like  stryehnia  {striW ,nS.dK),  Named  after  Dr. 
Bruce,  minertdogist  and  trareller,  New  York. 

Bmin,  hrii'M,  a  bear.    Brewing,  brew.ing,  making  beer. 

Brain  is  so  named  from  Sir  Bruin,  the  bear,  in  the  German  beast- 
epic  of  Reynard  the  Fox.    (The  brun  or  hrown  animal.) 
"  Brewing/'  Old  Eng.  brethoian],  past  bredw,  past  participle  brotoen. 

Bruise,  hruse,  a  contusion.    Brews,  8rd  person  sing,  of  "  Brew." 

**  Braise/'  Old  Eng.  bryt{an],  to  braise,  past  brysde,  past  part,  brysed. 

Bruited,  bru\ted,  noised,  rumoured.    "  It  got  bruited  abroad." 

A  verb  made  from  the  French  bruit,  a  noise,  report. 

**  To  bruit,"  in  French,  is  Ripandre  un  bruit  au  loin. 

Brunette  (French),  broo.nef,    A  woman  of  dark  hair  and  com- 
plexion.     A  fair  woman  is  a  blonde  (French). 
Bms'qae  (French),  brush,  abrupt,  blunt  in  manners. 

Brate  (1  syl.),  a  dumb  anim&L     Bruit  (French),  a  rumour. 
Brut-al^  bruf-ally,  bruf-ality,  brut'-alise,  brut'-alising, 
-   bruf-alisa"tion,  brut'-ish,  brut'-ishness,  brut'-ishly,  brut'- 
ism,  brut'-ifyi  brut'-ifying,  bmf -ifles  (3  syl.),  brut'-ified 
(3  syl.)    Bole  xviL 
Latin  bruJta  [animdXia\  brnte  animala. 
Bratnm  fulmen  (Latin),  brudum  fuLmen,    A  harmless  threat. 
Bryony,  bn'Mjny,    The  wild  vine,  the  lady's  seal,  &c. 

Oreek  brutf,  to  sprout  out ;  no  plant  makes  longer  shoots. 
Babble,  bubbles,  bubbled,  bubbl-ing,  bubbl-y. 

buh',b%  bub\b'lz,  bub'.b'ld,  bub\b'ling,  bubWly. 
Dutch  bobbelf  a  bubble. 
Bucaneer  not  buccaneer  buk.a,neer,    A  sea-robber. 

Trench  b&ucemier  from  boiicaner,  to  smoke  flesh ;  boucan^  a  smoking- 
I>laee.  Boucaneers  originally  hunted  wild  beasts  for  skins,  and 
smoked  the  flesh  for  food.    {Boucan,  a  Caribbean  word.) 

Buck,  lye  in  which  clothes  are  soaked  to  bleach  ;  hence  Buck, 
a  fop,  whose  clothes  are  "  buck,**  or  well  bleached  and 
got  up,  and  Buck-basket,  a  basket  for  dirty  linen. 
Cterman  beiuihen,  to  steep  clothes  in  lye. 
Buck,  feminine  doe.    Fallow  deer.    (Old  Eng.  bue,  a  stag.) 

Buck  (a  gender-word) :  as  buck  rabbit,  doe  rabbit ;  buck 
hare,  doe  hare ;  buck  goat ;  roebuck. 

Buck-bean,  corruption  of  bog-bean.    The  marsh  or  bog  vetch. 

Buck-wheat,  corruption  of  &t^c^-wheat     Beech-wheat. 
Gorman  bvuhwe^sen,  beech-mast  or  buck-wheat. 

Bucketful,  plwral  bucketfnls  not  bucketsful.  Bucketful  is  a 
noun,  and  means  the  quantity  which  fills  a  bucket.  Two 
bucketftils  is  twice  that  quantity,  but  two  "buckets-full" 
means  two  buckets  Med  full, — quite  a  distinct  idea. 


72  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 


Bush,  booth  not  hiUh,  This  and  Push  are  the  only  two  words 
in  -tuh  with  the  **  u  "  like  oo.  AU  the  others  have  "  u  " 
short.  They  are  "blush,  brush,  crush,  flush,  gush,  hush, 
lush,  plush,  rush,  thrush,  aod  tush." 

"Bush  "  la  French  houchon,  a  tayem  bufh,  a  wisp. 

"  Push  **  is  French  pousser,  to  push.    (The  **  u  "  represents  Fr.  ou.) 

Business,  biz'.nez.    Vocation,  employment.    (See  Busy.) 

Bus,  a  contraction  of  Omnibus  (q.v,)    Buss,  a  kiss. 
"Btjm"  Spanish  bva;  Latin  basium,  a  klst. 

Busy,  busies,  busied,  biz'.y,  biz'.iZt  Mz'.idj  busy-ing,  busi-er 
(comp.),  busi-est  (super.),  busi-ness,  biz\nez,  busi-ly,  busy- 
body, &c.    (Eules  xi.  and  xiii.) 
Old  £ng.  bysgiian],  to  occupy  ;  bysguiig,  buiiness. 

But  (conj.)    But  [end],  the  big  eod.    Butt,  a  tun ;  to  toss. 

"  But "  (conj.)>  Old  Eng.  b^tan  or  bdta,  except,  but,  without. 

"But  [end J,"  French  bout,  the  end. 

"  Butt "  (a  large  tub),  Old  Eng.  butt  or  byt,  a  tun. 

*'Butt "  (to  toss  or  thrust),  Welsh  pwtian,  to  poke  or  butt. 

Butcher,  boofxher  ("but-"  to  rhyme  with  foot,  not  with  "Tit"). 
This  is  the  only  instance  of  but  so  sounded.  Of  the  nine 
other  words  one  has  "  u"  long  as  in  "  unit," — ^viz.,  butif^ric ; 
and  eight  have  "  u''  short, — ^viz.,  but  and  butt^  butler,  but- 
ment,  butter,  buttery,  button,  and  buttress, 

**  Butcher,"  French  houcher.    The  "tf"  in  bush,  push,  and  butcher 
owes  its  abnormal  sound  to  its  representing  the  French  ou. 

Butt,  a  mark ;  to  toss.    But  [end].    But  (conj.)    See  But. 

Butts,  plural,  A  place  where  archers  meet  to  shoot  at  butts. 

Butter,  bUUter.    (Old  Eng.  butere  or  butyre,  butter.) 

lAtin  bHiyrwm  ;  Greek  bouiHron  (Oen.  xviii.  8),  botts  turos,  qow  curd. 

Buttery,  plural  butteries,  butf.t^.ry,  but'.t^.riz.  In  the  Univer- 
sities the  college  buttery  supplies  all  sorts  of  food  to  the 
students,  from  a  penny  roU  to  a  banquet. 

Butyric  [acid],  bu.ty'.rik  not  buf,y.rik.    Obtained  from  butter. 

Butyrine,   bu.ty'.rin  not  butf.y.rine.      An  oily  substance 
obtained  from  butter.    (Latin  biityrum,  butter.) 

Buy,  to  purchase.    By  (prep.)    B'ye,  as  Good  b'ye. 

Buy,  past  and  past  part,  bought.    Buy-er,  buy-ing,  buys. 
*'  Buy,"  Old  Eng.  byc^an],  past  biSht«,  past  part,  geboht. 

Buzz.  One  of  the  monosyllables  ending  in  a  double  consonant. 
(Rulevii.)  The  others  are:  Add,  odd;  burr,  err;  ebb^' 
egg;  buzztfuzz;  fizz,  frizz;  butt,  bitt,  mitt. 


AND   OF  SPELLING,  73 

ly  (preposition).  Spelt  anciently  &«,  6t,  hig^  and  by  (be-cause). 
When  both  agent  and  instnunent  are  expressed,  hy 
follows  the  agent,  and  with  the  instrumeiit :  as  *'  The 
bird  was  killed  hy  a  man  with  a  gun."  If  only  the  in- 
Btmment  is  expressed,  hy  follows  passive  and  neuter 
verbs:  as  "London  was  destroyed  hy  fire,  in  1666." 
"  Socrates  died  hy  poison."  "  Burnt  with  fire/  "  Killed 
with  poison."    "  Slay  him  with  the  sword." 

By  (gerundial) :  as  "  It  may  be  had  hy  applying  at  the 
ofl&ce."  This  is  good  EngHsh.  The  Gerund  with  the 
preposition  hy  or  with  being  used,  both  in  English  and 
Latin,  to  express  the  mannery  cause,  or  means,  "  It  may 
be  had  (how  ?)  by  paying  sixpence.'*  "  It  may  be  had 
(how?)  merely  by  asking  for  it." 

By  (past,  near).    "  The  train  has  gone  hy,"    By-gones. 

By  and  by,  not  hy  and  hye  (adverbial).  Soon,  presently. 
Near,  in  point  of  time,  that  is,  soon.  "By  and  by" 
means  soon  and  nearly  [now],  almost  immediately. 

By  or  Bye,  a  borough,  house,  place,  way;  [adj.)  local,  private. 

TOWN:  By-word,  town  talk. 

By-lawB,  town  or  local  laws,  not  statute  or  national 
la^'B.    (Latin  leges  privdta,) 
SBivATE  :  By-lane,  by-path,  by-play,  by-road,  by-way. 
sxcBET,  underhand,  sly  :  By-stroke. 
OUT  or  BUiiE  :  By-ball  or  Bye-balL    {See  helow  Bye.) 

By  the  by,  by  the  way  {en  passant,  French ;  in  transitu,  or 
ob'iter,  Latin).    (Old  Eng.  hy  or  hye,  a  way,  a  pluce.) 

B'ye  as  Good  b'ye,  Good  hy,  "God  be  wi*  ye"  {d-dieu,  Fr.) 

Bye,  plural  byes  (in  Cricket).  "  A  bye "  is  a  bnll  which 
passes  the  batsman  and  eludes  the  grasp  of  the  wicket- 
keeper  behind  him. 

CSabtl,  kaJ>aV,  a  junto.    Cable,  ka'.h'l,  a  rope. 

Oftbal,  caballed'  (2  syL),  caball'-er,  cabaU'-ing.     (Rule  i.) 

''CUmI,**  French  ecUxiU,  a  club.  It  is  merely  by  strange  coincidence 
that  the  initial  letters  of  the  British  Cabinet  in  1671  formed  the 
woid  "  CABAi..''  .  "  Cable,"  French  caibU,  a  rope. 

QablMigi0,ea6^.M49e,  a  vegetable.  Gab'bage,  to  pilfer.  (Double  b.) 

Italian  eappuceio,  a  cabbage  lettnce ;  Latin  capiU,  a  head. 
"Cabbage**  (to  pUfer),  Dutch  kaboMtn,  to  pilfer. 

QririB,  kdb\in,  a  hut.    (Welsh  cah  and  eahan,  a  booth.) 

iUie,  iafJb*l,  a  lope.    Cabal,  ha,haV,  a  junto.    {See  Cabal.) 


76  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Gall,  to  shout.    Gaul  (of  a  wig),  a  membrane.    (Old  Eng.  cawL] 

Gall,  Uawl,  called  (1  syL),  oall-ing,  caU-er. 

Catcall,  recall,  oallboy,  &c.  It  retains  the  double  "1"  always. 

Latin  cdlo,  Greek  leMed,  to  calL 

Galliopd,  haV,U,6.'pS  not  kal.IV .o.p^y  as  it  is  generally  called. 

Greek  KallidpS,  the  muse  of  epic  i>oetry  {kalldSf  beauty). 

GallouB,  kaV.luSf  insensible.    CaUns,  bone  gluten. 

Latin  calldsua,  callonB.    Callus,  a  glutinons  substance  growing  about 
the  fracture  of  bones,  serving  to  solder  them. 

Galm,  harm;  calmer,  more  calm ;  calnieBt,  most  calm.  {Fr.ealme.) 

Calomel,  kal\o,mel,  prepared  mercury.  Ghamomile,  kam\omile 
(a  flower).     Calamine,  kal\a,mXny  a  fossil  (q.v.) 

Caloric,  ka,W.rik  not  ka,l6r^,rik  nor  kal\6»rik.  The  principle 
of  heat.    (Latin  cdlorj  caXorUy  heat ;  caXeOt  to  be  hot.) 

Caltrop,  koV.trop,    Ought  to  be  coltrap.    A  kind  of  thistle. 

Old  Eng.  coltroeppe,  a  whin,  thistle,  or  caltrop. 
Calumet,  kaV.u.met,    A  pipe  smoked  by  American  Indians  when 
they  make  a  treaty  or  terms  of  peace. 

Calumny,  plu.  calumnies,  kaV.um.niz,    A  slander. 

Calum'niate  (4  syl.),  calum'niated,  calum'niat-ing,  calum'. 
niat-or,  calum^'nia'^tion,  calum'niatory,  calum'nious,  ca- 
lum'niously.    (Latin  calumnia*) 

Cal'vary,  the  place  of  Christ's  crucifixion.  Cavalry,  horse- 
soldiers.  (Second  "a"  of  "Calvary"  is  long  in  Latin, 
No  such  word  in  the  Greek  text  of  Luke  stxiii,  3d.) 

*'  Calvary,"  Latin  calvdria,  a  cemetery  (ealva,  a  skull). 
'*  Cavalry,"  French  cavalerie;  Latin  ectballuSf  a  horse. 

Calve,  karvey  to  bring  a  calf  into  life.    Carve,  to  serve  meat 

Calves,  plu,  of  calf.    {See  Calf.) 

**  Calve,"  Old  Eng.  ce<ilf-ian,  to  bring  a  calf  into  the  world  (c=:k). 
"Carve,"  ceorf-aUy  to  cut,  hew;  or  carve  (c  =  k). 

Calvinism  not  Galvanism,    The  religious  tenets  of  John  Calvin. 
Galvinist.    One  who  entertains  the  religious  views  of  Calvin. 

Calx,  plu.  calxes  or  calces,  kal\seez,    lime,  chalk. 

Old  Eng.  cealc  or  cdic;  Latin  ecUx,  plu.  ccUca,  chalk. 

Cal'yz,  plu.  cal'yzes  or  cal'yces,  kaV.y.seez.    Galix,  a  cup  (9. v.) 

Latin  cAlyx^  plu.  edlyoes;  Greek  kaiux,  plu.  kalUkifSy  the  empalemenl 
of  a  flower. 

Cambric,  kame'.hrik.    Fine  linen  made  of  flax. 

From  Cambray,  in  Flanders,  where  it  was  first  manufactured. 
Camelion,  better  Chamoeleon,  ka.mee\le.on. 

Latin  chamcUeon;  Greek  chamaile6n,  the  reptile  lion. 

Camellia,  generally  called  ka.mee'.li.ah,  better  ka.meV.UM, 

These  beautiful  plants  are  named  after  0.  J.  KanUl  (Latinised  into 
Camelliu)t  a  Moravian  Jesuit,  and  botanist 


AND  OF  SPELLING,  TJ 

CSamelopard,  generally  called  JcamfM.S.pard  or  kam'-eLlep'-ard. 

Latin  edmilopivrddlU,  the  giraffe.  The  word  is  compounded  of 
eamSlo-pardaXU,  the  parded  camel,  the  camel  spotted  like  the  pard 
or  panther,  and  shordd  be  pronounced  ka.metf  .lo.pard. 

Gameo,  plu,  cameoB,  ham^S.o,  kam\S.oze.    Stones  cut  in  reliel 
Intaglio,  in,tal.yo,    A  stone  .cut  in  hollow,  like  seals. 
Italian  cammeo  and  vnt(iglio. 

Camomile,  better  Chamomile,  kami^^o.mile,    A  plant. 
Calomel,  kalf,o.mel,    A  preparation  of  mercury. 

'*  Chamomile,**  Greek  chamai  m/lds,  an  apple  on  the  ground.    So 

called  from  a  resemblance  in  the  smeU. 
"  Calomel,"  Greek  kdlds  miUU,  beautiful  black  (bleached  hj  heat). 

Campaign,  kam.pain\     The  time  an  army  is  in  "  the  field." 
Champagne,  9ham.pa\n\    Wine  made  of  Champagne  grapes. 
"CamxMkign,"  French  campoipiet  a  field  or  open  country. 
Gampaagner,  kamjpai'nf.er.    One  who  has  served  in  campaigns. 

Campana,  kam,pay\nah  (Latin).    The  pasque-flower. 
Campanile  not  eampanely  kam'.pa.nile.  A.  bell-tower. 
Latin  eampdnlle,  a  bell-tower.    (The  *' i "  is  long.) 

Oampannla,  kam.pan'.ii.lah.  Hair-bell,  blue-bell,  Canterbury-bell. 
Latin  eampdm&lat  the  blue-bell,  also  the  woodbine  {-pd-  long). 

GampannlacesB,  kam-pan-uXay^'-scee.  The  "  campanula  "  order. 
The  sufGbE  -[dlceast  (i?  Bqtany)  means  aji  "  order"  of  plants. 

Campannlaria,  plu,  campanularisa,  kam.pan\u,lait"ri.ah^  &c. 
Corals  with  beU-shaped  cells. 
Latin  cam/pdnOXat  a  little  bell. 

Camphine,  better  camphene,  kam'.feen^  cont.  of  camfphogen. 
A  mineral  oil,  identical  with  rectified  oil  of  turpentine. 
Latin  ccvrnphOra,  Greek  g^nd,  I  produce  camphor.     (Its  protoxide). 

Camphor,  kamf.for.    A  gum  from  the  camphor  laurel. 
Latin  eamph&ra.    Br.  Ure  gires  **  Kamphv/r,  Arabic." 

Campion,  kam\pi.on.    Both  catch-fly  and  cuckoo-flower. 

"Corn-campion,"  the  common  catch-jly;  "white  and  red 
campions,"  lychnis  or  cwckoo-Jlower ;  "  rose  campion," 
bachelor's  button. 

Can,  past  tense  could.     This  is  never  an  auxiliary  verb,  but  it 

stands  in  regimen  with  other  verbs  without  to  between 

them :  as  "  I  can  write,"  "  I  could  write."    Here  lorite  is 

infinitive  mood,  being  the  latter  of  two  verbs  in  regimen. 

(I  ken,  to  write.) 

Old  Eng.  eunnan,  pres.  tense  can,  past  cdthe,  past  part.  c6,th, 
(The  **l"  U  interpolated,  amd  the  " tA"  changed  to  "d.**J 

Oaoaille  (French),  ka.nah,*e.  The  rabble.   (Lat.  canes,  hounds.)  , 


78  BnnORS  OF  SPEECH 

■   ■ 

Canal,  Ghannel,  Keimel,  ka,naVt  char^.nel,  hen'.nel, 

"Canal'*  (French),  an  artificial  river ;  Latin  candUs. 
^Channel"  (a  watercourse),  Old  Freadi  ehenal,  a  gutter. 
"Kennel,"  Italian  earUle,  a  place  for  dogs.    (Latin  canU,  •  <log.) 

Ganoel,  kan'sely  to  obliterate.    Ganoelled,  karfseld;  ean'cell-ing, 
can^cell^ate^    (In  Botamy)  lattice-like.    {Rule  in.  -ki^) 

Canceller,  one  who  cancels.    Ohanoellor,  a  dignitary,  q.v, 

Latin  <MnioiU»,  to  make  like  a  lattice  (eaneetti,  lattioea). 

When  a  document  is  cancelled  a  pen  crosses  the  writing  into  lattices. 

Canoer,  kan^ser,  "  the  cbab  "  of  the  Zodiac     Canker,  a  worm. 

Latin  eancir,  the  crab,  sign  of  the  summer  soUttce. 
"  Canker, "  Old  £ng.  tancer  or  waiters  <e = k). 

Oandelabnim,  pin,  eandelabra,  kan\de,lay'\hfumf  kan'jd^da^'^ 
brdh.    (The  *'e'^  of  this  word  is  long  in  Latin.) 
Latin  ^a/ndilaibrum;  candUa^  a  candle ;  tandeo,  to  glow  like  fire. 
Candid,  frank.    Candied,  kan\did  (with  sugar).    See  Candy. 

"Candid."  Latin  candidus,  white,  sincere. 
"  Candied,"  Italitia  candito,  eandire,  to  candy. 

Candidate,  kan'.dudate.  One  who  offers  himself  for  a  vacant  poet. 

Latin  caruUd&lnu,  clothed  in  white;  bacauie  Soman  iwvlldattT 
dressed  in  white  when  they  solicited  the  people's  Yotea. 

Candle,  karCd'U    (The  older  spelling  is  the  better,) 
Old  Eng.  en/ndel;  Latin  eandMa;  eandeo,  to  glow. 

Candlemas,  kan.d'Lmas.     Feb.  2,  when  "  Catholics  '*  consecrate 
all  the  candles  to  be  used  in  churches  during  the  year. 
(-mas  [post^tl  da-ops  one  **s'*:  Ohristnuu,  Miohaelmaf.^ 

Candy,  kan\dy;  candied,  kan\did;  candy-ing,  kan'-dyji-ng, 

Ital.  eandtre,  to  oandj. 
Cane,  kain^  a  reed.     Cain,  brother  of  Abel. 

"  Cane,**  Latin  eanna;  Greek  kamna,  a  reed,  a  cane. 
Canicula,  ka,nik\u.lah,  the  Dog-star.    Canicular  (sdj,) 
(The  "  i  '*  is  long  in  the  original  Latin  words,) 

Latin  ecvnUy&la,  tbe  dog-star ;  aanio&ldris,  adj.  (oanieMrss  dies). 
Canine,  ka.nine*  not  ka,neen\  a^j.  of  canis^  a  dog.  (Lat.  ^onimtf.) 
Canister,  kan',iss,ter,    A  eonall  box  for  tea,  Ac. 

Latin  canistrum,  Greek  k<VMutron,  a  wicker  basket. 
Canker,  to  corrode;  a  worm.    Cancer,  a  disease;  "the  crab." 

"  Canker,"  Old  Eng.  cancer  or  oancn  (c = k),  a  canker. 
"Cancer,"  Latin  ctMcer,  the  crab;  Old  Eng.  eanetr,  the  diaeaae. 

Cannabis  (Lat.),  kan\nd,lns.    Hemp.    (Greek  kannSbit,  hemp.) 

Cannel-ooal,  kcm'.nel  cole.     Corruption  of  Oandle-coal.    So 

called  because  it  bums  with  a  brilliant  flame. 

Cannibal,  kan\nLbal.  A  human  being  who  eats  man.  (Double  «.) 
Columbus  says:  "  The  natives  Hve  in  great  fear  of  Uie 
caanibalB  (that  is,  Caribals,  or  people  of  Cariba).*' 


AN1>  OF  SPELLINO,  70 


CSmb'hob,  ordnanee.    Oan'on,  a  church  dignitarj.    It  is  difficult 

to  i^eoXiect  which  of  these  two  words  has  the  double  n, 

A  "ouman^  la  a  rted  for  holding  gunpowder;   Greek  kanna; 
Latin  and  Italian  muma;  Treneh  ecume  (all  with  donble  n). 

Can^noB^ade,  oan'ndn-ft'^ded,  oan^non-a'ding,  can'non-eer'. 

**  C^OM  "  is  the  Onek  ioM&n;  Latin  canon,  a  rod  for  measaring,  a 
"  role/' kence  a  etandiMrd  or  model  of  exeellenoe,  and  hence  the 
hooks  admitted  as  oar  Scriptures,  and  a  church  dignitarj-. 

CmioiiMc&I,  canon'^-ically,  canon'-icals ;  can'onist,  can'on- 
ide,  can'on-ry,  can'on-lsa'lion  {not  A  Greek  word,  B.  xxxi.) 

Oaimot,  kan\not,  familiarly  contracted  into  can't,  kamt  not 
kanU    It  is  in  reatil^y  "  cd*n*t  (ca  =  kah). 

Gaimy,  kan\ny,  cautious,  knowing.     CSany,  kain'.y,  adj.  of  cane. 

**  Cann;^ ,**  Old  Xng.  c^ne,  from  cwnJMun  to  know  or  ken. 
"Qaaj,"  Latin  cannons,  adj.  of  eanna,  a  oane. 

Oanoe,  pht,  eanoes,  kcunoo^  ka,nooz\  (Rule  xlii.)  This  word, 
meaning  a  boat  made  of  skins  or  bark,  is  said  by  Spanish 
historians  to  be  of  Indian  origin :  "Ilia  in  terram  suU  lin- 
tribusy  quas  *  c(uio<u'  vaccmtf  edfuxerunt.**  (Hist,  of  Amer.) 

Ganon,  a  church  dignitary.    Gannon,  ordnance.    {Sm  Gannon.) 

Canopy,  plu.  canopies,  kan\8,pyt  kan*.o.piz,     (Rule  xiii.) 

GanopiBd,  kan\a.pidj  can^'opy-ing.    To  cover  with  a  canopy. 

Ifow  Lat.  cancjfeum/  Oieek  h&n6peidn^  a  pavilion  to  keep  off  goAta 
Qe&n6pSi  a  gnat).    The  -n6-  is  long  both  in  the  Gk.  and  Lat.  words. 

Gant,  hypocritical  whining  complaints.    Gan*t,  for  "  cannot,"  q.v. 
Latin  tan69,  to  repeat  the  same  thing  often,  to  sing. 

Cantata  (Italian),  kan.tar^.tah  not  kan,tay',tah,  A  poem  set  to 
music  (Latin  cantdre,  to  sing). 

Canteen.    A  soldier's  tin  vessel  for  holding  drink. 
ItaUaa,  ^aiatiata,  a  wine-cellar. 

Canter,  one  who  cants.  Canter,  a  Canterbury  gaUop.  The 
Canterbury  gallop  refers  to  the  easy  pace  of  pilgrims. 

Oaatharig,  plu»  cantharides,  kan'.thd.ris,  kan.tha'/riJUez, 
Ladn  canthdvUt  the  Spanish  fly ;  Greek  kaiUMurot,  a  beetle. 

Ganthna,  the  comer  of  the  eye.    Acanthus,  a  thorny  plant. 

Greek  kanthos,  the  comer  of  the  eye  ;  Latin  i^nth^i8,  a  wheel-tire. 
'**  Aeantkus,**  Latin,  from  Greek  akemthos  (aikantha,  a  thorn). 

Oantide,  plu.  canticles,  kan\  ti.  k%  <fec.    A  religious  song. 

•♦Solomon's  Song"  in  the  Bible  is  called  "The  Canticles." 
Italian  teuUica;  Latin  oanhu,  a  tune,  and  -c2«,  diminutive. 
Gmlo,  pltL  cantos  (Italian),  kan'.toze.     Divisions  of  a  poem. 
Onton,  kan\ton,  a  temtorial  division.    Oantle,  a  fragment. 


Canton,**  French,  from  the  Greek  kanthoSy  a  corner. 
Cantle,"  French  SchcmtiUon,  a  sample,  our  ''scantling." 


80  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Gan'yas  (one  «),  plu,  canvases,  cloth.    Gan'yass,  to  solioit  votes. 

Gan^'vass,  can'vasses,  canVassed  (2  syL),  can'vass-er,  <fec. 

''Canvas," French caneveu;  lAtin cannabis ;  Greek ]bann<!H>w, hemp 
"  Canvass,"  Old  Fr.  carmdboMer,  to  sift  thro'  hemp,  hence  to  sift  rotes. 

Cany,  kay\ny,  adj.  of  cane.    Ganny,  knowing  (q.v,) 

Caoutchonc,   koo.tchook'  not  ka.oufxhouk  (Indian).      India- 
rubber  prepared  for  waterproof  cloths. 
Cap,  capped  (1  syl.),  capp.ing,  capful  plu.  capfuls.     (Kule  L) 
Cap-a-pie,  kap'  ah  pay'.    From  head  to  foot. 

Spanish  [de\cdb&ta  a  piu.  Not  French.  Fr.  would  be  de  pied  en  eop. 
Capable,  kay\pa.b%  ca'pableness,  capability. 

French  capable;  Latin  eapax,  eapdcis  (verb  capio). 
Capacity,  J) 2u.  capacities,  ka.pa8\ttiz;  capacious,  ka.pay'.8hug^ 
capa'ciously,  capa'ciousness.    (Latin  capdcitat,  capacity.) 
Caparison,  kd,pa'/ry  .zon.    To  decorate  a  horse.    (This  word  is 
corruptly  spelt  ** caparison"*  for  " caparason,") 
Spanish  caparaxon  (with  a  and  z) ;  French  caparapon. 
Capillary,  plu.  capillaries,   ka,piV.la.riZt   the  extremities    of 
arteries,  fine  as  hairs.    Capillary,  adj.,  fine  as  a  hair. 
Latin  cdpilldriSy  like  a  hair  {eapilltu,  a  hair). 

Capital  (of  a  column),  chief  city.     Capitol,  a  temple  in  Kome. 

Cap'ital-ly,  cap'ital-ist,  cap'ital-ise,  capitalised  (4  syL), 

cap'italis-ing  («  not  «),  cap'ital-isa"tion.    (Eule  xxxi.) 

" Capital"  (chief  city ;  excellent),  French  capital ;  Latin  eapitdlis, 
"Capital"  (of  a  column),  ought  to  be  capltell;  Latin  capiUMuM, 

The  termination  is  the  dimin.  -ellua  (-el),  and  not  the  adj.  -<d. 
**  Capitol,"  Latin  capitolium,  the  temple  of  Jupiter,  erected  on  the 

Cap'itoline  Hill  of  Home. 

Capitoline,  kap'.tto.line  not  ka.pit\o.line.     (Latin  capitolmus,\ 

Capitular,  ka.pif.u.lar.    Member  of  an  ecclesiastical  chapter. 

Capitulary,  plu.  capitularies,   ka.pit\u.la.riz.     The  laws 

of  an  ecclesiastical  chapter. 
Latin  capituldris  fcapUulum,  a  chapter  a  summary). 

Capitulate,    ka.pit\u.late    not    ka.piif .chu.late ;    capitulated, 
capit'ulat-ing,  capitula'tion,  capit'ulator.  -^ 

French  capitulation,  verb  capituler,  to  surrender  on  terms ;  LatiB 
capitula,  chapters  :  hence  articles  of  a^eement. 

Capivi,    ka.pee'.vi    or    ka.piv\i,    corruption  of  copaifer.     A 
balsam  of  the  copaifera  officinalis  of  South  America. 

Capriccio,  phi.  capriccios  (Italian),  ka.prit'.shot  ka.pritf .shoze 
(3  not  4  syl.)    In  Music,  a  caprice.    Kule  -gin. 

Capriccioso  (Italian),  ka.prit.sho\zo.  In  Miuic, "  ad  libitum^" 

Caprice  (French)  ka.preece\  whim.    Capricious,  ka,prish'AU 

capric'ious-ly,  capric'ious-ness. 
Latin  capra,  a  goat,  our  "caper." 


AND  OF  SPELLING,  81 

,  plu.  capsicimiB,  kap^Mkumy  &c.  The  cayenne-pepper 
plant.  {This  word  ought  to  be  capeacum  instead  of 
"  capsicum") 

JjMn  eapta,  %  coffer,  referring  to  the  pod  which  contains  the  seed. 
Capstan  (of  a  ship).    Gapstone,  a  fossil  sea-urchin. 

"Capstan/*  Fr.  eabestan ;  Old  Eng.  ccBbwUr ;  Lat.  eapittrumy  a  halter. 
"Capstone,"  so  called  from  its  resemblance  to  a  cap. 

Capenle,  kap'sule  (2  rwi  3  syl.)    The  seed-vessel  of  a  plant. 

Latin  eapgiUa  (capa  and  -vXa  dim.),  a  little  chest  (or  pod). 
Captain,  kap\t'n.    (French  capitaine;  Latin  caputs  the  head.) 
Captaincy,  plu.  captaincies,  kap\tan.8iz.    Rank  of  captain. 
Suffix  -cy  denotes  "rank,"  "office,'*  "condition"  f-cy,  not  -tyj. 
Caption,  kap'^shun.    The  act  of  taking  hj  judicial  process. 
^  Captions,  kap'^skusj  disposed  to  find  fault ;  cap'tionsness. 
Latin  captio,  eaptiSstu  (verb  eapio,  eapto,  to  en^p). 
Gaptiyate,  kap\tl.vate ;  cap'tivated,  cap'tivat-ing,  cap'tivat-or, 
cap'tiva"tion.    {-oTj  after  t  or  s,  is  more  usual  tian  -er.) 
Latin  captiv&re,  to  make  captive  [by  charms  or  otherwise]. 

Captivity,  plu.  captivities,  kap.tii/.%.tiz,    (Rule  xliv.) 

Captor,  he  that  captures.    Capture,  kap\t8hur,  to  take  prisoner. 

Captured,  kap'.tshurd ;  capturing,  kap'.tshur.ing. 

{'tor  and  -sor  for  agents,  rarely  -ter  and  -ser.) 
Viench  capture,  vorb  oop^urer;  Latin  captHra,  a  capture. 

Oapoodo,  plu.  capuccioB  (Ital.),  ha.pute\8h0y  ha.pute\shoze. 
(The  plural  of  this  word  is  Anglicised.) 

Gapnchin,  hap\u.shin.     A  monk  of  the  order  of  St.  Francis. 
So  called  from  the  "  capuchin  "  or  hood  worn  by  them. 

In  French  capucin,  the  monk :  but  caprichon,  the  hood. 
Li  Italian  capuccino,  the  monk ;  and  cappucdo,  the  hood. 

Cap^'nt  mor^tnum  (Latin).    What  remains  in  a  still,  &e.,  when 
all  the  volatile  matters  have  been  driven  off. 

Car,  a  small  one-horse  vehicle.    Char,  to  carbonise  by  fire. 

**Car,"  Latin  carrum,  a  cart  or  car :  carrun,  a  wagon  or  wain. 
"Char,"  French  eharr^e,  cinders ;  Latin  carbo,  coal. 

Carafe  (French),  car^raf,    A  water  decanter ;  not  craff  nor  craft. 

Carat,  caret,  carrot ;  kar'rat,  haif.et,  kar'rot. 

Carat  (French),  4  grains  Troy.    24  carats,  standard  purity. 

Caret  (Latin),  term  in  Gram. "  wanting,"  as  "  Vocative  caret." 

Carrot,  a  vegetable  root.    (French  carotte.) 

Gir'avan''  ("ne  r).    It  is  not  derived  from  "  carry,"  but  from  the 
Armenian  word  karawan  ;  verb  karau,  to  journey. 

Pwsian  karvan,  a  merchant ;   French  caravane,  a  company  of  mer- 
chants travelling  across  deserts,  &c. 

F 


82  ERRORS  OF  SPEECB 


Garavaiiflaiy,  hvfvok.van" jiOnxy,    A  station  for  caravaDS. 
Perslaii  "kflirwM  aarai,  a  lan^  pIao9  tot  traTelUog  merchjoit*. 
Carbine,  kar^Mne,  a  gan.    Carbon,  pure  oha|:t:oaJi. 

GarHxm,  car'bonise,  oar'bonised  (8  syL),  <Murl>oniBa"tion. 
Latin  earbo,  coal,  tiharooaL    <Biil«  zxsd.) 
Carbonado^  plu.  carbonadoes,  kar^-bo.na'/'-doze,    (Bole  zlii) 
Spanish  ecurbtmada,  a  steak  or  chop  broiled  on  oarbon  or  diarcoal. 
Carbonate,  kaT^Jxknate^    A  "  salt "  formed  by  tbe  onion  of  car- 
bonic acid  and  a  base:  as  **  Carbonate  of  lim«,"  Sse. 

Car^nated,  car^nating  (carbon  and  suffix  -ate,  q.y.) 

Carbnnde,  kar^^hunJt^U    A  gem  of  a  deep  red  colour ;  a  red  ulcer. 
Latin  oaArbo,  and  l^e  diminutive  ^^ulwn,  a  little  [live]  ooal. 

€arburet,  har^.fm.ret.    Carbon  in  union  with  some  other  sub- 
stance, tbe  compound  not  being  an  acid. 
(•uret,  in  ChemiUry,  denotes  a  "  base.") 
Car'burett-ed,*carT)urett-ing,  car'burett-er.    (R.  iii.,  t.) 
The  "  t "  (mght  not  to  be  ^Umbled  in  these  words,  (R.  iii.) 

Carcass,  kahkds,  a  dead  body.    Carcasse,  a  projectile. 

French  eweasse,  a  dead  body,  a  sort  of  shell,  && 
Cardamine,  Cardamom,  Cardamum.    (N,B. — da  not  -di.) 

Cardamine.   A  plant  called  lady's  smock,  cuckoo-flower,  &g. 

Ccurdamom.  -  An  Indian  spice  plant — ^tbe  seeds  are  useful. 

Cardamum.    Garden  cress,  nasturtium. 

"  GardamiDe,**  dim.  of  Lat.  carddmtmi;  Gk.  JeardAmifn,  a  cress. 
'^Oardamom,"  Lat.  earddmomvan.;  Gk.  karddmOmum,  an  Ind.  plant. 
"  Cardamum,"  Latin  carddmum  ;  Greek  karddmdn,  a  garden  cress. 

Greek  kdra  dartuid,  to  afiUct  the  head  [with  its  acrimony]. 

Xf  apdt  "-di-"  U  vxmld  be  the  Greek  "  Jkordia,"  tfu  heaH, 

Cardiac,  kar^,di,ac.    Ac|j.  of  the  Greek  kardia,  the  heart. 

Carditis,  kar.di\tis.    {-itit  denotes  "  inflammation.") 

Greek  kardAa  -itw,  inflammation  of  the  heart. 

Cardinal,  kar'.di.nal.    An  ecclesiastical  prince ;  principal* 

Latin  candindUa  fcardo,  a  hinge) ;  the  election  of  the  pope  "hinges'* 
on  the  cardinals.    "  Cardinal  yirtues,"  on  which  minor  ones  .hinge. 

Care,  cared  (1  syl.),  car-log ;  care-ful,  care-less,  care-folness. 

Old  English  cea/r,  care  (verb  cdrian,  past  ocfrode,  past  part,  ecfrsd). 
Careen,  ka,reen\    To  lay  a  ship  on  its  beam-ends  for  repairs. 

French  cor^ns  (verb  cariner) ;  Latin  carina^  a  kedi. 

Career,  ka.reet'.  A  course  of  action.    (French  carri^e,  a  career.) 
(This  word  ought  to  have  a  double  *•  r.''j 

Latin  carrum,  a  oar ;  oorrus,  a  wagon  (from  cum  to  run). 
Caress,  ka.ress'.    To  hug,  to  "  dear"  one;  an  act  of  endearment 

French  earesser,  to  caress :  Latin  oortM,  dear. 
Caret,  kair^ret,  wanting.    Carat,  Carrot    (See  Carat) 


AND  OF  SPELLIXO,  83 


Cargo,  plu,  caxgoes,  hn^.goze,    (Spanish  eargo^  a  ship's  load.) 

Garicatnie,  hv/riJeaAuref,  This  word  has  no  eonnectioii  with 
Charcteter.  It  is  the  Italian  eairieatura,  from  caricare,  to 
load;  and  means  to  overcharge  blemiihea  and  faults. 

Oar^icatiiTed'  (4  syl.),  car'ioatur".ing,  car'ioatuz"-ist 

Cariea,  plu,  caries,  kair^ri.eez^  mortification  of  the  bone  during 
me,    Oarries,  kar^.rezy  drd  pen.  sing,  of  the  verb  carry, 

Oariotu,  kcnv^fi,'ut,  a^j.  of  caries.    Gariosity  (abst  noun). 

LsCfai  edrieMt  sfaig.  and  pin.,  decaj  of  bone  or  wood. 
Garlovingian,  kar^ -levin" -jl-an.    Adj.  of  Karl  (G^erman). 

Carftloi  (Latin).    The  dynasty  of  Charles  (HartelX 
Carminatiye,  kar.min\a,tiv.    A  medicine  to  cure  flatulence. 

French  carminatif:  Latin  ^vrmindre,  to  card  or  elean. 
Garmiiie,  kar.mi7ie\    A  brilliant  crimson  colour. 

French  earmin,  from  the  Arabic  Juirmet  (2  lyL),  an  insect  which  gives 
a  brilUant  sciuctet  dye. 

Garaal,  bar^.nal,  sensuaL  Ohamel,  tchar^.nelj  animal  refuse  of 
a  churchyard.     (French  chamiery  a  churchyard.) 

Oar^nal,  oar'nage,  camalMty ;  cama'tion,  flesh  colour. 

"Carnal,**  Latin  ocxmAUs,  carnal  (caro,  eainU$,  flesh). 

Gamelian  not  cornelian.    A  carnation  or  flesh-coloured  stone. 

Latin  cami%»,  and  liaa  a  word  used  by  miners  for  a  allicioas  or  cal- 
caxioos  stone.    "  A  flesh  [coloured]  silicious  stone.  ** 

Ganilval  not  camevalt  ha/.nt.val.    The  Saturnalia  preceding 
the  abstinence  of  meat  in  the  season  of  Lent. 
Latin  eami  vale,  farewell  to  meat 

CSamivora  (Latin),  Hear. mv\6, rah  not  har^ .ni.vo" .rah,  flesh-eating 
animals.    Gamivorous,  flesh-eating. 
Latin  eaum/Mims  (caro^  covrnM,  voro,  to  devour  flesh). 

Carol,' ixi/roZ;  car'olled  (2  syl.),  car'oU-ing,  car'oU-er.  (R.  iii.  -ol.) 

Gar'ol-lit'ic  (in  Architecture),  a  garlanded  pillar. 
Welsh  carol,  a  love-song ;  Italian  carolOy  a  dance  or  caroL 

Carotid,  ka,rot\%d  not  kar^ro.tid  [artery].     An  artery  of  the 
neck  (there  are  two)  to  convey  blood  to  the  head. 

Latin  eardttde*,  the  arteries  of  the  neck,  from  cdrdticus,  producing 
sleep.    The  ancients  supposed  these  arteries  controlled  sleep. 

Carouse,  ka,rowz^  not  ka.rooze,  caroused  (2  syl.),  carous'-er, 

earouft'-ing,  oarous'-aL    To  revel,  &c. 

French  eommss,  catroustl.    ▲  "carrousel*'  consisted  of  four  quad- 
rilles of  mounted  knights,  two  quadrilles  against  two,  in  a  tournay. 

Oar'penter,  car'peatry  not  car'pentery.    A  worker  in  wood. 

Latin  earpeaUdriui,  a  coach-buUder  (carpentum,  a  chariot). 
Oar'pet,  car^pet-ed,  car'pet-ing  (with  one  t.    Rule  iii.) 


I 


«4  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Carriage,  kar^ridge.    A  coach.    {See  Carry.) 

Carrier,  kd//ri.ert  one  who  carries.    Career',  a  conrse  (q.v,) 

Carrion,  kar^ri.on.  Corrupting  flesh.  (Ought  to  have  onlj 
one"r.")    (Latin  caro,  flesh.) 

Carronade,  kar^ro.nade,  A  short  cannon;  so  called  from  the 
Carron  Foundry  (Scotland),  where  they  were  first  made. 

Carrot,  Carat,  Caret,  kar^rot,  karrdt,  kair^.et.    (See  Carat.) 

Gar'rot-y,  red  like  a  carrot.    ( N.B. — Double  r,  one  t,  R  iii.) 

Car^ry,  carries,  kar^riz;  carried,  kai^rid;  car'ry-ing,  car'rier, 
carriage,  kar'ridge,    (Bule  xliv.) 
Welsh  cario,  to  carry ;  eariwr,  a  carrier ;  Latin  oorriM,  a  cari 

Carte  blanche  (French),  kart  blamsh.  A  piece  of  paper  to  be 
filled  up  at  discretion,  tiie  giver  being  responsible. 

Carte  de  visite,  plu.  cartes  de  visitie  (Fr.),  kwrf  deo^-zeeif^  <fec. 

Cartload,  ylu.  cartloads  not  carUload^  as  "  two  cartloads." 

Carthagin'ian  not  Carthagenian.     Adj.  of  "  Carthage." 

Itatin   Carthago,  Carthaglnis,  Carifiaginientia  (adj).    Our  "e"  in 
"Carthage"  Is  merely  to  soften  the  ^'g," 

Cartilage,  kar^.ttlage,  gristle,    Cartilag'inons  (ac^j.)  (g= j.) 

French  cartilage,  carHUigineux ;  Lat.  ea/rtildgo,  eartildgindsus. 

Cartouch,  kar.tooshf.    A  cartridge-box.    (French  cartoiuihe^ 

Cartridge.  The  charge  of  a  gun  in  an  envelope  of  paper ;  the 
charge  of  a  cannon  is  put  into  a  serge  envelope.  When 
the  charge  contains  hall,  as  well  as  powder,  it  is  called 
Bidl-cartridge ;  when  it  contains  oi^y  powder,  and  no 
balls,  it  is  c^ed  Blank->cartridge. 

Cartridge-box.    A  small  leather  case  to  hold  cartridges. 

Cartridge-paper.    The  paper  used  far  cartridges. 

"Cartridge,"  a  corruption  of  cartoudie;  Italian  cartoecio. 

Carve,  to  cut  meat  at  meals.   Calve,  karve,  to  bring  forth  a  calfl 

Carves,  third  person  singular  of  carve.    Calves,  karvea,  the 
plural  of  calf,    (Rule  xxxviii.) 

Old  Eng.  ceof[an\  to  carve  or  cut ;  cealf[ian\,  to  bring  forth  a  calf ; 
cea^,  a  calf ;  plural  cea^fru,  calves.  We  have  lost  these  distinotiona. 

Caryated,  plu.  caryatides,  ka.ri.af .id,  ka.ri.af.X.deez.  (Ln  ArcK) 
Female  figures  employed  as  pillars  or  supporters.  So 
called  from  Carfa  (Peloponnesus),  conquered  by  the 
Athenians.  To  celebrate  their  victory  they  made  the 
supporters  of  the  trophies  represent  women  of  Carjse  in 
their  national  costume. 

Caryophyllacesa,  ka^-ri.of-U.lay'^'Ce.ee.    Clove- carnations,  &c. 

Latin  caryophyllum,  the  clove  gilly-flower,  with  the  suffix  -aoea, 
denoting  an  "order"  of  plants ;  Greek  haruophiMifn. 


J 


AND  OF  SPELUNO.  85 

Caryophyllia,  ka'-H-S.JiV'-U-ah,    A  section  of  flowery  corals. 

Latin  earf^phylkun,  the  dove  gUly-flower,  with  the  suffix  -ia,  de- 
noting an  "order"  or  section ;  Greek  karuophuWfn. 

Caryopsis,  kar^ry,op'\8i8.    Technical  name  of  a  corn-grain. 

Greek  kdriUfn  lifpsis,  a  nnt  in  appearance. 
Gasaya,  better  Oassava,  ka8^ah\vah.  Starch  of  the  cassava.plant. 

Spanish  ecoMbe;  French  ausdU. 
Caacaiilla,  hu'Jka.r%V\lah,  A  tonic  bark.   (Span,  eascdra,  bark^) 
Oaae,  cased  (1  syl.),  cashing.     To  put  into  a  case.    (Fr.  caisse.) 

Gaeeine,  kay'jsSJin,  the  curd  of  milk.  CaseonB,  kay'jiS.ut,  cheesy. 
Latin  cSMha,  cheese ;  French  coM/ine. 

Caahier,  haxh'.eer  (cash-clerk) ;  ka^heer^  (to  dismiss  in  disgrace)^ 

French  caissier,  cash'-keeper  (cai»$e,  a  till); 

"  Gariiier"  (to  digmlssX  French  ixuser,  to  break  off.    (Lai  caatus.) 

Caano^pluicaanoeafka^ee'.noze.    A  dancing  saloon.    (R.zlii.) 
Italian  caHno  or  eanna,  a  small  house  (ctua^  a  house). 

Gaak,  a  tab*    Gasque  (French)^  kask,  a  helmet. 

"  CaBk,"  Spanish  caseo,  a  wine-tub.    Casket,  dim.  of  "  eask." 

Gassava^  k<u^ahf,vah.    Starch  of  the  cassava  plant.- 

GasMXsk,  kas'^ok,    A  clergyman's  robe  worn  under  the  gown^ 

French  edsaque,  the  "  par-clessus  **  of  a  clergyman'*  official  dress. 

Gast,  past  and  past  part,  cast,  to  throw.     Gaste,  tribe. 

Old  Ebg.  cedst,  strive,  verb  ced^an],  to  fight  [or  throw  darts]. 
**  Caste/'  PorfuguAe  eastd,  hereditiiry  class  distinction. 

Castellan,  kas\tel.lan.    Warden  of  a  castle. 

Low  Lat.  casteUantu,  Spanish  castellan,  warden  of  a  castle. 

Castellate,  kas'.telXate^  cas'tellated,  cas'tellat-ing. 

Low  Lat.  castelidtio,  the  building  of  forts  (caatellunif  a  fort). 

Caster,  a  cruet,  plu,  casters,  a  set  of  cruets  in  a  stand. 

Gastor.     A  beaver ;  a  small  wheel  for  furniture. 

"  Castefs  "  (i  set  Of  cruets),  Latin  casUHa,  a  placti  for  the  stowage  of 

small  utides.     "Casters "  hold  in  a  frame  small  condiments. 
**  Castor  "  (a  beaverX  Latin  castor,  the  beaver. 

CSastigate,    kas'.ttgate,    cas'tigated,    cas'tig&t-ing,    cas'tigat-or. 
cas'tiga'^tion.    (Latin  castigdre,  to  chastise). 

Castle,  kars^'l  not  kSs^s'l;  castled,  kars^j'id;  castling,  kar^. sling. 
(The  older  spelling  of  thie  word  is  preferable.) 
Old  Eng.  casUUf  Latin  castdlum,  a  castle. 

Castor,  a  beaver,  a  little  wheel  for  furniture.  Gaster  {see  Caster). 

Castar-€il,  a  corruption  of  Castus-oil.    It  is  not  an  animal  oil, 
extracted  from  the  castor  or  beaver,  but  oil  expressed 
from  the  Palma  Christi,  and  used  in  religious  rites. 
Latin  eastus,  a  rOigioas  rite ;  Castiis  olfttm,  oil  for  sacied  xVloa. 


86  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

II  I II  ~ 

Casualty,  plu.  cftsnaltieB,  'ktui^u.al-Hz,    An  aeciddnt. 

French  camuiliUf  casualty ;  Latin  eomtf,  accident. 
Gat,  Tom-cat  (male),  Tabby,  plu.  Tabbies  (femaU), 

Latin  eattta,  a  cat  (from  eaitts,  wOy,  sly,  cunidng). 
Cata- (prefix),  Greek  kata,  "down,"  "against,"  "according to,"  &c. 

Cataclysm  not  cataclasm,  haf^dMizm.    Cataplasm,  a  poultice. 

Lat.catoc^«imw,adeli]{[e ;  Gk.  katakltumoafkata  JUtfoo,  to  wash  down). 
Catacomb,  kaf.d.korfte,    A  cave  for  the  burial  of  the  dead. 

French  eata,combe,  from  the  Greek  kata  kumboB,  a  caye  undergronnd. 
Catalepsy,  kafM.lep.8y.    A  trance,  a  fainting-fit 

Greek  katalSpais  (from  kata  lan^bdno,  to  hold  down,  to  teiae  on). 
Catalogue,   katf.a.log;    catalogued,  haf.a.logd;  Cfttaloe^ning, 
kaf.a,log,ing;  cataloguer,  kaf,a.log.er. 

lAtcatdldgua;  G^.katdl6go8fkata  2d0o«,[anranged]aecordingto  words). 
Cataplasm,  kaf.a.plazm.  A  plaster,  a  poultice.  (See  Catadysm.) 

Latin  eatdpUuma;  Greek  katdplasma  (ka^OrpUuw,  to  plaster  over). 

Cataract,  katf,a.ract  not  ka1f,a.rak,    A  waterfall;  a  disease  of 
the  eye. 
Latin  oaMrooto,  from  tiie  Greek  kaia  aroMo,  to  dash  down. 
Catarrh,  ka,tay.  A  cold  affecting  the  secretions  of  the  eyes,  <fee. 
Catarrh'-al,  adj.  of  catarrh.    (Latin  catarrhm,  rheum.) 
Greek  katarrdda  (ftom  kata  rhed,  to  flow  down).   The  "  r "  is  repeated 
to  compensate  for  the  lost  aspirate  in  P^ot.    In  "caturh,"  either 
the  "h"  or  one  "r"  should  have  been  omitted. 

Catastrophe,  plu.  catastrophes,  ka,ta»\tro.fet  ka.tas\troJiz, 

Latin  catastrdphi;  Greek  kata^trdpht  (katii  xt/riphb^  to  overturn). 

Catcall  not  catcal.    Only  "  fill,  fWl,  still,  thrall "  (postfixt)  drop 
an"l."    (Ruleviii.) 

Catdi,  past  and  pott  part,  caught  not  eatchedt  catch^g,  not 
ketehj  ketcKing. 

Low  Lat.  caiofSmu,  a  hunter ;  eatafSuro^  to  go  hunting  f  take  in  hunting). 
*' Caught,**  a  contraction  of  catznuratus  fcaUmrat,  cauHJ. 

Catchpoll,  kateh.pole^  a  parish  constable.     (Poll,  the  head.) 

Catchup,  Ketchup,,  or  Catsup.    Extract  of  mushrooms. 

East  Lidian  ketjab,  soy  sauce. 
Catechism,    katf.e.kizm;    catechist,    katf.e.Hst;     catechizer, 

kalf.e.ki'ze.er;  cat^hize,  kaif.e.kize;  cat'eohized  (9  syL), 

cat'echiz-ing  (Rule  xxxii.),  catechetical,  kat.e.kef.i,kal; 

catechetically,  kat.e.ket\i.kal.ly.     {In  the  Oreek  word* 

the  "  e  "  of  all  these  words  is  long  ij  not  e.) 

Greek  kaUthiamoa,  katSchiat^Sf  katichizd  (from  kata  iehed,  to  din  into 
one,  to  teach  the  elements  of  religion  orally). 

Catechumen,  kat.e.ku'.men.  One  being  prepared  for  confirmation. 

Latin  catichuminua :  Greek  katSchoum^noa,  one  learning  the  cate- 
chism or  rudiments  of  religion.    The  plural  is  catOChUmens. 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  87 

Category,  jpto.   oatdgoiies,  kaf.e,g9r.t^y  Jfaf,e,g$r.riz;  more 
correctly  ka,tee\go.1ry,  bat  rarely  ao  prondimoed. 

Categorical,  kaif,e.gef^'fi.kdlj  a^j.  of  eateg^olry. 

(In  Latin  and  Qreek  the^e"  &f  aU  ihete  w&rdt  U  long, ) 

,  LatiA  mtlffMA,  eatigdrimA;  Oraek  katSgOHa,  haUgdr^iM  (ftrdm  katet 
dffdremd,  to  apeak  in  public  agaixut  a  penoA,  to  prove). 

Cater,  kaa/,ter.  To  provide  food.  (Norm.-Frenoli  acater,  to  buy.) 

Olttere^,  f^,  oatetMa,  hay*,tgjrer,  ka^»Uf,res8,    One  who 
caters.    Chaucer  uses  the  word  achator  for  caterer. 

Cathartie  not  catharetiCt  ka.rhar^.tik,    A  purgative  medioine, 
Lat.  cafkartXcui  ;  Gk.  kaUiarWtos  (kata  hoArM,  to  oarrjr  downwards). 

Cathedral,  fta.rhee' .drSU  A  chttrch  oontaining  a  bishop's  seat 
(This  word  shows  the  perversity  of  the  English  language^ 
We  outrage  quantity  to  throw  the  accent  back  fxom  the 
penultimate,  and  si^  "  CRs'^lTate  "  for  eastigatey  "  bias'- 
phemy"for  blasphemy,  "bal'jony"  for  halcdnyj  <*meta- 
mor'ph58is"  for  metamorphuaiSy  "apothe'5Bis"  for  apothi- 
0818,  and  hundreds  more;  but  here,  where  accent  and 
quantity  favour  our  favourite  system,  we  actually  change 
short  e  (e)  into  long  e  (ij),  and  say  '* cathedral"  instead 
of  cath\i.dral,  or  kt  any  rate  eath.ed\ral,) 

Latin  edOvecBta,  Greek  kiUMdra  (Kt^diSpa)  kaia  hSdra,  a  eeai 
Cathode,  kath.ode.    Where  electricity  makes  its  way  out. 
Anode,  is  where  it  makes  its  way  in. 
Greek  kcUa  Mdo$,  the  way  down  or  oat.  Ana  kddos,  the  wsjr  np  or  in. 

Catholic,  kath\S.lik,  universal.    Catholics,  or  *'Eoman  Catho. 
lies,"  are  those  who  adhere  to  the  Church  of  Rome. 

Catholicism,  ka.thoV.Lsizm,    The  creed  of  Catholics. 

Catholicity,  kath^o.W.tty,    Universalily. 

liat.  eathdUcui:  Gk.  kathdlikda  fkatd  hSlikoSi  according  to  the  whole). 

Catholicon,  ka,rhoV.l.kon.     A  panace'a,  or  universal  medicine. 

Latin  eatMlicum  Irtmifdluml  Greek  kaihdHkon  [idma],  a  universal 
remedy. 

Cato,  plu.  CatOB  not  Catoes,  ka\toze,    (Rule  xlii.) 

Proper  names  in  o  add  *«  (not  -es)  to  form  the  pluraL 

Catoptrics,  ka.top'.trikf.  The  science  of  reflexion  and  refraction. 

Greek  hatdptrikos  fkaidptron,  a  mirror). 
Caucasian,  kaw.k&8\%.an  not  kaw.kay^st an.     (Gk.  kaukusios,) 

In  Latin  tlie  word  is  spelt  both  GaucasScm  and  Cau$aHan. 

Candal,  pertaining  to  the  taiL     Caudle,  kaw.d'l,  a  sort  of  food. 

"  Caudal,*'  Lat.  cauda,  a  taiL    "  Caudle,"  Lat.  ixUidus,  warm  [food]. 
Capl,  a  membrane.    Call,  kawl,  to  speak  with  a  loud  voice. 

"  Caul,"  Old  Bng .  caul  or  cawli  a  basket.    *'CaU,"  Lat.  edlo,  to  call. 


88  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Cauliflower,  koV.Lflow.er  ("  flow-"  to  rhyme  with  now), 

Latin  cavXisfiOrexu,  flowering  eole-wort. 
Gause,  caused  (1  syl.),  caas'-ing,  caus'-er,  caus'-ative. 
Cause-less,  cause-lessly,  cause-lessness. 

Gaiisation,  kaw.za^shun.   Gansality,  kawjsaVJtty,  B.  xxxii. 
Latin  eaus<i,  eausdlis,  causdtio.    The  reason  or  canse  of  an  effect 
Ganseway,  a  corruption  of  the  French  chausSe,    A  raised  way. 

Ganstic,  kaws^tik,  nitrate  of  silver.    Gansticlty.  kaws.tias'Xty, 
Latin  cavsticus;  Greek  kaustikos  fkaiina,  burning  heat). 

Cauterize,  kaw\tS.rize,  oau'terized  (3  syl.),  cau'teriz-ing,  cau'- 
terization,  cauteriz-er,  but  cauterism.    (Rule  xxxii.) 
{In  the  Greek  and  Latin  words  the  middle  "  e*'  is  long.) 
Lat.  oauterizo:  6k.  k<mUridzy,  kavUr-ism  (from  kaiOf  to  bom). 

Caution,  kaw\ihun;  cau'tioned  (2  syl.)    To  warn,  a  warning. 

Cautionary,  kaw\8hun.d.ry ;   cau'tional,  cantious,  kaw',- 

shus  ;  courteous,  kor/te.us^  polite,  q.v, 
Latin  cautiOf  eautionaliSt  cauttts  (from  edveo,  to  beware). 

Cavalcade,  kam\al.kade,    A  procession  of  horsemen. 

Latin  eahcUlus,  a  horse. 
Cavalier,  kav.a^leer^,  a  knight    Cav'iller,  one  who  cavils. 

Cavaliers  (plu.)    Eoyalists  or  partisans  of  Charles  I. 

Cavalierly,  kav.a.leer^.ly.    Haughtily,  arrogantly. 

*'  Cavalier/*  French,  a  horseman ;  Lai  eal>alldri%u  fcabdUus,  a  horseX 
"  CavUler,"  Itatin  cavillor  (deponent  verb),  to  cavil. 

Cavalry,  kav\dl.ry.     Horse-soldiers.    (French  cavalerie.) 

Latin  cabcUhu,  a  horse  ;  caboUldritts,  a  horseman. 
Cave,  caved  (1  syl.),  cav-ing,  kay'.ving ;  cav-ity,  kav'.tty, 

Latin  edv^a,  a  cave ;  cdtjltas,  a  cavity  {caoare,  to  hollowX 
Cavern,  kav\em,  cav'emed  (2  syL),  cav'emous.    (Lat.  eavema.) 
Cavil,  kav'.il,  cav'illed  (2  syl.),  cav'ill-ing.     (Rule  iii,  -il.) 
Caviller,  kav\il.ler,  one  who  cavils.    Cavalier  (q.v.) 

Lat.  eaviUor,  to  cavil ;  eavilldtor,  a  caviller ;  cavilldtianf  a  cavilling. 
Cavity,  plu.  cavities,  kav'.i.tiz.  A  hollow.  (Latin  eavlta^.) 
Cayenne,  kay.enn\  Red  pepper,  from  Cayenne  (South  America), 
-ce  (suffix)  Latin  -(;e[a],  -cila'],  -ti[a'],  added  to  abstract  nouns. 
Cease,  sece ;  ceased  (1  syl.),  ceas'-ing,  cease^less,  cease'-lessly. 
Cessation,  8es.sa\8hun.    A  pause  or  leaving  off. 

Latin  cessatio;  French  ceuer,  Itatin  ceaadre,  to  leave  off. 
Cedar,  se\dar,  a  tree.    Cedry,  adj.  of  "  cedar,"  not  cedary. 

Old  BngliBh  eeder;  Greek  hidr6$:  Latin  cildru$t  adj.  cedratus. 
Cede,  seed ;  ceded,  seef,ded ;  ced-ing,  seedling.  Seed  (of  plants), 

"  Cede/'  Latin  eed^,  to  yield.    "  Seed,"  Old  £ng.  seed  (Lat  aJlum\ 


AND  OF  SPELLING,  80 

GedilUt,  8€e.dil\lah,    A  mark  under  e  (9)  to  indicate  that  it  is 
to  be  pronounced  like  s  (hard). 

Spudsh  eediUa.    It  occurs  only  in  9a.  qo,  and  qa, 
Cefl^Seal,  SeeL 

GeiL    To  cover-in  the  ceiling  of  a  room  with  plaster. 

SeaL    A  sea-calf;  a  stamp ;  to  fasten  with  sealing-wax. 

Seel.     To  close  the  eyes  of  hawks,  to  hoodwink. 

"GeU,"  Latin  ecelttm,  heaven  ;  French  del ;  Ital.  and  Span.  eido. 
"Seal,''  French  acelle  ftceauj;  Latin  aigillum,  contracted  to  aigl. 
''Seel,"  French  ciUer  fcU,  an  eye-lash :  Latin  eiliumj. 

Gefled,  seeld,  past  and  p.p.  of  cell.  Sealed  (1  syl.),  with  wax. 
Ceiling  (of  a  room),  ceilinged  (2  syl.)    Sealing  (with  wax;. 

Gebuidine,  8el\an.dine,    Swallow-wort    A  blander  for  chelidine. 

Latin  eheUdHnia;  Greek  ehel\d6ni6n  (from  cheliddn,  a  swallow). 
80  called  because  swallows  cure  their  young  ones  of  blindness  with 
this  herb,  according  to  an  ancient  fancy.    fPlin.  25,  60 J 

Celebrate,  teV.S.hrate  ;  ceFebrat-ed,  cerebrat-ing,  cerebra'^tion. 
Gerebiator  {-or,  the  Latin  termination  for  an  agent). 
Gel^'ebrant.    An  officiating  priest  at  a  religious  rite. 

Celebrity,  plu.  celebrities,  se.leV .i%.Hz,   One  known  to  fame. 

Latin  ceMyrSre^  uUbrator,  cdebrant^  celebHtas,  &c. 
Cdeiity,  te.le/ry.te.    Swiftness,    (-ty  added  to  abstract  nouns.) 

Latin  eelifrUaif  swiftness  (verb  ciflirdre,  to  hastenX 

Celery,  8eV.S,ry  not  8aV,e.ry,  a  vegetable.     Sal'ary,  wages. 

"Celery,"  French  c£Uri;  German  aelleri;  Greek  tifllndn,  parsley. 

A.  species  of  jwrsley  ^opium  gravidlenaj. 

"  Salary,  "Lat.  solarium,  money  for  salt,  i.«.,  condiments;  (pin-money). 

Celestial,  te.let^M'al  not  se-Us'.tchaL    Heavenly. 

GelestialB,  plu.    The  heavenly  deities  of  heathen  mythology. 

Celestially,  »e.les',t€al.lyy  adv.    In  a  heavenly  manner. 

Celestialise,  seMs'.ti^al.ize.   Gelestialised  (4  syl.)    B.  xxxi. 

Latin  ocsJestis,  celestial,  from  ccelum,  heaven. 

Celestine,s6l'.«s.t^n«not«e.2««^t^7l«,amineral.  Gerestin  (amonk). 

"Celestine,"  Latin  calestis,  so  called  from  its  sky-blue  colour. 
"Celestins,"  an  order  of  monks  named  from  Pope  Cel'estin  V. 

Celibacy,  8eV.tha,8y,  an  unmarried  state.     Celibate,  seVXhate. 

Latin  easMu,  a  bachelor;  celi^dttu,  single  life  (from  the   Greek 
hoUip$f  Le.,  koiU  leipd,  I  avoid  the  bridal-couch). 

Cell  (of  honeycomb),  a  small  room.    Sell  (for  money). 

CeUular,  iel\l%.lar.    Gellnlated,  formed  with  cells. 

OeUnle,  seV.lule.    A  little  cell. 

GeUnlose,  seV.lu.loze.    The  cell-matter  of  plants. 

"CeU,"  Old  Eng.  eeiUas,  cells  ;  Latin  eella  (Greek  hnlS,  a  hollow). 
"Sell,"  Old  Eng.  «yll[an],  past  atalde,  past  part,  aeald,  to  sell. 


I 


90  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 


Cellar,  a  room  for  stores  underground.    Seller^  one  .wha  Bells. 

Old  Eng.  eOlas,  cells ;  Latin  tOMiriMm,  %  o«liar  {ekXHa,  %  cell), 
-celli,  -cello  (Ital.  diminatiyeB),  -cullus]  Latin  dittiinntiTe. 

Gelt,  Kelt.  "Celt,"  a  bronze  cutting  instrument  found  in 
tumuli.  The  people,  called  CelU,  shotild  be  called 
"  Kelts,"  for  distinction  sake.  Siknilarly  Keltic,  adj.  of 
kelt;  and  Oeltic,  acy.  of  celt. 

*'  Celt,**  lAtin  eeU%8,  a  chiael  (verb  eceZo,  to  carve  or  etubdn). 
''Kelt,"  Greek  KtUai  or  QiU&iai;  Latin  Gdldtce;  Old  Sng.  CeU. 

Cement,  scmenf  not  8em\ent  (noun),  but  verb  and  noun  alike. 
French  cement :  Latin  camentv^  {ecBmenta,  mortar). 

Cem'etery,  plu.  cem'eteries  (for  burials),    dyithmetry,  harmony. 
Cemetery  not  cemetry.    Symmetry  not  symetery  (double  m). 

(In  Greek  and  Latin  the  "  e "  of  " cemetery^ i»  l&i^,) 
Latin  eoemetirium  ;  Greek  koimitMon  (verb  iboifluXo,  to  sleep). 
"  Symmetrj,"  Greek  eummetria,  nm  tne^ron,  [measured]  witii  [one 
and  the  same]  measure. 

Cenotaph,  sen'.o.taf.    A  monument  without  the  dead  body. 

French  c&notapht;  Latin  eihidlcmhivm;  Grefek  hlfnlltnpkUm  (hiMi 
tojphdsj,  an  emptj  tomb.    (N.B. — ceno-  not  ceito-,) 

Censer,  Censor,  Censure,  ten^sevy  sen^^or,  8en\8her, 

Censer.    A  vase  for  incense. 

Censor.    A  Boman  officer  to  enforce  decorum. 

Oenso'rioua,  censo'riously,  censo'riousness,  censorBhlp. 

Censure,  censured  (2  syl.),  cen'snr-ing,  cen'sur-er,  cen'sur- 
able,  cen'sur-ably,  cen'sur-ableness.     To  blame,  &c. 

''Censer,"  French  eneensoir;  Latin  incemtum,  incense. 
"Censor,"  Latin  censor ^  censorius  (verb  ceruire,  to  think  and  Judged 
"Censure,"  Latin  cenetura,  the  office  of  censor ;  and  henee  the  jiMlf> 
ment  or  blame  of  censors  (verb  oeneers). 

Census,  Censers,  Censors,  Censures,  sen'just  sen^serzt  sen^^orz, 
sen^ihers. 

Census  (Latin).    Begistering  the  number  of  the  inhalatanti^ 
(  The  other  three  words  are  the  plural*  of  words  given  ahove.^ 

Cent,  Scent,  Sent,  all  pronounced  alike,  sent    (See  Cetitum.) 

Cent,  hundred :  as  5  per  cent,  written  thus  5  7o 

Scent,  perfume.    Sent,  past  and  past  part,  of  send. 

"  Cent,*'  Latin  centum,  a  hundred ;  French  cent. 

"Scent,"  Fr.  senteur,  scent.    (Lat  eentire,  to  observe  by  the  lensf 

"  Sent,"  Old  Eng.  sendlan],  past  sende,  past  part  sended,  to  send. 

Centaur.     A  fabulous  being  half  man  and  half  horse, 

Latin  centawnu;  Greek  kentauros.    The  centaurs  Were  Greek  boji 
neers,  or  horsemen  who  hutited  wild  bulls.    Grade  keitted  ton 
to  prick  or  spear  bulls. 


AND  OF  SPELUNG.  91 

Ooitiiiiy,  am\tau.fy,  not  emtory,  a  herb.    Oen'tury,  100  years. 

"Oentetiry,"  Lattn  MntattfAi,  the  oentavr,  Buned  from  the  centaur 
(Gbiron),  who  cored  with  it  a  wound  m  hia  foot  from  one  of  the 
strowB  of  HerctUfis. 

Omtam.    (1.)  written  cent,  before  yowelB. 

Genienaiian,  $en\U.nair^'ri,an,     One  who  is  100  years  old. 

Centenary,  plu,  centenaries,  8en\tSMerriz.    The  return  of 
a  period  af ler  the  lapse  of  100  years. 

Csnteimial,  8en.ien'MijaL    Once  a  century. 

«  Annua]'*  Bufftxt  becomes  -enntal,  as  bimmal,  tnennial,&c, 

Gentesinial,  sen.tM'.i.mol,  adj.    Gentes'imally,  adv. 
Latta  mUmtOriuMt  cmtisimiu  feentwn,  a  hundred). 
Centum.    (2.)  -i-  after  "  cent-"  (next  letter  -c,  -/,  -^,  -m,  or  -pe.) 
OentifsepB,  sen'Ul^eps.    Hariog  100  heads.   {Capita,  heads.) 
Oentifolia,  -fo'M,ah,    Having  100  leaves.    {FoUa,  leaves.) 

CSentigrade.    Having  100  degrees  between  the  freezing  and 
boiling  point  of  water.    {Qradus,  a  degree.) 

GentigraiiL     The  100th  part  of  a  gram.    (French  measure.) 

Oentime,  tcMndeem.    The  100th  part  of  a  franc.    (Fr.  coin.) 

Gentianetre.     The  100th  part  of  a  metre.    (Fr.  measure.) 

Centipede,  pla.  centipedes,  sen'M.peeds.    Insects  with  100 
feet.    (Latin  pea,  pidU,  plu.  pidest  feet.) 

Osrtmn.    (8.)  -«-  after  "  cent-"  (next  letter  -m,  -p,  or  -r.) 

Centumviri,   8en.tum\vtH.      Government  lodged    in  the 
hands  of  100  men.    (Latin  eentwn  viri,  100  men.) 

Gentmnvirate,  8en.tum'.vi.rate.    The  office  of  the  above. 
Centuple,  sen'.tu.p'l.    A  hundred  fold.    {Plico,  to  fold.) 
Centuplicate,  ien.tu\pli.kate.    To  make  centuple. 
Centurion,  8en.tu\H,on,    Captain  of  100  men. 
Century,  plu,  centuries,  8en\tu,riz.    Period  of  100  years. 
Letin  emUnmvirif  centuplex,  eentuplicdttu,  eentvHon,  centiiria. 
From  centtun  -wn  mnat  be  effaced 
Whene'er  before  a  vowel  placed. 
CenM  appean  with  e,  /,  g. 
Or  when  preceding  motpe; 
Cent-u  ia  reckoned  better  far 
When  Joined  to  m,  or  p,  or  r. 
^«  o  **memoria  technica  '  the  voorn  •  hnu  '  (ns)  will  denote  when  k  is 
•as€±  arid  tha  vxyrd  *'  Umpire"  (mfr)  when  u  ia  used.     All  other 
vordi  htUmg  to  the  »BCOnd  category.) 

Cento,  plu.  centos.    A  patchwork  poem,  each  line  being  from  a 
different  author,  and  used  in  &  perverted  sense. 

SpeaUh  om*<m/  Latin  cenio,  a  patch  or  poem  of  patches.    Greek 
XMitrdM,  a  patch,  a  cento. 


92  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

^ • 

Centre,  ten'.ter,  the  middle;  centred,  sen'.tefd,  placed  in  tl 
middle ;  centrings,  tending  to  the  centre. 

Gen'tric,  cen'trical,  cen'trically, 

Gen'tral,  cen'trally,  oentral'ity,  cen'trftUsin. 

Gen'traliBe,cen'traii8ed  (3  s7l.),centrali8'-in^,6en%aiito"tioi 

t^nch  centre;  Greek  JUfntrifn,  a  point ;  Lfttin  centrum. 
(It  wUl  be  seen  that  the  word  center  ie  quite  indefensible.  J 

Centrifugal,  ten.trif'.u.gal.    A  force  directed  from  the  eentre  1 
the  circumference,  a  tendency  to  fly  from  the  centre. 
Latin  eenirumfugio,  to  fly  from  the  celitre. 

Cehtripetal,  8en.trip\e.taL    Tending  towards  the  centre^ 
Itatin  centrum  pito,  to  seek  the  centre. 

Centuple,  oentnrioii^  century,  <fec.,  see  above.  Centum^ 

CephaliOj  te.faV.ih,      Pertaining  to  th^  head. 

Lat  cSphallcum,  egphaltcue,  adj. ;  Gk.  kgphaifkos  (hiphdU,  ttes  hea^ 

Cephalopod,  plu.  cephalopods  or  cephalopida,  ief'M.lo,pod 
sef^'a.iop^'-i-dah,    MoUuscs,  like  cuttle-fi^ 

Greek  kiphdU  pddfti,  feet  [placed  round]  the  head. 
Cephens,  8e\fuce.    A  constellation  containing  thirty-five  stai 

GepheuB,  husband  of  Cassiepeia,  both  made  conatellationa. 
Cerastium,  9e.ra8\tlum.    Mouse-ear  chickweed. 

Greek  keraation  (from  keras,  a  hom).  "  The  homed  plant,"  retaadb 
to  the  shape  of  the  capsule  (2  syl). 

Cerasug,  8ei^ra.8U8,    A  genus  of  plants  containing  the  cheny. 

Latin  oSrdteue;  Greek  leirdsos,  the  cherry-tree.  So  called  from  OMUt 
(now  Kerdsun),  whence  it  Was  bfought  by  LucaUas. 

Cerate,  Serrate,  Serried,  seef.ret,  tefrate,  ser^rid. 

Cerate.    A  thick  ointment  containing  -v^ax. 

Cerated,  see'.ra.ted.    Covered  with  #ax. 

Serrate  (in  Boidhy).    Leaves  with  saw-like  edges. 

Serried.    Compact,  set  in  close  array. 

"Cerate,**  Latin  cSrdtum;  "cerated*,"  Latin  eirdtv4. 
"Serrate,"  Latin  serrdtus,  like  a  saw  (»erra,  a  saw). 
"Serried/*  French  serri,  closely  packed^  crowded  together. 

Cere,  seer,  to  cover  with  wax.    Seer,  a  prophet.    Sear,  dry. 

Cerement,  seer^.ment,    A  waxed  wrap  for  dead  bodies. 

"  Cere,"  Latin  eera,  wax.     "  Seer,"  Old  Eng.  aedn,  to  Me. 

"  Sear,"  Old  Eng.  Mar[tan],  to  dry.  , 

Cereal,  pertaining  to  grain.    Serial,  a  periodical. 

Cereals,  plu.,  all  grains  used  for  food.    Serials,  periodical 

'  Cereal,**  Lat.  eeredlia (Cerie,  goddcM  of  com).  " Sexial,**  ftom  mHi 


**i 


AND  OF  SPELLING,  98 

CfiEebnim,  ^lu,  cerebra,  %e7're,}irumy  se/reMdK    The  brain. 

CerebeUum,  plu,  ceiebella,  8er^re.beV'-lumt  ser^re.hel'ldh. 
The  hinder  part  of  the  brain,  where  the  animal  spirits 
are  sapposed  to  be  generated. 

Latin  cerebrum,  the  brain  proper ;  cfirebeUwn,  the  little  brain,  the 
animal  npt  the  intellectual  part. 

Cenmony,  plu.  ceremoniee,  8er're.mun,y,  ser^re.mun.iz , 

Geremonial,    »«rVe.mc>".ni.aZ;   xier'*»mo"niall7,    cer'emo". 

nious,    cer'emo"nioii8ly,    cer'enio"niousness.     Outward 

forms  of  courtesy. 
Latin  eSrimdnia;  French  e^^monie,  cdrSmonicU,  &c. 

GereoiiB,  waxen  (Latin  cer^).    Serious,  grave  (Latin  sSrius). 

Cerei,  See^seez,  goddess  of  com.    Series,  se'.rLeez,  sequence. 
"Series,*'  Latin,  tMu,  aix>nnected  succession. 

Certificate,  ser.tif^i.kate,  certificated,  certif  icat-ing,  certif 'ica"- 
tion.    A  written  testimony ;  to  testify  in  writing. 
French  certificat;  Low  Latin  eertifiMtorium.    (See  CerUtyJ 

Oertifjr,  ter^.tify;  cer'tifies  (3  syl.),  cer'tified  (3  syl.),  cer'tifi-er, 
cer^tiiy-mg.    To  attest  in  writing ;  to  assure.    R.  xlir. 
Frendi  certifier;  Latin  eerti6rem/<icihre,  to  make  certain. 

OoHation,  ses^sa'^shurif  a  pause.    Cassation  (French),  appeaL 
Latin  eeesOfio,  cessation  (from  eesso,  to  leave  off). 

Ghijoii,  ses'^shuUt  a  yielding.    Session,  an  assize,  &c, 

"Cession,"  Latin  cessio,  a^ving  up  (verb  cesso,  to  leave  off). 
"Session/*  Latin  eesHo,  an  assijse  (verb  sedeo,  to  sit). 

OeMpool,  sei'.pool  not  cispool,    Eeceptacle  for  liquid  filth. 
Old  Eng.  8e»»e-p6l,  a  pool  settle  (verb  ees^ian],  to  settle). 

Cetaoea  or  cetaceans,  sing,  cetaceaii,  se.tay\8^.ah,  seday'^scanz, 
sing,  seday* '8£.an.    Whales  and  other  marine  mammals. 

Geta'ceouB,  adjective. 

Latin  cHe;  Greek  lUU  or  leitoe;  adj.  petdceue,  kiteioe  (8  syl). 
Cetiosanms,  8^-ti-8.saw'\ru8.    The  fossil  whale-saurian. 
Greek  kiteie-eauroet  the  whale-like  lizard. 

Ostotolites,  8e.to1f.8.Ute8,    Fossil  ear-bones  of  whales. 

Greek  hiiM^ta  Hthoe,  whales'-ear  stones. 
Ch-  represents  three  distinct  sounds,  and  three  distinct  charac- 
ters.   The  sounds  are  sh,  tch,  and  k.    The  characters 
are  e  (before  a,  e,  i  and  eo),  ch,  and  the  Greek  x* 
(N.B. — In  this  dictionary  "ch^'  is  sounded  "tch,*'  unless 

otherwise  expressed.) 
An  words  (except  two)  beginning  with  "  ch-"  =  A,  are  of 
Greek  origin.    The  exceptions  are  chem'istry  (Arabic), 
and  chiaWo-oscu'ro  (Italian). 


94  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

"  Ch  "  in  EnglUh  toord$  sounded  <u  "  tch,"  vnks$  othenoue  expressed. 

All  Dative  words,  and  two-thirds  of  those  borrowed  from 
the  French  beginning  with  *•  eh-**  hare  the  sound  of  tch. 

There  are  eighteen  words  beginmng  with  **  ch-"  b  sK  siH 
of  whieh  are  from  the  French,  to  which  langnage  iadeed 
most  of  our  irregularities  are  due.  The  eighteen  words 
are  chad,  ehaff'riny  ehoMe^  eham'oiBt  ehaw^paffne,  eham' 
paign,  ehampigjum,  ehandelief^,  'ekapeau'^  ehap'tron, 
charadef,  ehaf'latan,  ekas^seur,  chateau,  ehemiU*',  cheva- 
lier', chiea'nery,  and  ehiffonie'/. 

-ch  (Old  £ng.  sufiGlx  of  adjectives), "  pertaining  to  " :  fioh,  Scotch. 

Chafe,  chafe,  to  rub.     Ohaff,  e^/not  chaf,  husks  of  grain. 

Chafe,  chafed  (1  syL),  char-ing,  ehaf'-er,  chaf'-ery. 

Chafing,  chay'-fing,  rubbing.    Chaffing,  ehdj-jing,  quizzing 

*'  Chafe,*'  French  4diattff^r,  to  warm,  to  chafe. 
"  Chaff,"  Old  Eng.  cea/,  chaff  ("c"=cfeX 

Chafer,  chay\fer,  a  beetle.     Chaffer,  chdf.fer,  to  haggle. 

"Chafer,"  Old  Eng.  cea/or,  a  chafer,  a  beetle  ("c "=<*). 

"  Chaffer/'  Ger.  8^a4Jierei,  chaffering  (verb  smachem,  to  bargalBi). 

Cbaff,  chaffed  (1  syL),  chaffing,  to  quiz.    Chafe.  (See  above.) 

Chaffer,  cMf'.fer  (noun)  j  chaf.fer  (verb).    Rule  1. 

Chagrin  (Fr.)  shag^rin  (n.),  sha.grin'  (v.).  Shagreen,  sTia.greeti^, 

Chag'rin,  vexation :  chagrin',  to  vex.  (Bulel.)  Shagreen'', 
a  sort  of  leather  prepared  from  the  shagree  whale. 

Chagrin^  chagrined,  $ha.gr%nd^,  chagrin'-ing  (only  one  fi> 
( One  of  the  few  exceptions  to  a  very  general  rule.    Rule  %.} 
Chair,  cheer,  share,  shear,  sheer. 

"  Chair"  (a  seat),  French  cftatr«,  a  pulpit;  Lat.  cathedrti. 
*'  Cheer'*  (to  console),  French  dih^t  cheer,  welcome. 
**  Share  "  (a  portion).  Old  Eng.  «<r.  a  part  cut  off. 
^ Shear"  (to  cut).  Old  Eng.  scir[an],  to  cut  off,  to  divide. 
*'  Sheer  "  (entire,  pure),  Old  Eng.  scir,  pure,  clear,  ftc  . 

Chaise,  shdze,  a  one-horse  carriage  with  two  wheels.  Chaae,  honi 

"  Chaise,"  French  chaise.    **  C^iase,"  French  chasser,  to  hunt. 

Chalcedony,  kal.see'.do.ny  not  kaL8ed'.8.ny.    A  precious  stone. 

(The  "  e  "  and  the  "  o  "  are  both  long  in  the  Greefc  word,) 

Greek  ehatkSd&n:  Latin  ehdloSddnMU.  So  named  ftrom  "GhaloMoOk" 
a  Greek  city  of  Bithinia,  where  the  first  was  found.  , 

Chaldee,  koLdee'  not  chal.dee*;  Chaldean,  kal,de4^.an, 
Chaldaio,  kal.day\ik;  Ohaldaigm,  hal.day\ixm. 
Latin  ChcUdeei,  Chaldeana ;  Chaidaieus;  Gk.  Chaldaia,  Chaldaios. 

Chaldron,  chauV.dron  not  chaV.dron.  Thirty-six  bushels  [of  coke] 
Caldron,  kawV.dr%n  not  kaV.drihi,    A  large  boiler. 

"C!haldron."  French  ehcUdron,  an  old  dry  measure  of  1906*516  Utns 
"'  Caldron,'  French  <haudron;  Latin  ealddriwn,  m  luge  kettle. 


AND  OF  SPELUXG.  f>5 

"Ch**  iift  MmtHUk  fwrdf  munded  as  **  toh,"  wnleit  ot/i«nfiM  eaggpretfed. 

GhaUoe,  eA9r.bt,  a  oop.    GhaUced,  e?MV.ut,  full  of  onps. 
TT;^  word  ought  not  to  have  an  "  h  "  after  the  *  c"; 
QU  Sng.  taUCg  •  goblet;  French  ealie$:  Latin  ecUiat;  Qtuk  kulix. 
Chilk,  dkawik.    GaUc,  AoirJb,  to  fill  the  seams  of  a  ship.    Cork. 
GhalksF,  eAoifiiE'.y,  ao(j.  of  dhalk.    OoriEy,  like  cork. 

"CSialk,"  (Md  Bnc.  MiI«or  «fle,  UnM :  Latin  oato;  Qraek  ehalix. 
**C§¥tt**  Latin  eoMo,  to  tread  down  (from  cdkt,  tlie  heel). 
"Coric,"  ^paniah  eoreko;  Latin  coricae,  bark. 

Cbilleiige  (2  syL),  challenged  (2  sjL),  challenger,  challenging. 

GhalleiigeAble,  ehaV.le!f^.&.VL    (Only  verbs  in  -C6  and  -ge 
retain  the  "  e  "  before  -able,) 
Low  Latin  oalangivm,  a  diaUenge ;  Greek  kaXeo^  to  nimmon. 

Chalybeate,  l6&.lW,S.aU    Femiginous  water. 

French  cAa2y5^;  Latin  chdlybUfiu,  adj.  of  e?UI2y&«,  steel;  Greek 
dUO/iOa,  steel,  from  *'  ChUnps/'  one  of  the  nations  of  the  ChdlyUs, 
in  Fontns,  f amona  for  working  in  iron  and  steeL 

Chamber,  ehdm\ber,  ch&ral>efed  (2  syL),  chaml)er-ing. 

French  thambrt;  Latin  oAmfru;  Greek  kdmdra,  a  Tanlted  room. 

Qwaneleini,  ka.mee\U.on.     A  lizard,  able  to  change  its  hue. 
Latin  chanwdeim;  Greek  chamai  ledn,  the  reptile  Hon. 

(Suttnoifl,  87um,'.tDor(nGnn\8ham\my  (adj.):  as  "  chamois-leather." 
Fteocih  thamoUf  Spanish  gamuzat  a  species  of  antelope  or  goat. 

Chamcimfle,  kam\S.milet  a  plant.    CSal'Qmel,  prepared  meroory. 

Calamine,  kal\a.mfn.    Carbonate  of  2inc. 

"Chamomile,'*  Latin  ehamcemHon:  Greek  kamaimSldn,  the  ground 

apple,  so  called  ab  odore  maU  Man'oni.    (Plin.  22,  21.) 
(Onr  word  is  qnite  misspelt,  and  as  usual  we  have  taken  the  error 
'  from  the  Frwich,  camomille  for  chamSmel.) 

Champaign,  8ham\pain\  a  wine.    Gamiiaign,  kam.pain^  (q-v.) 

Champioa,  eham'.ptont  a  defender.    Campion,  kam'.pl.on  (q.v.) 

'*  Champion,"  French  ehampumt  Low  Latin  iximpio  f champ  pionj. 
"Campion/'  both  the  Silene  (catch  fly)  and  the  Lychnis. 

Chmoe  (1  syL),  chanced  (1  syl.),  ohano'-ing.     To  happen. 

FroDch  ehofics;  Latin  cadeHs,  cadmHa^  things  that  occur. 
^huicol,  ehSn\»el  (of  a  chnrch).    Cancel,  to  obliterate. 

Ghaneellor,  ehdn'^ellor^  a  dignitary.    Cancellet,  one  who 
cancels.    Chancery,  chdn^se.ry,  a  court  of  equity. 

Latin  eaneelUi  a  chancel;  eaneeUoHuSf  can^xllaria  (from  canceUi, 
lattioea,  whieh  divided  the  clergy  and  lawyers  from  the  laity). 

Ckiideiler,  8h&n.diS.leei^,    A  hanging  candelabrum. 

Chandler,  chSnt^,ler  not  ehdnd'.ler,    A  dealer  in  candles. 

i  ehmuMitu^,  ebandeliaraiid  chandler ;  Latin  eandHa,  a  candle. 


96  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

"  Gh  "  in  English  foords  sounded  as  **  tch,**  unless  othenoise  expressed. 

Change,  change  ;  changed  (1  syL),  chang^-ing,  chang^-er. 

Change'-ahle  (verbs  in  -ce  and  -ge  retain  the  "e"  before 
-able)y  change'-ableness,  change'-ably,  change^fnl.change^- 
fully,  change-less,  change-ling.    To  alter,  an  alteration. 

French  t^nger;  Latin  cambidre,  to  change,  cambiumf  dumge. 
Channel,  c^n^ne{;  channeled,  ehanf.neld;  chan^nel-ing.  (B.iii.) 

Canar,  an  artificial  river.    Ken'nel  (for  dogs),  a  gutter. 

'* Channel**  and  "canal,"  Latm  candlis;  French  canal. 

**  Kennel "  (a  gutter),  Fr.  ehenal.   ( A  dog's  house)  thenil  (eMeUt  %  dog). 

Chanter,  fern,  chantress,  chan'.ter^  chan' .tress.    One  who  chants. 

Chanticleer,  chan'.ti.cleer,    A  corruption  of  cantie^uiar. 

Chantry,  chan'.try  (should  be  ehantery),  A  chantry-chapeL 

"Cbant«r,"  Old  Eng.  cantere;  Fr.  chanter,  v.;  Lat.  eaaitare,  coMtdter, 
*'  Chanticleer,**  Latin  canticUldrius,  a  Uttle  singer,  the  cock. 
"Chantry,*'  Fr.  ehantererie;  Low  Lat.  cantaria  {chanteTf  to  shig). 

Chaos,   kay\58.    The  materials  of  the  world  before  "  creation." 

Chaotip,  hay. off. ik.    Adj.  of  chaos.     (Greek  and  Latin.) 

Chap  (the  cheek),  not  chop.    Chap  (to  crack  from  cold),  not  chop. 
chap,  chapped,  chapt;  chapp'-ing,  chapp'-y.    (B.  i) 
"  Chap  "  and  *'  chop  '*  are  the  samfi  words,  hut  **chop  **  if 

now  used  to  signify  a  cut,  as  a  "mutton  chop,**  or 

to  cut,  as  to  "  chop  wood.'* 

**  Chap  **  (the  cheek).  Old  Eng.  eeaplas,  the  jaws ;  eeafelf  the  snout. 
"  Chap  "  (as  chapped  hands).  Low  Latin  colpo,  to  cut ;  Fijanch  eoup. 

Chapel,  chdp\el,  chap'el-ry.    Chapel  was  originally  the  canopy 
placed  over  the  altar  when  mass  was  performed. 

Low  Lat.  capelluSy  a  cap  or  hood,  capettdria,  a  chapelry;  Yx.  dMptXU, 

COiapel  Boyal,  plu.  chapels  royal.    ("  Royal,"  a4j.  no  pin.) 

Chaperon  shap\S.rdne  (noun),  chaperone,  shap'Xrone  (yerfo). 

Chaperone,  chap'eroned  (3  syl.),  chap'eron-ing. 

French  cTutperon,  a  hood  worn  by  an  attendant,  hence  an  attendaat 
on  young  ladies,  a  guide  or  protector. 

Chapiter,  chup'.tter,  the  capital  of  a  column.  Chap'ter  (of  a  book). 

*'  Chapiter, "  Latin  cajAtellum  or  fxip/CtiUum  (caput,  a  head,  and  -€liiMi 

or  -ulum,  dim. :  French  chapiteau,  a  chapiter. 
"Chapter,"  Old  Eng.  capital;  Latin  cdpitHlum;  French  ehapUre. 

Chaplain,  chup\lan.    A  clergyman  to  a  private  family,  ship,  &o. 

Chaplaincy,  chaplainship.    (It  would  be  better  chapelain,) 

French  chapelain;  Latin  capelldnus  (one  who  wears  a  hood,  oopettiMX 

Chaplet,  chup'.letj  a  wreath  (Fr.  chcpelet;  Low  Latin  capeUut). 

Chapter,  chap\ter  (of  a  book).  Chapiter,  chap'X.ter  (of  apillar),  q,Vi 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  97 

"Gb"  <»  JffngKaPk  V)ord$  toundtd eta  "tch,"  wnieu  olherwiw  exprtMed. 

Char,  to  bom  to  carbon.    Ohiir,  chair,  to  work  by  the  day  at 
house-work  (applied  to  women).    Gharr,  a  lake  fish. 

Ohar  (to  bum).    Charred,  ehard.    (Rnle  i.) 

Gharring,  burning.    Charing  (one  r),  doing  char-work. 

"Cbkr**  (to  bom),  a  contraction  of  the  French  eharbcnner  fcharcocUJ. 
**  Char,"  Old  £og.  cirre,  a  turn  of  business  (verb  e&rran). 
f**Chdring**  is  one  of  the  few  exceptions  to  a  very  general  nUe.    £.  i ) 
"Cbanr"  ^the  fish},  Gaelic  oear,  one  of  the  salmon  famllj. 

Character,  kar^,rak.ter.    Caricature,  ka7^H.kd,ture  (q.v.) 

Charactered,  kar^rahJerd ;  ohar'actering,  char'acterlees. 

Ghar'acterize,  ohar'acterized  (4  syl.),  char'acteriz-ing. 

OharacteriBtic,  kar^rak,ter.'U" .tik ;  char'acteris^'tical,  char'- 
acttriB^'tically,  char'acterisni.    Bule  xxxii. 

Oreek  eharaUiTy  charaettrizo  (from  eharassOy  to  impress  coin);  Latin 
ehaauUiTy  characUrismtu,  the  distinguishing  of  characters. 

Charade  (French)  iha/rard\    A  riddle.    {See  Enigma.) 

(%arge  (1  syl.),  charged  (1  syL),  charg'-ing,  charg'-er. 

Charge-able  (Verbs  in  -ee  and  -ge  retain  the  "e"  before 

-able),  charge'-ably,  charge'-ableness,  charge-less. 
French  charger,  to  load,  ftc :  Low  Latin  carco,  to  load  (our  cargo). 

Chazgg  d^afbiree,  plu.  charges  d'affaires  (French),  shar'.zja 
dafjair.    One  entrusted  with  diplomatic  business. 

(Aariot  (French)  cha'/ry.ot,    A  coach  with  only  a  front  seat 
Charioteer,  chaf^ry.S.teer^.    The  driver  of  a  chariot. 

Charity,  |72i^.  charities,  char'itable,  chai'itably,  char'itableness. 
French  chariti;  Latin  ch&ritas,  not  caritas  (Greek  (iharitis,  favours). 
Charlatan  (French),  shar^.ld.tan,  a  quack.    Charlatanism. 
Chair,  a  fish  of  the  salmon  family.    Char,  to  burn.    (See  Char,) 
Oiart,  chart,  a  map.    Cart,  a  two- wheeled  vehicle  for  stores. 

Charter,  a  royal  grant  in  writing.    Carter,  one  who  has 
charge  of  a  team. 

"Chart," Lat.  charta;  Gr.  charUs,  papers.    "Cart,"  Old  Eng.  orcet. 

Oiasahle,  chase!'. a.b%  that  may  be  chased.    Chas'uble  (q.v.) 

Oiaae,  chase,  chased  (1  syl.),  chas'-ing,  chas'-er,  chas'-able. 
(Only  verbs  in  -ce  and  -ge  retain  the  " e"  before  -able.) 
French  chtusex,  to  chase ;  Low  Lat.  chacea  or  (^uuea  (verb  chaceo). 

Gbaam,  kSzm,  a  gulf.    (Greek  chasma,  a  yawning ;  Lat.  chasma.) 

Chaste,  cJutst,  chaste^-ly,  chaste'-ness,  but  chas'Uty. 

French  chaste,  chasteU;  Latin  castus,  castttas. 

Q 


98  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

''Gh**  in  BngUsh  vwrdi  founded  m  "toh," imlest  oiherwiu  «xprt$md. 


Chaeten,  ehSseJn  not  eheute'n  ;  chastened,  chase'Jnd, 

Ohastening,  ehasefMAng ;  chastener,  ehase','ner» 

GhastiBe,  ehca.tize' ;  chastised' (3  8jl.),chSstis'ing,chSstis'-e 
chastls'-able.    (Not  in  -ee  or  -ge.    Bale  xx.) 

Chastisement,  cha/Mz.menL    Correction,  ponishment 
Old  Fr.  chattier,  now  chdtier;  lAtln  tastigdre,  to  correct,  puiiiBh. 

Ohastity,  chas^tLty,    Purity  of  body  and  mind.    {See  CHiaste 

Chasnble,  8haz\u.h%  a  priest's  robe.    Ghasable,  chatif.a.Vl  (q.\ 

"  Chasuble, "  French :  Low  Lat.  «uvMla,,  dim.  of  eatHiek,  a  rarplic 
It  is  worn  over  the  alb  when  the  priest  performs  mass. 

Ghat,  chatt'-ed,  chatt'-ing,  chatt'-er,  chatf-y.    (Rule  L) 

Chatter,  chatt'ered  (2  syl.),  chatt'ering,  chatt'erer.  To  prattl 
French  ^cuer,  cormpted  first  to  chdtam'  then  to  fSuMer. 

Chatean,  jplti.  chateaux  (Fr.),  8haf.0y  8h3f.oze.    A  country  sea 
Chattels,  cAat'.t'b.  Goods  in  general.  (LowLat.cato2{a,chatteh 
Chaumontelle,  8hau\m(m,teV  not  shar^.mon.teV.    A  pear. 
So  called  from  Chaumont,  in  France. 

• 

Cheap,  cheep;  cheapen,  eheep'M;  cheapened,  eheep\*nd;  chea] 
ening,  cheep^'ning.    Low  in  price,  to  lessen  in  value. 
Old  Eog.  eedp,  a  bargain,  oedp[ian],  to  bargain,  cedpan,  to  boy. 

Cheat,  cheet.  Contraction  of  "escheat."  Esoheators  we] 
ofiScers  appointed  to  look  after  the  king's  escheats.  Th 
gave  many  opportunities  of  overcharging  and  of  fraud. 

Cheafer,  one  who  cheats.    Cheetar,  the  hunting  leopard. 
Old  Eng.  oeatta,  cheats.    ''Chetar,**  nr  cheeta,  is  a  Mahratta  word. 

Check,  a  restraint,  to  restrain.    Check  or  cheque  (for  money). 

Checker  or  chequer.    To  form  into  checks  or  squares. 

Old  Eng.  eeae,  a  fetter;  French  ichee,  a  repulse,  hinderance. 
"Cheque  or  check"  (for  money),  exchequer,  a  treasury. 

Cheek.    Side  of  the  face.    (Old  Eng.  cedca,  the  cheek  or  jaw.] 

Cheer,  Chair,  Char,  Sheer,  Shear,  Share. 

Cheer.    To  gladden.     (French  ch^e,  cheer,  welcome.) 

Chair.    A  seat.    (French  chaire,  a  pulpit;  Latin  cathedra 

Char,  chair.    To  do  domestic  work  by  the  day,    (Old  Euj 
cirran,  to  do  a  turn  of  business ;  cSrre,  a  turn  of  buBiness 

Sheer.    Entire,  pure.    (Old  English  scir,  pure,  dean.) 

Shear.    To  cut    (Old  Eng.  scirlan],  to  cut  off,  to  divide.' 

Share.    A  portion.    (Old  English  sdr,  a  part  cut  off.) 

Chee'tah,  the  hunting  leopard.    Cheaper,  one  who  cheats  (q.v. 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  1)9 

"Cb"  iM  BnqliUh  wcrdi  founded  at  "  Uh,"  wUett  0th»ryri$e  e3Bprta$td, 

Owf  d*OBfiine,  plu,  ehefii  d'oBnTie,  $hay  cTurv.    (In  art)  the 
best  prodaotion  of  an  artist  in  his  particular  line. 

Chair-  (Qreek),  hire  or  ki'.r...    The  hand.    Except  in  Zoologi- 
cal nomenclature,  wpeit  ehir-  {q.v.) 

GhdzacanfhuB,  ki\ra.kan".thu8.   A  fish  armed  with  spines. 

Oheixolepls,  ki.roT.^.pit.    A  fossil  fish.    (Gk.  UpiSy  a  scale.) 

Quiiaptextk,  ki,rop\te,rah.    Bats.    (Greek  |>f^on,  a  wing.) 

Oheimms,  hLru\nu.    A  trll5bite.    (Greek  cheir  oura,  hand- 
tail;  i.e.,  having  a  tail  with  five  finger-like  spines.) 

Chels,  hee'dee.    A  daw  (of  a  crustacean).    (Gk.  chSlS,  a  talon.) 

^^'^^^A^'ft,  ki-UfMuah.    The  tortoise  family.    Ghelo'nian  (n.  or 
a4f*)    (Gk.  chSldni^  a  tortoise.) 

Gbenuse  (French),  sM^meez'.    An  undergarment  of  women. 

Ghemiaette,  shim^ejiet',    A  sort  of  female  waistcoat 

Oienustry,  chemist  (e  not  y),  hemWsdry^  kem'.ut.     Chem'io, 

chemical,  chemically. 

The  same  root  m  al-chemy,  withont  the  article  tU.  Arabic  kimia, 
the  occult  art.  Even  if  taken  from  the  Greek,  the  first  vowel 
wonld  be  i  not  y  {eM6,  to  melt ;  not  ehv/d). 

Cheque  or  check.    An  order  for  money.    {See  Check.) 
Oierish,  eher^ruh  ;  cher'ished  (2  syL  )    Fr.  ehirir ;  cJieVy  dear. 

Cherry,  che/ry  (ought  to  have  only  one  r).    A  fruit. 

Old  Eng.  eirse;  Fr.  cSrise;  Lat.  efriUus;  Gk.  kHrdsfis  (from  Cerasus, 
on  the  Pontine  coast,  whence  Lucullus  imported  the  cherry). 

Cher'abypZu.  cher^ubs  {Heh.  plu.  cher'nbim.  Chaldaie  chembin). 
[The  Bible  word  " cherubimt " [Gen.  Hi.  24]  is  indefemibU.) 

Chervil,  cher^.vil,  a  herb.  (Old  Eng.  cerfille ;  Lat.  cJiarephyllum.) 
Greek  eftairo,  to  rejoice,  and  pfwUon,  a  leaf,  an  exhUarating  plant. 

Chesfnnt  not  Ohes'nnt     (Latin  cattSn^ce  nux.  Virg.  Ecc.  ii.  62.) 
Old  Eng.  eixier^niii,  a  diestnnt.    (From  CastdnSa,  in  Thes8al7.) 

Oievauz  de  frise  (French),  she-vo'  d^-freeze'.    A  military  fence. 

Cheoaux  defrise,  the  horse  [bar]  nsed  at  the  siege  of  Frite. 
Chevalier  (French),  8hev\d.leer,    A  cavalier. 

Chew,  ehoo,  chewed  (1  syl.),  chewing.    To  masticate. 
Old  Bng.  ee&v^an],  past  eedw,  past  part,  cotoen,  to  chew. 

Odaio-oecoro  (Ital.),  ke.ah'ro  os.ku'.ro.    Light  and  shade. 

OUhoDk  or  Chibougue  (Turk.),  cM.booke\    A  Turkish  pipe. 

GUcane,  shS.kain' ;  chicanery,  sM.kain'.^.ry,    Trickery. 
French  thioane,  chicanerie,  pettifogging  trickery. 


100  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 


"Gh"  in  Engliah  vwrds  founded  at  "teh,"  unless  otherwise  expressed. 

Chick  or  chicken,  plu.  chicks  or  chidkens.  (Chicken  is  not  plural.) 
Old  Eng.  eicen,  pin.  ctcenu.    "  Chick'*  is  a  contraction  of  cidien]. 

Ghide,  past  chode,  past  part,  chidden  [chid].    To  reprove. 
Chid'-er,  chid'-ing,  chid'-ingly. 
Old  Eng.  cid[an],  past  odd,  past  part,  eiden,  to  chide. 

Chief,  plu.  chie&  (Eule  xxxix).     Chieftain  (French  chef). 

Chiffonier,  shif'.fo.nee/t  not  cheffoneer,    A  piece  of  furniture. 

French  ehiffpnnieTt  a  rag-picker  (from  chiffon,  a  rag). 
Chilblain,  chiV.hlain.    A  blain  or  sore  from  chill  or  cold. 

Old  Eng.  cele-hlegen  or  hloegan,  a  chill  blister  or  sore. 

Child,  plu.  children,  chUd^  chiV.dren.  Childe,  a  youns:  nobleman. 

"child,"  Old  Eng.  did,  plu.  cUdra,  later  form  cildre /'n interpolatedX 

Childhood,  the  child  period.   (0.  Eng.  -hdd,  state,  condition.) 

Childish,  like  a  child.    (0.  Eng.  -isc  [added  to  nouns]  means 
"  like,"  but  added  to  acUectives  is  dimiTtutivet  as  "  blackish.** 

Chiliad  (Greek)  kiV.l.ad,  1,000.  Kilo-,  used  in  French  weights 
to  express  a  multiple ;  niille-  (Latin  1,000)  to  express  a 
fraction.  Thus  kilo-gramme  =  1,000  grammes ;  milU' 
gramme,  y^^u  part  of  a  gramme. 

Chill,  chilled  (1  syl.),  chill'-ing,  chill'-er  (eomp.),  chill'-est  (sup.), 
chiU'ingly,  chiU'ness,  chiiry,  chill'i-ness.     (Rule  viii.) 

Chilli  [vinegar]  ;  chillies  (plu.),  chiV.liz,  pods  of  Guinea  pepper. 

Chime,  chimed  (1  syl.),  chim'-ing.    To  make  bell-music. 

Danish  Hme,  to  chime ;  Hmen,  chiming. 
Chimera,  plu.  chimeras,  kl.mee'.rah,  kl.mee\rdz.    A  monster. 
Chimerical,  ki.mer'ry.kal  (imaginary) ;  chimer^ically. 

Lat.  chinuBra;  Gk.  chimaira,  a  lion,  dragon,  and  goat  united. 

Chimney,  plu.  chimneys,  not  chimnies.    Chimney-piece. 

(The  word  "  chimhley  "  is  a  common  error  with  children,) 
French  cheminde;  Latin  cdminus;  Gk.  kdmlnds,  a  chimney. 

Chimpanzee,  chim\pan.zee\     African  name  for  the  orang. 

Chin  (of  the  face).     Chine,  the  back  bone,  a  "joint "  cut  from  it 
'  *  Chin,"  Old  Eng.  cin.    '*  Chine,"  French  ichine,  the  spine. 

Chinese.  Sing,  a  Chinese  ot  a  Chinaman,  plu.  Chinese  (indefi. 
nite),  Chinamen  (definite),  as  1,  2,  3,  &c..  Chinamen. 

Chintz,  plu.  chintzes.    Cotton  prints  with  more  than  two  colours. 
Hinddstan'ee,  chint;  Persian  ehinz,  spotted  cotton  cloth. 

Chip,  chipped  (1  syl.),  chipp'-ing,  chipp'-er.    (Rule  i.) 

German  kippen,  as  kippen  und  wippen,  kipper  und  toipper,  appHad 
to  money-clipping  and  money-clippers. 


AND  OF  SPEIJJXG.  ^n 

''Gb  "  M  Bnglith  vjords  sounded  cu  **  tch,"  unfe»9  othenoiw  expressed. 

Gfajr-  (Greek  cheiVt  the  hand),  kV.r,„  ( prefix),  hand.  {See  Cheir-.) 
CSiirography,  ki.rog'.rd.fy.    Art  of  writing. 
Chirograph,  kV.rS.graph.    An  official  written  document. 

CShirographic,  ki\ro,graf*'.iky  a^j.    Ohirog'rapher. 
Greek  ehmr  grapho,  to  write  with  the  band.  b«nd-writing. 
Ghizamancy,  ki\ro.man^,  Diyining  by  looking  at  the  hand. 

CShiramancer,  ki\ro.manjer.    One  skilled  iu  the  above. 

Greek  cheir  marUeia,  hand-diviiuttion,  &c 

Chiropodist,  ki,rop\o,di8t,    A  com  and  wart  doctor. 

Gredc  eheir  podes^  hand  and  feet  (-ist^  an  agent). 
Ghifl'el,  chis'eled  (2  syl.),  chis'el-ing,  ohis'el-er.    (Rule  iii.  -et..^ 

French  eiseler,  to  chisel  {ciseau,  sdsson) ;  Lat.  casum  {eatdo,  to  eat). 
GSdfBlzy,  shif/Ml.ry ;  chivalric,  8hiv\aLrik ;  chiv'alroiia. 

French  ehewxltris  (S  syLX  from  duval,  a  horse ;  Lat.  cabcdUu. 
Qdoriiie,  Icto'.ffn.    In  Chemistry  -ine  denotes  a  gas. 

Chloride,  klo\rid.    In  Chemistry  -ide  denotes  a  base.    If 
'*  lime  "  is  the  base,  the  compound  is  chloride  of  Ume. 

Chlorate,  klo\rate.  In  ChemUtry  -ate  denotes  a  salt,  the 
acid  of  which  ends  in  -ic.  The  salt  of  chloric  acid  with 
a  base. 
Greek  thl&ros,  pale  green.  CMorine  is  a  greenish  yellow  gas. 
Gbloroform,  kU/.ro.form.  A  compound  of  chloiine,  carbon,  and 
hydrogen,  -form  in  CliemUttry  denotes  the  '*  ter-oxide  of 
a  hydrocarbon,"  which  resembles  **  formic  acid." 

Chlorophyll,  kU/.ro.Jil,    The  green  colouring  matter  of  plaTits. 

Greek  cfUdro*  phuUcn,  the  green  of  leayes. 
Chocolate,  choW.o.let,    (French  chocolate  Spanish  chocolate.) 
Choice,  choic'-er  (camp.),  choic'-est  (sup.)  Worthy  to  be  chosen. 

Old  Eng.  eedsian],  to  choose  ;  cedsung,  a  choice. 
Choir,  quire.    A  band  of  singers ;  the  place  where  they  sing. 

Old  Eng.  dufr;  Latin  ch&rus;  Greek  chOrds. 
Chidce,  choked  (I  syl.),  chok'-ing,  chok'-er.     To  block  up. 

Welsh  cegio,  to  choke,  (from  eeg,  a  moothX 
Choler,  kot.er,  aoger.    Collar  (for  the  neck). 

Choleric,  koV.e-rik,    Irritable,  passionate. 

Greek  and  Latin  ehdUfra.    (Greek  choU  rheo.  flow  of  bOe.) 
"Collar,"  Old  Eng.  eeolr,  a  collar ;  Latin  collum,  the  neck. 

Gholexa,  koV.e.rah.    A  flow  of  bile,  bile-flux.    (See  above.) 

Choote,  past  chose,  past  part,  chosen,  chooz,  chGze,  chvzen ; 
cboos^-ing,  choos'-er.    Choice,  choic'-er,  choic'-est. 
Old  Eng.  ce6^an\  past  eeds,  past  part,  e&rtn. 


102  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 


Ch*'  ^ BniM^wvrdM  mnmiad  M  ** U^"  wdtn  ttkenoim 


Chop,  to  cut,  to  exchange.    Chap,  the  jaw-part  of  the  cheek,  &c 

Chop,  chopped  (1  sjL),  ehopp'-ing,  ehopp'-^.    (Bole  L) 

"  Chop"  (to  eat,  &«.),  Hmw  Lat.  eolfw,  to  eat ;  Frendi  eimper,  to  cut. 
"  Chop  **  (to  exciumgeX  Old  Eng.  oeap,  a  bari^dii ;  Terb  ee^on]. 
"  Chap  **  (the  jaw),  Old  Eng.  eeapUu,  the  jaws. 
"  Chap  **  (to  crack  with  cold).  Low  Latin  colj^^  to  eat. 

Choral,  ko'sal,  a^j.  of  choir  (quire).    Coral,  kat^ral  (q.v.) 

Chord,  kord  (in  Music).    Cord,  kord,  rope.    Cawed,  p.  of  eaw. 

**  Chord,"  Greek  chordS,  the  string  of  a  late,  kc;  Latin  chorda. 
'^Oord,**  French  eorde,  string:  Greek  tkordS;  Latin  efcorda. 
**  Cawed,**  hvrd,  past  tense  of  "  eaw/'  an  imitation-word ;  Old  Eng. 
ear,  a  erow ;  Latin  eor«[iM] ;  Greek  coraz. 

ChoruB,  ho'. rut.    Cho'ral,  adj.    (Latin  ehoras,  Greek  ehSr^iB.) 

Chough,  chuff y  a  jackdaw,  a  crow.  Cidl^  itu/,  a  blow.  **  Chongh  " 
was  originally  pronoanced  chow,  like  *'  though  "  tho\ 

Old  Eng.  eeo—th'ow;  Fr.  thcmeat;  Lat.  cormu  (**caw.'*  the  07). 
"  Caff,"  French  coup,  to  blow ;  Latin  cOAphuB  (Greek  hdlaptd). 

Chiism,  krizm,  consecrated  oiL  Chrisom,  kris^om,  a  child  that 
dies  within  a  month  of  its  birth. 

"Chrism,"  Greek  and  Latin  ehrisma,  ointment  (Gk.  d^HA,  to  anoint). 
"Chrisom,"  so  called  from  the  "chrism  doth,**   anointed  with 
"  chrism,"  or  consecrated  oil,  and  plac«d  orer  the  child. 

Christ,  krist ;  Christ-IesSi  krisfless.    Short  in  the  compounds : 
Christmas,  krxsf.nuu,   F^om  Dec.  35  to  Jan.  6.   (Rule  Tiii.) 
Christen,  kris'.'n  not  fcr{g'.t«ii;  christened,  kr%8\*n€L 
Christening,  krit''n.ing;  chrintener,  kris'^n-cr. 
Christendom,  kri8''n,dom.    All  (]!hristian  countries. 
Christian,  kris'.tl.an;  Christianity,  kru^'ttMn"'Lty. 
Christianize,  kris\ti.an.ize ;  christianized,  kiitCPLanAzed. 
Christianizing,  Christianism,  kris'.ttan.izm.    (R.  xxzii.) 

Greek  Christos,  ehristidnds,  dirisHanizA,  ehristianismot. 
Latin  Chr^st^^8,  chriatidnuB,  duritUanittMU,  ^rutidniUu. 

Chromate,  kr^.mate.  In  Chemistry  -ate  denotes  a  salt,  from 
the  union  of  a  most  highly  oxidized  acid  with  a  base. 
Thus  chromic  acid  and  potash  is  the  chromate  of  potash* 

Chromite,  krd'.mite.  In  Chemistry  -ite  denotes  a  salt,  from 
the  union  of  a  less  oxidized  acid  with  a  base.  Thus 
chromite  of  iron  is  an  oxide  of  chromium  (inferior  to 
cbromic  acid)  in  union  with  iron. 

Chromium,  kri/,m\,umy  a  metal;  also  called  chrome  (1  sjL) 

Greek  dirtfma,  ooloor.    The  metal  "chrOmiom"  is  so  called  beeaosa 
it  is  a  powerful  eolooring  substance. 


AND  OF  SPELLLVa.  103 


"Cai"  i»  Enfi^iA  Vfordt  Mounded  at  "toh,"  ut^tts  othervi$e  txprtMttd. 

GhnmmtioB  (plu.),  kro,maf.ik8t  soienoe  of  colours. 

Ghromatic  Scale  (Mtisic),  so  called  from  the  intermediAte 
notes  being  printed  in  colours. 

Ghromatrope,  kro\ma.trdpe.    An  apparatus  for  showing  a 

stream  of  colours.    (Greek  tr6pad,  to  turn  round.) 

Ctoeek  dvr&ma,  colour.  All  sciences  in  -^  art  plural  except  logic, 
mnsic,  and  phytdc  (French  wordsX  Gk.  ehHhnatikot;  Lat.  ckrc- 
m&UiOua,  chromatic  music. 

Chianic,  kran\ik  or  chion'ical.     Continuing  a  long  time. 

Chronicle,  kron\tk'l.    History  arranged  in  order  of  time. 

Ghnmialed,  kr6n\tk'ld;  ohronid-ing,  kr8n'.i,kUng. 

Ghzoniel-er,  hr8n'.l.kler.  One  who  chronicles,  an  historian. 
Ofeek  dvHMkfy;  Latin  6lvHMLou9  (Greek  tiiHindn,  time). 
Chronology,  plu,  chronologies,  krS.n5V,6.jiz.     Science  of  dates. 

Ghronol'^oger  or  chionorogiBt.    One  who  arranges  dates. 

Ghnmological,  kr5n'.5.lodg".%.k&l,  chronolog'ically. 

Greek  ^rdndUfg^,  ehr(hidldg(fB  (from  ehr&nds,  time). 
Chionometer,  hrb.nSmf  .S,ter,    A  watch  or  time  instrument. 

GhranoBn'etry.    The  art  of  making  chronometers. 
Greek  durdnAt  metrcn,  time  metre. 
QiryBaHfli,  plu,  chrysalieeB  not  chrysales,  kris*.a,ll8,  kris^ui.  lit.ez, 

Chiysalid,  plu.  chryBalidB,  are  better  and  more  modem 

forms ;  "  chrysalid  "  is  also  used  as  an  Hdjective. 

Gfeek  chnuaUU,  gen.  ehru8allid[os],  with  double  I  (chrtuot,  goM) ; 
Ladn  ehryadlUy  gen.  chry9dlld{i8\,  one  I.    {Su  Aurella.) 

GhiyBanthemuin,    kriMn'.Thi.mum   not    chrysanthenum^  plu. 

cfaryBonthemums  not  chrysanthema,    A  genus  of  flowers. 

Gfeek  ehnuantMmOn  fehnuds  antMmdn,  gold  flower) ;  Latin  chry- 
$anth€muni,  the  jeUow  crow-foot,  ox-eye,  moon-daiqr,  &c. 

Chrysolite,  kris'.o.lite.    The  topaz  of  the  ancients,  now  im- 
properly applied  to  a  green  crystaL 
Latin  ekry»6Uth%t:  Greek  chruto$  lUhdt,  the  gold  stone. 
ChrjH^raee,  kriti'.o.praz  not  chrysophrase.    A  green  stone. 

Latin  e&rys^yrdnu;  Greek  ehnuifprdgifs  fehrwtd  prdson,  gold  leek). 
"Qnod  rit  wrioris  porraeei;  Le.  yiridis,  anreis  intervenientOms 
gottis  Uid.'    (See  also  FUn.  37,  20.) 

niiM»Mj>  ckuiTl;  diuckled,  chuWJld;  chuckl-ing,  ehuJ^ding. 

CopupUon  d  the  Latin  eddiinno  ;  Greek  kagchaza,  to  laugh. 
Cteich.     Old    £ng.    circ€  =  chirxhe ;     Scotch    kirk ;     Greek 
kur{t09}  the  Lord,  with  the  suffix  -ch,  "  belonging  to." 

Cfaid,  a  surly  fellow.     Gnil,  kurl,  a  ringlet 

"CSmrl,*'  Old  Eng.  eeorf =efc*or(,  a  freeman  of  the  lowest  rank. 

"  Gul,'*  (»d  E^.  eircMl,  a  drele ;  Welsh  eivr,  with  dim.,  a  little  drele. 


104  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

**  Ch  **  in  English  words  sounded  as  "  tch,"  unXess  oihenoise  ea^pressed. 

Chum,  to  make  butter.    (Old  Eng.  eerenet  a  churn,  verb  cem[an]. 

Chyle,  kile,     A  milky  fluid  separated  from  food  by  digestion. 
Greek  ehiUos;  Latin  ehylus  (Greek  ehifo,  to  pour  out). 

Chyme,  kime.    Digested  food  before  it  is  converted  into  chyle. 
Greek  ehumos;  Latin  ehym/its  (Greek  chu&f  same  as  eMo,  to  poor  out). 

Cicada,  plu.  cicadsB  (L&t,)y  stkai/ .dah^  stkay'.dee.  Tree-hoppers. 

Cicatrix,  plu.  cicatrices  (Lat.),  8ik'.d.triXj  sik' .a.ti^jsez.    A  scar. 

(jic8i.tna&,8ik\a.trize;  cicatrised  (3  syl.),cic'atris-ing.(Il.xxxi. ) 
In  Latin  the  "  a ''  of  these  words  is  long :  cicatrix,  &c. 

Cicerone  (Ital.),  8i8\e,rd'\ne  or  che'.ch^.ro'\ne.    A  guide. 
The  •'  orator  "  or  Cicero  who  shows  over  a  show-place. 

Ciceronian,  8i8.e.ro'nl.an,  A  manner  of  writing  or  speak- 
ing in  imitation  of  the  style  of  the  great  Roman  orator. 

Cider,  8i\der,    Wine  made  from  apples.     (Old  Eng.  cider.) 

Latin  sMfra;  Greek  sikifra,  any  fermented  drink  except  grape  wine. 

Ci-devant,  see  d.vah'n  (French).    An  ex.[official],  former. 

Cigar,  sS.gdy  (Spanish  cigarro,  French  cigare). 

Cigarette,  8%g,a.retf  (French).    Tobacco  in  a  paper  envelope. 

Cilia,  8iV.%.ah,  hair-like  organs.    Sillier,  more  silly. 

Latin  dUium.y  plu.  ifllia,  the  eye-lash  Tfrom  eilleOt  to  twinkle). 
"Silly,"  Old  £ng.  saelig.  German  selig,  innocent.    Idiots  are  termed 

"innocents."   and  Jesus  Christ  is  called  "the  hiurmleas  silly 

babe."    "Silly  sheep,'*  i.e.,  innotent. 

Cinchona,   sin.ko'.nah.   Peruvian  bark.      So  called  from  the 
Countess  del  Ciuchon,  wife  of  the  Viceroy  of  Peru. 

Cincture,  «infc'.fc?itfr.  A  girdle.    (Latin  cinc^Mra;  ctn^o,  to  gird.) 

CmdeXj  sin'.der.  Burnt  coal.  (OldlRng,  sinder;  Lat.cin^e«,ashep.) 

Cindery,  sinf.de.ry,  not  cindry.    Full  of  cinders. 

Cineraria,  sin\e.rair''ri.a.    Eag-wort;  some  are  "  ash  "  coloured. 

Cinerary,  sin'.e.rd.ry.  Applied  to  sepulchral  ams.  It 
ought  to  he  cin'ery.  (Lat.  cinSreus),  Cinerdriua  means 
a  tiring-man,  or  maker  of  wash-bulls. 

Cinnamon,  sin'.nd.mon.    The  inner  bark  of  a  kind  of  laurel. 

Greek  kinndmon;  Latin  ciwnamum  or  cinnamOmum. 
Cinque-  (French),  sink.    Used  as  a  prefix  to  denote  6. 

Cinque-cento.     Degraded  or  15th  century  style  of  art. 

Cinque-foil,  sink-foil.   Five-leafed  (French  -feuillt,  a  leaf). 

Cinque-ports.   Hastings,  Romney,  Hythe,  Dover,  Sandwich.. 
Cipher,  si'.Jety  the  figure  0;  to  do  sums.  Ci'phering,  doing  sums. 
Arab,  s^r,  lero  :  Low  Lat.  dphra;  French  chiffre;  Italian  dfra. 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  105 


(Stomh,  Birjie^jam  not  S^.t^,an.   Adj.  of  Circ^  (Lat.  Circatu). 

Gilde,  ter^.kl;  dided,  ser^.h^ld;  circling,  set'.k'ling ;  circlet. 

Lfttin  eSreSUut  (eireiM,  around)  ;  Greek  kirkot ;  French  eereU, 
Qiiciiit  (French)  ser^.kit.    The  route  of  a  judge. 

Gircoitons,  ser.ku'.i.ttUf  round-about.  Circnitotis-ly. 
CSicnlar,  8er^.ku.lar,  aelj.  of  circle.  Circnlar-ly  (Lat.  eirculdriif.) 

GSieiilate,  8e/,ku.late;  cir'culat-ed,  cir'ciilat-iDg,  cir^cula^'tion, 
dr'culator  not  circulater,  {-ed  sounded  after  d  or  tu 
lAtin  eireCUare,  cireulator ;  French  eirctder,  eircuJation. 
CSnmm-  (Latin  preposition),  "  nround."    Used  as  a  prefix. 

(Hicamainbient,  8er.-kum.am"-bi-ent ;  circmnambiency. 

lAtin  eireum  crnibio,  to  encompass  or  go  all  round. 
Giicimi-ambnlate,   -am\bu.late :  -am'1>nlated,  -am'bnlat-ing, 
-am'bnlat-or  (Rule  xxxvii),  -am'bula'tion. 

Latin  drcum  ambtUdre,  to  walk  all  round. 
CSienm-dse,  circnm-cised  (3  syL),  -ci'ser,  cir'cam-cis'ion. 

Latin  eireum  eado  feouumj,  to  cut  all  round. 
Oixcmnference,  8er,cum'.fS.rence.    Tbe  line  that  bounds  a  circle. 

Latin  drcum  fero,  to  carry  all  round. 
(Sz^cumflex,  dr^cnmflexed  (3  syL )    A  mark  ( ^)  orer  a  letter. 

Latin  eireum  jUdo  fflexumj,  to  bend  round. 
(Sicam'-flaent,  drcnm'-fluence,  circmn'-fluous,  flowing  round. 

Latin  drewmjhiens,  circumjluus,  flowing  all  round. 
(Hieimifiue,  8er'Cum.fuze\  -fused',  -fussing,  -fu'sion. 

Latin  eireum /undo,  supine /umm,  to  pour  all  round. 
Cizcnmjacent,  8ei^ -cum.ja'* ^ent.    Lying  round  on  all  sides. 

Latin  eireum  jaeens,  lying  all  round. 
Otzcmn-locn'tion,  circnmlocntory,  8er^'Cum.loV-u-t6  ry. 

Latin  eireum  lociUio,  a  round-about  manner  of  speaking. 
Giicam-nay^igate,    -nav'igat-ed^   -nav'igat-ing,  -nav'i.ga".tion, 
-nav'igat-or  (R.  xxxvii.),  circunmavigable,  -nav'.i.ga.h  l. 

Latin  drcum  navigdre,  to  sail  all  round  {navis,  a  ship). 

Oinmrn-flcribe,  nscribed',  Hwjrib'-ing,  -scrib'-er,  -scrip'tion. 

Latin  dreum  seribo,  to  write  or  draw  a  line  all  round  [a  place, 
beyond  wliich  combatants  must  not  pass],  hence  to  limit. 

OboomHfiipeot.     Cautious.    (Lat.  eireum  8pectOf  to  look  round.) 

Circom-spection,  -8'pec^-8hun.    Caution.    {See  Rule  xxxiii.) 
lAtin  drcum  spieio,  supine  spectum,  to  look  round. 

CKxcam-stance,  -etanced,  '8t€m8t;  Hstantial,  -8tan'.8hal. 
Oironm-Btan'tials  (plu.),  incidents ;  drcuniHstan'tially. 
Oircma-fltantiate,  -«  ton^«/ttf  .a^«,H3tan^tiat-ed,  -stan'tiat-ing. 

Latin  drcvmstantiaf  drcum  stans,  standing  all  round. 
"  Gireumstances  "  are  the  details  of  time,  number,  names,  incidents, 
Infloeiiees,  qualities,  &c.,  &c,  which  contiibute  to  an  eUect. 


lor,  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 


Circum-vallation,  'Val.W.shun,    A  military  trench  all  round. 
Latin  cMXfu.m  vallSre,  to  m«ke  a  vaOwm  (trraoh)  all  loiind. 

Gircnm-vent,  -vention,  -ven\8}mn.    {See  Rule  xxxiii.) 

Latin  cvrcumventio,  circwm  vewio,  rapine  ventmn,  to  oome  all  vexud, 
and  hence  to  impede,  to  out-trick. 

Cironm-volve,  -volved,  -volvd;  -volv'-lng,  oirciim-voln'tion. 

Latin  eircum  volvo,  to  roll  all  round,  drcumvolHtus, 
Circus,  plu,  circuses  not  drci,   A  circalar  place  for  equestrians. 

Latin  eir&u8,  plu.  eirei ;  Greek  Hrkos,  plu.  kirkoi. 

Cirrus,  plu.  cirri  Curled  filaments  [for  locomotion].  "  CiiTUS 
clouds  "  curly  clouds.    Scirrhus,  tkir^.ruSf  a  tumour. 

Cirrous,  adj.  of  cimis.     Scirrhous,  skir^.rus,  tumourous. 

*'  Cirrus,"  Latin  dmu,  a  lock  of  hair  ;  Greek  keraa,  a  crumpled  horn. 
'*  Scirrhus,"  Latin  adrrhus,  a  hard  swelling ;  Greek  skirrhoa. 
("  Cirrhi"  80  often  written  in  soientijie  books  to  denote  **ewrl-elou4»*' 
is  a  miatake.  The  Greek  ' '  kvrrhoe  '*  means  yeUovo  or  flesh-ccUmredJ) 

Gis-  (Latin  preposition),  prefix  to  acyectives,  "  on  this  side." 
Gis-Alpine,  this  side  the  Alps ;  t.«.,  the  south  or  Boman  side. 
Cis-Padane,  this  side  the  "  Padus  "  or  Po;  i,e.,  the  Rom.  side. 

Cistern,  sis'.tem.    A  box  for  water.    (Latin  cUtema.) 

Citadel,  8i1f.d.del.    A  fortress  in  or  near  a  city. 

French  dtadelle ;  Italian  cUtadeUa  fdtta  -deUa,  a  little  cityX 

Cite,  site,  sight ;  all  pronounced  alike. 

Cite,  cit'-ed,  clt^ing,  cit'-er,  cit-able,  cita'tion.    (Rule  xix.) 

Sight,  sight-ed,  sight-ing.    To  come  in  view  of. 

"Cite,"  Latin  eitdre,  to  quote,  to  call,  to  summon. 

"  Site  "  (a  building  plot),  Latin  situs,  a  situation. 

"  Sight, '^  Old  £ng.  gesiht,  vision  {g  of  "sight"  is  interpolated). 

Citizen,  8lt'.i.z^n.    There  is  no  such  word  as  citizeness. 

Citizenship.     State  of  having  the  privileges  of  a  citizen. 
-eUf "  one  belonging  to  " ;  citi-z-en,  one  belonging  to  a  city. 
(As  there  is  no '*z'*  to  Latin  wordSt  it  ought  to  be  ^^citUen,") 
Latin  civitati  (dative  case)  contracted  to  Htfit'i,  eVti,  to  a  oitj. 

Citrate,  sit'.rat.  In  Chemistry  -ate  denotes  a  salt  formed  from. 
the  union  of  an  acid  ending  in  -ic  and  a  base :  Thu0 
«  citrate  of  magnesia  "  is  citric  acid  united  with  magneeiA. 

Citric.  In  Chemistry  -ic  denotes  an  acid  most  highly  ozidiied- 
Citron,  sitf.ron.    Fruit  of  the  citron  tree. 
French  citron;  Latin  oitrus  (eitrvm,  citron  wood). 

City.  A  corporate  and  cathedral  town.  (0.  Eng.  eite,  Lat  cttHEtOf.) 
Civet.     A  substance  taken  from  the  civet-cat. 
Civic,  8iv\ik.    Pertaining  to  a  city.    {Ci-  long  in  Latin.) 
Latin  clvlow,  adj.  of  tlvis,  a  dtixen ;  aivitcur,  a  dty. 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  107 

ChU,  fw'.iZ,  d^firet  (eomp.),  dv'il-ett  («fp,);  civil-ly; 

chdlifle,  sH/.iLize;  dy^ilised  (3  syl.),  otvilis-ing,  dvil- 

ifler,  nt'Alize.er;  otviliBation,  nv'.iLi,za''jhun  (B.  xxzi.)  ; 

dyilitj,  $i.viV,i.ty ;  dviliaii,  ttviV.yan, 

Latin  tiiMii,  courteous  like  a  oitixen :  ^vil/Uat,  drilitx. 
Vrench  oiml,  ewilisaUur  (ciTiliser),  HvUUation,  elviliser,  civiliU. 

(3ack,  dacked,  klakd.    To  chatter.    (French  claquery  to  dark.) 
daim,  AiftimiMi  (1  syL),  daim-ont,  claim-able  (Ist  Latin  conj.) 
Meant  originally  to  demand  with  noisy  clamour. 

Old  £ng.  hUmmian],  to  make  a  noise ;  Latin  damdre,  to  ezelaim. 
CSair-Yoyant  (Fr.),  one  who  sees  without  eyes.  Glair-Yoyanoe. 
Glam,  clammed  (1  syl.),  damm-ing,  danmi-y,  olammi-neas. 

OM  Eng.  elam,  sticky  mud,  Ac  ;  verb  eUBmiian],  to  smear.    (K.  i.) 

(3aiiioiiri  kl&m*.er,  outcry.    Glamour,  glam'.er^  a  charm  whinh 

acts  on  vision.    C^jrmore,  a  Highland  broad-sword. 

''Clamonr,'*  (one  m).  Old  Eng.  Memm[a?i],  to  make  a  noise  ;  French 

tlamewr;  Latin  eULmor  (verb  olam&rtt  to  clamour). 
**  GlMnonr,**  Scotch,  same  as  glimmer. 
"Caaymore,"  GaeL  claid  mor,  great-sword. 

Oamp,  damped  (1  syL),  damp-ing.    (The  p  not  doubled.  R.  ii.) 

Old  Eng.  elam,  a  bandage.    To  "  clamp  "  is  to  fasten  with  clamps. 

(San,  dann'-iflh,  dann'-iahly,  dann'-ishnesB.    (R.  i.) 

Glan-Bhip,  dans-man  not  clanmcm.    One  of  the  same  clan. 

Gaelic  JUannf  children ;  Latin  aliens,  a  client,  a  tenant,  &c. 
(Sandestine,  kl&n,dei',finf  dandestine-ly.   In  an  underhand  way. 

Latin  elandestlriuSf  secret,  private,  &o.  {elam,  secretly). 
dang,  danged  (1  syl.),  dangor,  klang'ger  not  klang'.er. 

"Clangor"  not  elangovr,  it  is  not  through  the  French,  but  direct 
from  the  Latin  clangor,  verb  dango,  to  cry  like  a  trumpet,  &c. 

GUp,  dapped  (1  syl.),  dapp'-ing,  clapp'-er.     (Rule  i.) 
Old  Eng.  e2app[anl  to  clap,  to  strike  the  hands  together. 
Cluet  (French),  kULr^ret.    A  red  wine,  the  colour  of  the  wine. 

Latin  vinum  elaretum,  darifled  wine. 
dadfy,  klar^n.fy;  dar'ifieB  (3  syl.),  dar'ified  (3  syl.).  clar'ify- 
ing,  dar^lfica^'tion.    To  make  &ee  from  impurities. 
French  cUtrifier;  lAtin  eldrifieio  (eUxrus  facio,  to  make  clear). 
Clarion,  a  trumpet.    Clarinet,  klar^ri.nety  not  clarionet, 

C**  Clarionet "  meana  a  small  clarion,  which  it  is  not.) 

**  Clarion,''  Ital.  t^rino  ;  Iksw  Lat.  clarigarius,  a  herald. 
**  Clarinet,  **  Spanish  elarineU;  French  cUurinette. 

diM,  daased  (1  syL),  daes-ing,  to  arrange  in  a  class. 

Clafls'io  or  dasB'ical  (adj.),  dasslcal-ly,  dasslcal-ness. 

Clasmcs,  the  best  authors.  (Latin  classXcuSy  highest  of  the 
six  divisions  of  Roman  citizens  made  by  Servius  ;  hence 
eUusiei  auctores,  the  highest  class  of  authors.) 


108  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Claas'ify,  class'ifies  (3  syl.),  classified  (3  syl.),  claaslfi-e] 
class'ify-ing,  class'lfLca^'tion  (Lat.  cUssis-Jicio  [/octoj). 
Latin  classiSt  one  of  the  six  divisions  of  Roman  citizens. 
Clat'ter,  clattered,  klaf.terd;  olafter-er,  olafter-ing,  clafte] 
ingly.     (The  r  not  doubled.    Rjile  ii.) 
Old  Eng.  clatnmg,  a  clatter,  a  drum ;  Welsh  eletotianf  to  datter. 
Clay,  plu.  clays,  clay-ey  (not  clay-y),  day-ish. 

{There  are  three  words  which  take  the  postfix  -ey  inttea 
of  -y, — vw.,  clayey^  sky-ey,  and  whey-ey.) 
Old  En?,  eldg,  clay ;  Danish  kUeg^  loam,  clay. 
Claymore,  a  Highlander'a  broa<l -sword ;    Glamonr,  glam'.er 
Glamour,  clam'.er.    (See  GXamour.) 
"  Claymore,"  Gaelic  claid^mor,  great  sword ;  "Welsh  cledd^mo. 
-cle  (sufl&x),  diminutive,  as  parti-cle,  a  little  piece ;  also  writte: 
-cuUf  ns  animal-cuUf  a  little  animal ;  -ule^  as  gloh-ule^ 
little  globe  or  ball ;  -el,  as  satch-el,  a  little  sack ;  -cle  o 
'kUy  as  sic-kle  Isik'.k^lj,  a  little  scythe.    (Latin  -cuZ[tM] 
Clean,  kleen;  cleaned  (1  syl.),  dean'-er,  one  who  cleans ;  dean' 
ness;  clean-ly,  in  a  clean  manner;  clean-er,  clean-esi 
clean-ly  (ac^.),  klen'-ly ;  deanli-ness,  kIen\Vl.ne88, 
Old  Eng.  ddn,  verb  eldn[an],  cUhilice  and  elirUice,  cleanly. 
Cleanse,    klenz ;    cleansed,    klenzd;    deans-ing,    klen^zmg 
cleans-er,  klen'.zer.    To  purify,  to  make  clean.    (R.  xix. 
Old  Eng.  cU6n^ian\  past  eldnsede,  past  part,  ddnsed. 
Clear,  clear-er  (comp,),  dear-est  (swp.),deared  (1  syl.)  dearer  (n] 

Welsh  doer;  French,  elair;  Latin  ddrus;  verb  cldro,  to  clear. 
Cleat  not  elate.   A  piece  of  iron  for  the  heels  of  shoes  and  boot; 

Old  English  cleot  or  eliit,  a  clout ;  Welsh  clwtj  a  patch. 
Cleave  (to  stick),  past  deaved  (1  syl.)  [el&ve],  past  part,  deaved 
cleav-ing.    "  Clave  "  occurs  in  the  Bible  (Acts  xviL  84). 
Old  EngUsh  clif[an],  past  eldf,  past  part,  di/en,  to  adhere. 
Cleave  (to  split),  past  deaved  (1  syl.),  or  cleft  (obsolete  formi 
"  clave  "  and  "  clove  "),  past  part,  deaved  or  deft  (oba 
"cloven").     "Clave"  (split)  occurs  often  in  the  Bibu 
(See  Gen.  xxii.  3).    "Cloven"  is  used  as  an  a^j.:   ai 
"cloven  foot,"  ** cloven  tongues." 

Cleaver,  one  who  cleaves,  a  butcher's  chopper,  dev'er  (q,v, 

Cleav-age,  klee'.vage  not  cleaver-age.    The  act  of  splitting 

cleavable  structure.    Cleav'-able.    (Rule  xix.) 

Old  English  eliif[an],  past  cledf,  jMst  part,  elofen,  to  split 
(Ttu  two  verbs  were  originally  quite  distinct  in  all  their  parU,  am 
it  is  to  be  regretted  that  the  distinctions  are  not  preserved.) 

Clef,  plu.  clefs  (of  Music).    Cliff,  a  precipice.    Cleft,  a  crack. 

( Monosyllahles  ending  in  "/"preceded  by  one  vowel^dovbl 

the  f.    The  exceptions  are  "  i/,"  "  of"  and  "  cUf:'    R.  v. 

'  Clef/'  French ;  Latin  cUivis,  a  key.    "  CUff, "  Old  Eogliah  ci<r. 


tt. 


c* 


«• 


AXD  OF  SPELIJXa,  10!) 

Clfift.    A  crack.    (Old  Eng.  eUofa,  verb  c{6/[afi],  to  cleave.) 

CSeia'atis,  plu,  dem'atises  not  kl^.mdy'.tis.    "  Traveller's  Juy," 
»*Vi.-gin's  Bower,"  "Old  Man's  Beard,"  "White  Vine." 
(The  "  e  '*  M  long  in  the  Latin  and  Greek  wordi.) 

Latin  ffrndtia;  Greek  hlimSLtit  (from  klitML^  a  vine  twit;). 
"TravellHr's  Joy,"  beeause  it  decks  the  hedges  in  antumn. 
"YiTgin's  Bower,"  beeause  it  clinnbs  and  overhangs,  bower-like. 
"Old  Man's  Beard."  because  it  looks  like  grey  hair. 
"White  Vine,"  becaose  it  is  a  "  vine"  and  bears  a  whitish  flower. 

dsmency,  pZu.  clemencies,  kJ^'.enj^'iz,    Gentleness,  mercy, 
^,  snffix to  abstract  nouns.  ( Lat.  dementia^  elemens,  mild.) 

Clench,  clinch.     "  Clench  "  (to  grasp),  as  "  he  clenche'l  my 
hand  ";  (to  8ettl<*),  as  to  "  clench  an  argument."    Clencher, 
a  settler,  a  finishing  stroke,  as  "  that  was  a  clencher." 
"  Clinch,"  to  turn  a  nail,  to  rivet.    We  use  both  words. 
Ihitch  Jb'inJben,  to  rivet ;  Danish  kUnkey  to  clinch. 

dawrtory,  kler^ris.tS.ry,    Corruption  of  the  French  cUrist^re^ 
and  generally  csdied  clear-storey. 

Clezgy  (no  plu.).    A  noun  of  multitude.    (French  clergi,) 

Cler'gy-man,  plu.  clergy-men.    One  of  the  clergy.    (R.  xi.) 

Clerical,  kler^ri.kaL    Pertaining  to  the  clergy. 

Old  Fng.  elerie  or  elere,  a  priest ;  Latin  elirtu,  cUricus ;  Greek  klirds, 
a  lot  or  heritage.  The  "  church  "  is  Ood*t  heritage  (1  Peter  v.  S), 
and  the  priestly  tribe  was  *'  God's  lot.*' 

(Me,  klurky  a  clergyman ;  klark,  a  church  servant,  Ssc. 
Old  Eng.  elere,  a  priest ;  Latin  elinis  ;  Greek  kUrde. 

Clever,  klev'.er,  clev'er-er  {comp.\  dev'er-est  {tuper.)  See  Cleaver. 

Old  Eng.  gUdu),  talented,  changed  to  gU.wd,  corrupted  to  clever. 
Clew.    A  hint.     (Old  Eng.  cleoweUt  clieioe,  cHwe  or  cldwe.) 

Latin  globus,  a  ball  of  thread,  by  which  strangers  were  guided 
through  labyrinths.    Incorrectly  spelt  clue. 

CUfl;  clef,  deft,  clift. 

OlifL    A  hill  by  the  sea. 

Clef  (of  Mvsic),  q.v.  Cleft  or  Clift,  a  fissure,  a  crack. 
In  the  Bil.le  " cliff,"  " clift,"  and  "cleft,"  a  fissure,  are 
used  indifferently.  "  I  will  put  thee  into  a  clift  of  a 
rock"  (Exod.  xxxiii  22);  "To  dwell  in  the  cliffs  of 
the  vaDeys  "  (Job  xxx.  6) ;  «  Thou  art  in  the  clefts  of 
the  rork  "  (Cant.  ii.  14). 


The  distinction  should  be  preserved  thus : 


Clifft  cliffs  {of  the  sea) ;  clef,  clefs  {of  Music), 
CUftf  clifts  (fissure) ;  cleft  {cut),  as  •'  cleft  wood.'* 

" Cliff, "  Old  Eng.  elif,  a  rock,  a  cliff  of  the  sea.    "  Qef,"  Fr.,  q.v. 
"CUft"  or  "deft**  (a fissure),  Old  Eng.  eUofa,  a  cleft,  elyfth,  spUts. 


112  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Coalesce,  ko'M.less'  (to  assimilate),  coalesoed,  ko\a.les1f;  ooalea- 
cing,  ko\a,le8'' Mng ;  coalescent,  ho\aM8*' ^ent ;  oo^ales'- 
cence;  coalition,  ko\aM8h\on;  coalition-ist. 

Lat.  CO  [con]  alesco,  to  grow  closer  and  closer  together  (oZo,  to  cherish^ 

Coarse,  horse  not  co.orse  (gross).   Corse  (a  corpse).  Course  (g.v.) 

Coars-er  (comp.),  coars-est  (super. ),  coarse-ly,  coarse-ness. 

Old  Eng.  gorst  (roughX  as  in  goose-berry.  CM-Iettnee ;  vrrinion,  or 

euridnion,  a  coarse  onion  (corrupted  to  Latin  allium  urainum). 
*' Curse,"  a  poetical  form  of  Corpse.    ** Course"  (a  process,  a  chaaeX 
French  course;  Latin  cursus,  a  course. 

Coast,  kost,  land  lying  next  the  sea.     Coastwise  not  coastways, 

French  coste  now  cdte ;  Low  Lat.  eosWra,  Lat.  eosta,  a  rib  or  side. 
Coat,  kote,  coat-ed,  coat-ing;  coatee,  ko.tee^  a  half-coat. 

French  cotte;  Germ,  kutte;  ItaL  cottCL    (Our  word  is  ill-spelt.) 
Coat-of-arms,  plu,  coats-of-arms,  not  court-of-arms, 
Coat-of-mail,  plu.  coats-of-mail,  not  coat-of-male. 
Coax,  kdxe;  ooaxed,  kOxd;  coax-ing,  coaxing -ly,  coax-er. 
Welsh  eocr,  to  coax ;  cocru,  to  fondle :  French  coeasse,  fonnj.- 

Cobble,  koh\h'l  (to  botch);  cobbled,  kohWld;  cobbler,  kob'.ler; 
cobbling,  kohWing;  cobbling-ly  (double  &,  root  cob,  B.i.) 
Welsh  cdh,  a  tbnmp ;  cdhio,  to  thump ;  eoblyn^  a  thumper. 

Cobra  da  Cax)ello,pZtt.  Cobras  or  Cobra  da  Capellos.  Hooded  snake. 
Portuguese,  "  the  hooded  snake ; "  eapeUOy  a  hood. 

Cob'web;  cobwebbed,  kob'.webd;  cob'webb-ing,  oob'webby. 

(The  double  "b"  would  be  contrary  to  Rule  tii.,  hut  ihe 
word  was  originally  joined  with  a  hyphen, ) 

Cob  or  cop,  a  spider ;  as  Old  £ng.  atter-cop  the  poison-spider ;  Dutch 
ipinne-kop  ;  Chitldee  kopi,  a  cobweb. 

Coca,  ko^'kah  (a  narcotic).  Cocoa,  ko/ko  (a  nut),  or  substance 
prepared  from  the  Cacao  (ku.kay\o)  plant 

**Coca,"  the  dried  leaf  of  the,Erythrox'ylon  Coca,  of  Pern. 
"Cocoa,"  the  fruit  of  the  Theobrdma  Cacao  (West  Indies). 

Cochineal,  koch\i.neel  not  kok\i.neel.     Crimson  dye-stufEl 
8i>anish  cochinilla,  the  wood  louse ;  French  eochenille,  cochineaL 

Cochlea,  kok\le.ah  (part  of  the  ear) ;  Cochlear,  kdk'.W.ar  (In  Bot) 

Cochleary,  kok'.lS.d.ry.    Spiral,  like  a  sbelL 

Cochleate,  kdk'.le.ate ;  cochleat-ed,  k5k\le.ate^.ed.  (R.  xix.) 

Latin  cochUa;  Greek  kochlias,  a  snail's  shell. 

Cock,  fern,  hen ;  cock'erel,  fem.  puUet.    Barn-door  fowls. 
Cock  and  hen  are  also  gender- words :  as 

Cock -bird,    fem.  hen -bird;    cock-sparrow,  hen-sparrow^ 
cock -pheasant,  hen -pheasant;   moor- cock,  moor -hen; 


AXD  OF  SPELLING.  113 

peacock,  pea-hen ;  tarkey-cock,  fern,  turkey ;  cock-lobster, 
hen-lobster.    Woodcock  is  b<)th  mas.  and  fern. 

Old  Eng.  eoe  or  eocc.  And  hen  or  henn  ;  French  eoq,  pouU. 

("JPuM<<,"  like  "bw/,"  "mutt(yn,"  ''veal,'*  tt-e.,  shotos  that  (he  Nor- 
wuMn  lords  retained  their  names  for  the  ** meats,"  while  the  Saaoon 
serfs  retained  their' s  for  the  Utdng  animals  which  they  tended.) 

Ooekide  (2  syL)    A  livery  worn  on  the  hat    (French  cocarde,) 

Coekatrice,  hSJ^.S.tri8  (French  cocatnx), 

Coekehofer,  k61^.chafe,er.    The  May-bug.    (Old  Enjj.  ceafor.) 

CocUe,  hSy.k^L    The  com-rose.    (Old  Eng.  coccel,  the  darnel.) 

Cockle,  kSy.k'l.    SheU-fish.    (T^tin  cochUfa,  Greek  kocms.) 

Cookie,  k61^,1cl;  cockled,  kSk^.eld;  cockling.     To  pucker. 
French  re-coquiUeTf  to  cnrl  up,  dog*s-ear,  or  cockle. 

Ooekroaoh,  kW.rotch.    A  black  beetle.    (Old  Eng.  hreoce.) 

CookBOomb  (a  plant).    Coxcomb,  a  fop.    Both  kojf,ko7ne. 

The  licensed  jesters  were  called  coxcombs^  because  they 
wore  a  *•  cock's  comb  "  in  their  caps.     Spelling  incorrect. 

Coddle,  kod'.d^l.    To  parboil,  to  pamper;  one  pampered. 

Coddled,  kod\d'ld;  coddling,  kod\ling ;  coddler,  kod'.d'ler. 
Codling.     A  young  cod. 
Old  English -Ung,  ** offspring  of,**  "young  of." 

Codlin.     An  apple  fit  for  coddling  or  cooking  {-in  not  -ing), 

Latin  eoHillis'],  fit  for  roasting  or  baking.  Old  Eng.  cod-asppel,  the 
cooking  appde.  "  Cod  "  (the  fish),  is  a  corruption  of  Oadius].  Lat. 
the  codfish :  "  had(i[ock] "  is  another  form  of  the  same  word. 

Code  (of  laws),  codex,  kd'.dex  (Latin).    An  ancient  manuscript. 

Codicil,  kod\i.cil,  a  supplement  to  a  will  (Lat.  codlcillxu,  a 
little  book) ;  codicillary,  kod\ixiV\ld.ry  (adj.  of  codicil). 

Codify,  kd\dl.fy ;  codifies,  ko.dX.flze ;  codified,  kd\dtfide  ; 

eo'difi-er;  codify-ing;   codifl-cation,  ko\duji,ka'\shun ; 

codist,  ku.disU  one  who  reduces  laws  to  a  "  code."  R.  xi. 

lAtin  cddpx,  a  volume  (from  caudex,  the  stock  of  a  tree),  books 
being  at  one  time  made  of  boards  (from  ccedo,  to  fell). 

Coehom,  ko'hom.    A  military  projectile.    {See  Cohom.) 

Coequal,  ko.^.qual,  coequal-ly;  coequality,  ko\e.quoV\i.ty. 
Latin  co  [con]  aqudlis,  lall]  alike  equal. 

Coeree,  ko-erse' ;  coerced,  ko.er8f ;  coerc-ing,  ko.e'/.sing; 
ooero-er,  ko.er'.8er ;  coerc-ion,  ko,er\8hun;  coerc-ive, 
ko.er^Mv;  coercive-ly;  coerc-ihle,  ko.eT^,8l.h'l.    R.  xix. 

Latin  eoere^o,  eo  [con]  ard^o,  to  drive  or  press  together.  The  word 
'* compel"  t^eom-pelloj  means  the  same  thing. 

CoeaaentiAl,  ko\es.8en''.8hal,  same  in  essence;  coessential-ly ; 
coeasentiality,  ko'.es-sen'-sM.aV'-i-ty,  coessential  state. 

Latin  00  [con]  essentidlis,  partaking  of  the  same  essence. 

H 


114  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

■■  ■  I  ■■■■■■■»■■    I  pi  I  I  11  P    ^.M    !■■         .         ■  ■  I  ■  ^— ^— ^M^^^^^,^^^^—  ,^ 

Ooetemal,  W .e.ter^nal,  coetemal-Iy;  eoetemliy,  ho' .e.tii^\ni.ty, 

Latin  CO  Ccon]  cetemus,  eo  [con]  «<em{to«,  equally  eternal,  iSEc. 
Coeval,  ko.e\va:ly  coe'^-ly.    (Latin  co[conJ€BVum,  equal  ages.) 
Ooezecntor,  fern,  coexecntriz,  ko\ex.ek'\ii.tory  ho\ex.ek"u.tnx. 

Latin  CO  [con]  e^bedUor,  ftc..  Joint  executor  witb  [another]. 
Coexist,  ko^x.iitf ;  eoexiBf-«d,  ooeifiBf-ing,  tQe^sAf-^iia^  eo- 
ezist'-ence  not  coexUt-antt  coexUt-ance. 
Latin  eo  [con]  eteifMre,  to  exist  at  tiie  same  time  (followed  \]j  vfifh.) 
Coextend,  ko\ex.tend*'  (to  extend  equally) ;  coextend'-ed,  coex- 
tend'-ing,  coextent,   k(/.ex.tenf ;    coez^ension,   ko'.ex.- 
ten"^hun   (Kale    xxxiii.),  eoextemdve,    ho\^x.ten''jiiv ; 
coextensiYe-ly,  eoextengive-liels. 
Latin  co  [con]  extwndOt  supine  -ieiuum,  «o-e«e<en«fv««,  eo-txkunlo. 
Coffee,  kof*fe.    The  berry  of  the  Caff'ea,  ardb'tea,  from  Caffii 
or  Kaffa,  a  province  of  Abyssinia. 
French  cd/i:  Spanish  cafe;  Italian  caffc^;  Danish  kaffe. 
Coffer,  kof.fer  (a  chest),  coffer-ing;  coffered,  kof.ferd. 

Coffin,  kof,fln;  coffin-ing,  coffined,  kof.finnd, 

{The  douhU  "/"  is  French^  our  chief  source  of  error.) 

Old  Eng.  cofa,  a  box :  Low  Lat.  oofihra  or  cofra ;  ItaL  eofanoj  Latin 
cdphintu;  Greek  kdpMnda,  a  basket 

Cog-  (prefix).    The  Latin  con-  before  the  derivations  of  naseor, 

nosoOj  and  nomen :  as  connate,  oopnition,  copnomen. 

Gog  (of  a  wheel),  to  trick ;  cogged  ( 1  syl.\  cogging.    Cog^  a  boat 

"Cog'*  (of  a  wheel!,  Welsh  eoeos,  cogs  of  a  wheel. 

"  Cog  "  ao  trick),  Welsh  coegio,  to  trick ;  eoeg,  a  trickster. 

"  Cog,"  Low  Latin,  coggo,  a  sort  of  small  boat 

Cogent,  fco'.jVnt,  cogent-ly;  cogen-cy.  Urgent,  urgently,  urgency. 

Latin  cogens,  cogentis,  co  [con]  ago,  to  uxge  together. 
Cogitate,  kofXtate  (to  think),  cog'itat-ed,  cog'itat-ing,  cog'itat- 
ive  (Rule  xix.),  cogitative-ly,  cog'i taction,  cogitabliB'. 
Latin  cdgitdrct  supine  -tdttvm,  (to  think) ;  eogitatio,  cogUabilit. 
Cognac,  kon\yaky  not  cogniac.    The  best  French  brandy. 

So  called  ^om  CognaCy  in  Charente.    (French  cogruic^ 
Cognate,  related  on  the  mother  s  side ;  Agnate,  on  the  &tk~erU 
Cogna'tion,  relationship  on  the  mother's  side. 
Agna'tion,  relationship  on  the  father's  side. 

An  uncle  on  the  father's  side  is  an  agnate,  because  ht 
bears  the  same  surname ;  an  uncle  on  the  mother's  sidt 
is  a  cognate  only,  he  is  related  by  birth,  but  does  nol 
bear  the  same  surname,  or  belong  to  the  same  "  gens." 
Cognisable,  kSg\rA.z&.h'l  (B.  xxiii.);  oognifwnt,  kdff'.fi^afUi 
cognisance,  k5g\ntzance ;  cognisee,  kog'.nljiee. 

Latin  cog  [con]  noseifre,  to  know  for  the  first  time. 

"To  recognise,"  is  to  know  not  for  the  first  time,  to  recall. 

(These  w&rHs  ought  not  to  be  speU  tnth  a  "  s. "    Bidd  xj!xi.) 


AXD  or  SPELLIXa,  115 

CfognoBoenie,  fin.  eognoflcenti,  ko^.n68^en,te,  kog\n69'Sen*'.ti. 
One  learned  in  art    (Italian,  from  the  Latin  cognoscSre.) 

Cognomen,  j>lu.  oognomenB)  h5g.nlf.men  not  hog" .n^.men, 

Latin  tog  [eon]  iimimm,  a  name  wtfh  [joor  penonal  name]. 
Cdiabiti  ko.haV.it.     To  live  together  not  in  a  married  Rtate. 
Cohablt-ed.oohablt-ing;  cohftbitatioii,  TcoJijai/jLta'\thun. 
(" ed,*"  after  **d"  or**t "  makes  a  separate  tyUdbU.) 
Latin  eo  [con]  hdWto,  to  dwell  together ;  eo-ZtobiidMe. 
Ooheir,  fern.  coheireaB,  ko.air,  ko.air^.e*8.    Cohere,  ko.hear^  (q<T-) 

"Coheir"  (joint  heir),  Latin  oo  [con]  hcens,  heir  with  (others]. 
{Only  Jive  iffords  hate  the  initial  "A"  mvte:  they  are  heir,  hoar, 
honert,  honour,  and  humour.) 

Cohere,  ko.hee/  (to  stick  together),  cohered'  (2  8yl.),  coher'-ing ; 
ooher'-ence;  eoher'ency;  coher'ent,colier'ent-ly.  (R.xix.) 

Cohedoii,  ko.h^.zkun;  ooheaive,  ko.he'Mv,  cohe'sive-ly,  cohe'- 
Bive-ness;  eohe'aihle;  cohesibility,  ko.he^M.hiV\i.ty. 
lAtin  90  [oon]  AcerAv,  sup.  eohaeum,  to  stick  together ;  eo-han-entia. 

Oohom,  ko.hxynu  This  is  the  French  spelling,  and  is  better  than 
eoehom.  A  mortar  invented  by  Baron  de  Colwm  (Coe- 
hoom)  of  Holland,  called  the  Dutch  Vauban  (1641-1704). 

Cidu^  1u/'hort  not  ko\ort.    A  body  of  soldiers.     (Lat.  cohors.) 

Coif;  koyf  (Ft.  coiffe).    Ooififtire,  hoyf.fure  (Fr.),  a  headdros. 

Ooil,  koyl;  coiled,  hoyld.    To  gather  a  rope  together  in  rings. 

French  eueilUr,  to  coil ;  Latin  eoUigifre,  to  colleot. 
Coin,  koyn  ;  coined,  koynd;  coin-er,  coin-ing,  coin-age.   "' 

French  coin,  a  wedge ;  Latin  euniiu,  a  die  for  stamping  money. 

Coineide,   ko\in.8ide'*    (to    agree),    coincId"-ed,    coincid"-)np:; 
coincidence,    ko.in'.8i.den8e    not    ko.in.8V .dense ;    coin- 
cident, ko.in\8i.dent;  coincident-ly  (simultaneously). 
Latin  eo  [con]  ineld&re,  to  fadge  in  together  (coders,  to  fall). 
Coke.     Goal  deprived  of  its  volatile  matters  by  heat. 
Old  English  eolk,  refuse,  the  core  of  an  apple,  Ac. 

CoU  (Latin  prefix).    Con  before  "1"  is  so  written.    {See  Ck>n-) 

Colander,  kul\an.der.    A  strainer.    (Latin  eolanSf  straining.) 

••  Cdldtorlium]f*  not  " colander[iumy  is  the  Latin  word. 

Colehienin,  kSV.chl.kum.    ]tf  eadow-saffiroo,  Naked  lady. 

From  ColchiSt  on  the  Euxine  sea,  where  it  flourishes. 
"  Naked  Lady,**  because  the  flowers  are  without  leaves. 

Cold,  cold  er  {comp.)t  coldest  {superl.) ;  coldish,  ratber  cold. 

Old  £ng.  eild  or  eeald,  cold.    (-t«h  added  to  adj.  is  diminutive.) 
Ooleepter,  plu.  coleoptera,  kol\^.op'*.ter,  k5l'.Kop".te.rah,  also 
Coleoptexan,  kol\e.op'\te.ran, beetles,«fec.  Coleop'terous  (adj.) 

Ok.  UflMs  fMr^,  sheath-wing.    laeeots  with  sheaths  to  their  wings. 


116  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Goric  not  Gholic,  a  bnwel  attack.    Gholeric,  koV.€.rik,  passionate. 

Latin  cdlieus,  the  colic  (from  Greek  kdUfn^  the  intestine). 
"Choleric,"  Latin  chdUrictM  (from  Greek  (MU,  bUe). 

CSoIisenm,  hdl.i.see' .um.    The  largest  amphitheatre  in  Borne. 
The  same  spelling  is  kept  in  '* Rue  de  ColUie"  Paris. 

CSoloflseum  is  the  more  usual  spelling  in  English. 

The  BonL  *'  Colfsenm  "  was  so  called  from  the  "  Colossus  "  or  gigantic 
statue  of  Nero  which  stood  near  it,  as  well  as  from  its  great  siM. 

Collapse,  koLlaps' yjioi'ko.laps' ;  collapsed,  kSLlapsf;  coUaps'-ing. 

Latin  col  [con]  IShor,  lapstts,  to  sink,  or  tumble  all  together. 

Collar  (for  the  neck).    Choler,  k6V.ery  anger. 

"  Collar,"  Old  Eng.  ceolr,  from  ceoU,  the  throat ;  Lat.  collwm,  the  ne<^ 
"Choker,**  Latin  chdUra;  Greek  cMlS,  bile,  anger. 

.Collate,  ki^lMte'  not  ko.laU^;  collated,  collat-ing.    (Bale  xix.) 

GollatioQ,  kdl.la'.8hun  not  "Co-lation"  (a  very  common 
error);  collai'-or  (R.  xxxvii.);  Collaf^-able  (an  error  in 
spelling);  the  Latin  colldtdre  means  "to  make  wide."* 
Collat-ible  is  the  proper  derivative  of  conferre,  coUatum, 

Latin  con-ferroy  supine  eol-latum,  to  bring  together,  to  compare. 

Collateral,  kdLlaf .e.ral  not  ko.laf.e.ral ;  coUaferal-ly. 

Latin  col  fcon]  Jaterdlis,  indirect  {col  Idttu,  HtUrU,  the  side),  nomiaf 
on  the  side,  proceeding  from  one  side. 

Colleague,  kM.leeg  (noun),  kol.leeg'  (verb);  colleag^ed,  koL- 
leegd';  colleagu-ing,  kol.leeg\ing.    To  league  together. 
French  colligue  :  Latin  collega  (from  eon  lego,  to  gather  t<^therX 

Collect,  koV.lect  (noun),  kol.lecf  (verb),  collect'-ed,  colleof-ing, 
Collect'-ive,  c(»llpct'ive-ly,  collective  ness ;  colleot-itale, 
Collection,  kdl.lec\8hun  not  ko.lec\shbn  (Rule  xxxiii.) 
%9X..col  [conj  legSrey  -Uctum,  to  gather  together ;  collectio,  eolUeHvui, 

College  not  colledge ;  collegian,  kSllee^ji'an ;  collegiate,  ft52.- 
lee'.ji'ate.    A  society,  a  superior  school  institution. 
Latin  collegium  (from  col  [con]  legOt  to  gather  together). 

Colley  or  collie,  a  cur.    Cooley  or  eoli^,  a  porter  (East  Indies). 

Collier,  isidhyer;  collier-y,  koLyS/ryj,    (See  CoaL) 

Colliflion,  kbl.lizK.un  not  kodizh'.un.    A  striking  together. 

Latin  coUisio  (from  collldo,  col  [con]  Icedo,  to  hurt  mutually  hf 
"strilcing  together";  so  elisio  (e  kedoj,  to  strikeout). 

Collocate,  kbV.l5.kate;   coHocat-ed,  collocS-t-ing ;   collGcatioBff 
koV ,lo.kay'\8hun,    A  setting  side  by  side.     (Rule  xxxiii.} 
Latin  coUocdtio  from  col  [con]  locdre,  to  place  together. 

Collodion,  koUo.dton  not  ko.lo\di.on  nor  ko,lo'.di.um,    A  solo* 
tion  of  gun.cotton  in  ether,  used  in  photography,  Ac 

Greek  holla  eidos,  glue-like.    It  was  first  used  in  surgery,  because  ll  i 
diying  it  left  a  gluey  tilm  over  wounds.    (An  ill-formed  word.) 


AND   Of   SPELLING,  117 

CoUoqinal,  iSl.W.qutdl  not  ko-W^quLal;  eoUo'qiiial-ly; 
Oollo^qiiial-ism,  form  of  expressioii  in  common  use. 
Oolloqny,  plu.  coUoqnies,  kdV.lSJtwij  kol.l3.kwU. 

Oolloqiiist,  kdV.WJtwUt.    A  speaker  in  a  dialogne. 
Lat.  col  [con]  loquor,  to  speak  tc^ther :  French  coUoque,  conference. 
Cdlliide,  to  conspire  in  a  fraud ;  collusion,  koLlu'ahun  (B.  xxxiii.) 
GoUnsi^e,  koLlu'^iv,  coUu'^sive-ly,  collu'hive-ness ; 
Ocdlnsory,  koLlu\z5,ry,     Of  the  nature  of  a  fraud. 

Latin  col  [con]  ludo,  rapine  Ulgum;  collado,  to  play  into  each  other'i 
handa,  with  the  view  of  deceiving  a  third  partf . 

Cdocynth,  kol\dJlnth  (only  one  I).    The  bitter-apple. 

'     JaMn  dUdeynthia ;  Qrtek  kdWmnthU,  bitter-gourd. 

Cdkm,  kd.Wn,    The  largest  intestine.    A  stop  made  thus  (:). 

Latin  colon;  Greek  kdUfn,  a  limb  or  member  of  anything. 

Colonel,  ker^.nel;  colonel-cy,  ker^.neLsy  (-cy  denotes  "rank"); 

colonelHship,   kf/ .nel.»hip    {-ship    denotes   "tenure    of 

office.")    In  "  Hudibras  "  we  have  "  coloneUing  "  (4  syl.) 

(Our  pronunciation  ie  a  vulgar  contraction,  **  Oo'n-eL") 

l^nch  eoUm^  (from  eolonru  a  column),  a  commander  of  a  column 
or  r^[iment  of  loldiers ;  till  the  reign  of  Fran^oia  I.  called  oapi- 
taine-colonel.    Low  Latin  colorttllus. 

Cdiaimade,  kdV.8n*nade,    A  covered  walk  with  columns. 

French  colonnade  (from  colonne,  a  column).    Latin  columndt'iu. 

Oolony,  plu*  colonies,  koVJ6*niz ;,  coronlst ;  ool'onise,  col'onis-ed, 
coronis-ing,  coronis-er  (R.  xix.),  coronisa"tion  (R.  xxxi.) 

Golonial,  ko.l5.ni.al  (Dot  collo'nial),  belonging  to  a  colony. 
Latin  coldnia,  a  colony.  (In  Latin  the  -16-  is  long  ) 
Ooilophoii,  plu.  odlophons,  kdV.o.fon.  The  printer's  impress  at 
tbe  end  of  a  book.  (Greek  kolophdn,  a  finishing-stroke.) 
C51dphon,  a  city  of  I5nia,  the  inhabitants  of  which  wei-e 
such  good  horsemen  that  they  could  turn  the  issue  of  a 
battle;  hence  the  phrase  colophdnem  addere  (Ko\o(pwva 
hriTiSivai),  to  put  a  finishing  stroke  to  a  matter. 

Cdlo0B6iim,  k6l.68^ee'\um  or  Coliseum.  The  great  Eomnn 
amphitheatre  was  called  "  Colisfieum,"  but  as  the  word  is 
from  "  Colossus."     Colosseum  is  the  l)etter  spelling. 

ColoBsal,  ko.lo8\8al  (not  colossial) ;  colossean,  ko.l6s.see' .an. 

Lat.  edlosaius;  Greek  kdlossds,  kdlossnids.  The  "  Colossos  of  Rhodes  " 
was  a  gigantic  statue  of  Apollo,  near  the  harbour. 

Colour,  kul\er;  coloured,  kuV.erd;  corour-able,  corour-ably. 

French  wuleur;  Latin  cSlor.    (Our  word  is  neither  Fr.  nor  Lat.) 
Golportear,  kdV.pftr.teu/,  a  book  hawker.    Gorportage  (French.) 

Latin  eollwn  portdre,  to  carry  round  the  neck. 
Goit,  fern,  filly,  both  called  foal,  fdle.    A  young  horse  or  ass. 

(Md  Eng.  colt ;  Lat.  fttia,  a  daughter;  Old  Eng.  fola,  a  foal. 


lia  ERRORS  OF  SPEECU 

Golnber,  k^\uJber  (Latin).    A  genus  of  serpents. 

Golnmbine,  k^humMm,     k  plant,  so  called  &om  the  Latin 
columba,  a  dove.    The  flower  resembles  a  dove's  claw. 

Golnmella,  k5V.u.meV\la.  The  column  in  the  capsule  of  mosses ; 
the  axis  of  fruits.    (Latin  columella,  a  little  column.) 

Colmnellia,  kSVM,meV\liuih.    A  genus  of  Peruvian  shrubs. 

Column,  koV.um,  a  pillar.    Columnar,  ko.lum\nar  (a<Jlj.) 

Latin  columna.  Tbe  adjective  columnar  is  ill-chosen,  as  the  Latin 
word  columnarium  means  a  "tax  on  columns."  The  adjective  of 
"  columna"  is  eolumndttM  (eolumnate). 

Golure,  plu.  colnres,  ko.leur8\     Two  great  circles  cutting  at 

right  angles  the  four  cardinal  points  of  au  artificial  globe. 

Greek  kdUytvrds  (kdloa  oura,  a  mutilated  tailX  these  eirolea  are  "  eur- 
tailed  "  or  cut  by  the  artificial  horixon. 

Colza,  koVjsak.    A  variety  of  cabbage  which  afiTords  an  oil. 

French  colza;  Old  English  cawl,  cole-wort ;  Flemish  hohuuid. 
Com-  (prefix),  for  con-  before  b,  m,  and  p.    Also  in  the  English 
words  comfit  and  ccm/ort,  in  Lat. "  con-ficio,'* "  con-fortps]." 
Coma,  ko'jnah,  lethargy.    Camber,  ho\mert  one  who  combs. 
Comatose,  ko\7nS,toze,  lethargic ;  comatous,  ko'.ma.tik. 

"  Coma,"  Lat.  cdma,  lethargy ;  Gk.  k&ma  (koimdo,  to  put  to  sleepX 
''Comber,"  Old  Eng.  camb,  a  comb ;  Germ,  hammer;  Lat.  covm. 

Comate,  ko\mate,  a  companion.    This  word  should  be  commate. 

"Comate"  (from  the  Latin  comdtua),  should   mean  "hairy."     If 
from  &>  and  maie^  it  ought  to  be  joined  with  a  hyphen.  {SU  GO-.) 

Comb  (b  mute),  combed,  komd;  comb-ing,  kdme'Ang  ;  oomb-er. 
Old  Eng.  eamh,  a  comb ;  Latin  cGmo,  to  dress  the  hair  (odmo,  hairX 
Combat,    kom'.bdt ;    com'bat-ed,    com'bat-ing,    oom'bat-ant, 
oombat-ive,  kom\bdtJiv ;  ccnn'batiYe-nesB..    (Bule  iii) 
French  combattre  ;  Latin  com  baiHOf  to  fight  together. 
Combine^  combined'  (3  syl.),  combin'-ing,  coml»n-er  (B.  xix.), 
combin-able ;  combinalion,  kom\bi.na'\8hun.  To  unite,  A'c. 
Lat.  combinare,  to  combine  (from  com  binus,  two  and  two  together). 
Combustion,  kom.bu8\tchun,  a  burningr ;  combus^ble,  not  -able; 
combus'tibil"ity,  combus'tible-ness,  connbus'tive  (B.xxii.) 
Latin  combiistio:  eomhurSre,  sup.  eon^uitum,  to  consume  with  flre. 
Come,  past  came,  past  part,  come,   kum^  kdme;   com'-ing, 
com'-er  (Rule  xix.)      To  arrive  at  liie  place  where  tc« 
are;  hence  A.  says  to  B.  "I  am  coming  to  pay  you  a  visit." 
"  I  am  going  to  pay  you  a  visit,"  would  mean  J  intend, 
I  am  about  to... 

To  come  about,  to  happen :  "  How  did  that  come  about?  " 
„  come  at,  to  get-to,  or  obtain :  "  I  cannot  eome-at  it." 
„  come  of,  to  arise  from ;  *»  What  came-of  it  ?  ** 
„  come-oft,  to  escape :  "  We  came-off  with  flying  colours.** 


AND  OF  SPELUXQ.  119 


To  oovDe  on,  to  pjrpce«d :  "  Tl^e  train  came-.on  quickly." 
„  come  out,  to  publisli : "  Tbe  book  c^me-oat  l^t  month." 
„  oome  over,  to  get  the  better  of:  ^  You  cannot  come- 
over  me." 


oome  xoiind,  to  recover :  "  The  man  will  oome-roogid." 
come  np  to,  to  amount  to :  *'  It  oon^es-up-to  9Q0." 
„  come  upon,  to  attack :  **  He  came-upon  me  anawaces." 
Old  Eng.  €umian\  past  eon^  past  part,  tumen;  cuma,  a  oomer. 

Comedy,  plu.  comedies,  k5m\e,diz ;  Oomedian,  ko.7nee\dll.<m, 
(In  Latin  and  Greek  the  first  two  vowels  cere  long; 
^'c&midtu''  [short]  means  "one  who  eats  with  you") 

IjLtlJX  eOrncedici,  cUnuxdtu.'  Oi^ek  h&mddia.  k&m6do8f  te.,  kdmS  6di, 
a  Tillage  song,  an  ode  sung  at  a  viUage  iniz]. 

Comely,  kum'.ly.    Nice-looking  (applied  to  peasant  girla,  &c.) ; 
comeli-ly,  kum\U.ly ;  oomeU-neiB,  kum\U.ness  (B.  xvii.) 
From  come.  So  in  Lat.  conrviniens,  suitable,  ftc,  is  from  utmio,  to  come. 

Comeetible,  kdm.ess'M.b'l  (adj.),  edible.    Comestibles  (plu.) 

French  comestible;  Latin  eomessor,  to  revel ;  Greek  kdrrMzo,  to  revel 
The  proper  meaning  of  " comestibles"  (eatables)  is  extra  fobds^  foods 
ill  addition  to  those  which  form  the  "  meals." 

Comet,  kom'-et,  a  <' hairy  ^tar";   cometazinm,  phi.  oometaria, 
kdm\e.tair^'r^.um,  a  machine  to  show  how  comets  move. 

Cometary,  kom\^td.ry  (a4).);  Com'mentary,  a  comment. 

Cometography,  konif-e._tog'\ra,fyf  treatise  on  comet9. 

Latin  eSmSta  (from  ednui,  hair) ;  Greek  kdmSUs  (kdrpA,  hair). 
Most  comets  have  some  sort  of  "  hairy"  light  about  them ;  sometimes 
it  forms  a  "  tail,"  sometimes  a  "  beard,"  sometimes  a  "nebula,"  &c. 

Comilt,  Comfort ;  Comfiture,  Comforture ;  Dis-  (negative). 

Comfit,  a  seed  coated  with  sugar.    Comfort,  consolation. 

Comfiture,  k^rnf  .fideur,  preserved  fruit  (French  c(mfi(ture), 

ComfQrture,  kSmyor.tchurf  what  gives  comfort. 

Big-KX>mfit,  to  rout.    Bis-comfort,  inquietude. 

ms-comfiture,  defeat.    Dis-comforture,  want  of  comfort. 

Com^fort  (to  console),  oom'forted,  com'forting,  com'forture ; 
ccpnforter,  fern,  comfortress  or  comforter ;  com'fort-able, 
com'fort-ably,  com''fortable-ness ;  com'fbrt-less,  com'fort- 
les»-ly,  comfortless-ness,  absence  of  cofufort. 

"Oomftt,"  French  oonfit;  Latin  eorkfeotua  (pur  ''confection"). 

"  JWs-comflt,"  "  dis-comflture,"  French  dSconfire,  dSeonJituri ;  Latin 

<Hs  configo,  to  unfasten.    Both  French  and  English  are  ill-formed. 
**  Dia-comfort,"  French  d^confort;  Latin  dis  con  ffortiSy  strong). 
**  Comfort,"  French  oon,fiorter;  Latin  "  con/or^ri,"  to  be  strong. 
(There  is  no  teason  why  "con"  should  he  (Ringed  to  "com"  before  fit 

wnd  fort,  and  it  violates  aU  analogy.     At  aU  «ven4«,  "eomftt** 

should  be  conflt,  a  " confection." J 


120  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Comic,   kom'.ik,   drolL      Com  leal,   com'ical-ly,  com'ical-neBs 
comicality,  koTnf.i.haVW.ty,  drollery. 
Latin  eSmXcua  (the  o  long) ;  Oredc  hOmikda.    (See  Comiedy.) 
Coming,  kum'.ing,  approaching.     {See  Come.) 

Comma,  plu,  commas,  kom'.mdz.  A  stop  made  thus  (,).  Co'ma,  q.v 

Latin  comma;  Greek  komma,  a  part  cut  off  fkoptd,  to  lop;. 
Command,  kom.mdnd' ;   command'-able,   command'-ant,   com 
mand'-atoiy,  command'-er,  oommand'-ment.    To  order. 

Comman'der-in-chief,  plu.  comman'ders-in-chief. 

French  commande,  eommandcmt.  commander,  commandement ;  Latii 
co7i-m>anddre ;  to  give  orders  vdth  [others]. 

Commemorate,  kom.mem'-o.rate,    (Double  m  followed  by  one  m. 
Gommem'orat-ed,  commem'orat-ing,  commem'ora'^tion. 

Commem^orative,  kom.mem'.o.ra,tiv ;  commem'orable. 

Latin  com  [con]  m^mdrdret  commimdrdbilis,  eomm^mdrdtiOf  com 
m^mdrdrCy  to  call  to  mind  with  [souue  special  act]. 

Commence,    kbm.mense'^   to    begin ;    commenced,   kom.menst'i 
commenc'-ing  (Rule  xix. ),  commence'-ment  (Rule  xviii.) 

(""  Comince  "  would  have  been  tetter,  hut  as  usual  we  havt 

followed  the  French,  and  copied  their  error.) 

French  commtncer,  commencement.    Corruption  of  the  ItaL  eomin- 
dare;  Lat.  cum  initio,  with  the  beginning. 

Commend^  commend'ed,  commend' -able,  commend'-ably,  com- 

mend'able-nesB ;  commendation,  kom' .men.day" .shun, 

Commend'er,  one  who  praises.    Commendator,  k6m.men\' 

da.tor,  one  who  holds  a  living  in  trust  (in  commendam). 

Commendatory,  kom.men\dd.t5.ry,  Inudatory.    Commen'da- 

tary,  one  who  holds  a  living  in  trust  (in  commendam). 

("  Commendatary"  is  often  apelt  commendatory,  hut  the 

distinction  should  he  observed.) 

French  commender  to  recommend :  Latin  com  [con]  menddre,  to 
entrust  one  with  [a  commlssioo],  (manddre,  to  give  to  one's  ctuag^). 

Commensurate,  k6m.men\su.rate  not  kdm.men'shu.rate ;   oom- 

men'surate-ly,  commen'surate-ness ;    commen'snrable, 

commen'surably,  commen'^urabir'ity,  commen'sura'^tiou. 

French  commensurable,  eommensurdbilit^ ;  Latin  com  [con]  mouw- 
rdre,  to  measure  a  thing  proportionate  with  [something  else]. 

Comment,  kom\m,ent  (noun),  kom.menf  (verb).    Rule  L 

Commenf-ed  (R.xxxvi.);  commenf-ing  (followed  by  on). 

Comment,  kom'Tnent ;  com'ment-ary.   A  book  of  comments. 

Commentate,   kom\men.tate,  to    m>ike   comments;    com'- 

mentat-ed,  com'men tat-in  g  (R.  xix.) ;  com'mentator  (not 

'ter\  R.  xxxvii.;  com'mentator"ial,  com'menta^tor-ship. 

French  comment;  Lat.  commentdri,  to  write  comments,  eommentdtns. 
commentdri%,m,  commentator  (from  comminiscor  commentus,  to  call 
to  mind  many  things  together,  menitcor,  Le..  memtni,  to  remember. 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  121 


Oominerce,  hom^jnersettnAe;  commercial,  kom.mer^.8hal  (adj.\ 
commer'cial-ly.    (French  commerce^  commercial.) 
Lttin  oom  [con]  meteor,  to  trade  with  [others],  commereium. 

Commingle,  k&m.min'.g^l;  commingled  (3  syl.),  oommingling. 

Old  Eng.  menegian\  or  mtn4[ian\,  to  mingle,  with  the  Lat.  prefix  eom-. 
It  would  hare  been  better  with  the  English  prefix  ge-  ("gemingle  '*). 

Oomminute,  kihn'.mtnute.     To  reduce  to  small  pieces,  to  pul- 
verize.     Gom'minut-ed  (Rule   xxxvi.),  com'minut-ing 
(Rule  xix.);  comminution,  k5m\ml.nu*\8hun. 
ft.  eomminutian;  Lat.  eom  [con]  minuo,  to  break  into  minnta  parts. 

.  Commiserate,  kSm.miz'.^.r ate,  to -pity;  commis'erat.ed(R.xxxyi.); 
commis'erat-ing  (R  xix.);  commis'erat-or  (R.  xxxvii.i; 
commiseration,  k^m\miz.S.rdy" .shun^  pity.    (Double  m.) 

GommiseratiYe,  k8m.miz'.i.raMv  ;  commis'erative-ly. 

GommiBerable,  kom.miz\Kra.b'l,  deserving  of  pity. 

French  eommisdraiion ;    Latin  nommlnifrdri,  to  condole  with,  com- 
wlLaSr&iio  (muAiM,  to  pity ;  miitr^  wretched,  an  object  of  pity). 

OommJasary,  'plu.  commissaries,  kom*.ml8.8a.riz.    A  person  em- 
ployed to  provide  an  army  with  personal  requisites. 

Gom'mi88ary-general^2>2u.  com^'missary-generals,  chief  of 
the  commissaries ;  com'missary-ship,  office  of  commissar.\ . 

Oommissariat,  kSm',mi8.8dr^ri»at.    Commissary  department. 

French  eomvnissaire,  eommisBariat ;  Low  Lat.  wmmissariita ;  Latin 
eom  [con]  mUeue,  sent  with  [the  army],  verb  mitto,  to  send. 

Oommiflsion,  kSm„mi8h\8hun ;   commissioned  (3  syl.),  commis^ 
sion-ing ;  commis'sion-er,  one  authorized. 

Fr.  oommiseion;  Latin  eommUHo,  (com  mitto,  to  send  with  [orders])^ 

Gommif ,  to  give  in  chnrge ;  commitf-ed,  committ'-ing,  com- 
nltt-al,  committ-able  (R.  i.,  R.  xxiii.);  Gommit'-ment. 

Committer,  one  who  commits.    Committor,  the  Lord  Chan- 
cellor when  he  commits  a  lunatic  to  a  trustee. 

Ocmmiittee,  phi.  committees,  kom.mit\  ty,  kom.mit\tiz. 
French  eomm^ttrtf  eomitd;  Latin  com  [con]  mitto,  to  send  together. 

Gammix',  commixed,  k6m.mixt ;  commixture,  kom.mix\tchur ; 
oommix'-ible  not  -able.   (Not  of  the  1st  Lat.  conjugation.) 
Latin  eom  [con]  miscere,  supine  commixtum,  to  mix  together. 

Goounodions,  kom.mr/.di'u8  not  k6m.mo\ju8 ;   commo'dious-ly, 
commo'dious-ness  (Lat.  commodus,  convenient,  suitable), 
commodity,  phi.  commodities,  kom.mod\i.tiz,  wares. 
LakiB  eommddUas;  French  commodity,  a  conrenience. 

Ooounodore,  kdm\rn5.  dor.  Commander  of  a  detachment  of  ships. 
Italian  eomandatore,  a  commandant ;  Spanish  comendxidor. 


i:2  ERRORS  or  SPEECir 

Gorn'mon,  com'moxier  (co7np.)>  coin'moniBflt  {guj^er.\  common-ly, 
coiu'mon-ziess;  com'mon-able,  held  in  common ;  cam'- 
mon-aKe,  right  of  pasturing  on  a  common;  com'mon- 
alty,  the  common  people ;  Gom'xnon-er,  one  under  the 
rank  of  a  nobleman ;  Cnrnmona,  proviaiona. 

House  of  Oommons,  plu.  Houses  of  Commons. 

Ck)nmion-council,  plu.  Common-councils. 

Common-councilman,  plu.  common-councilmen  {not  -sel). 

Commonweal,  k6m.mon-we€k     The  public  good. 

Commonwealth,  plu,  oommonwe^ths,  hfiv/^'.mon.'weUht, 
French  wnvtmn;  Latin  communi*,  oommon  {munUt  tied  to  duty). 

Commotion,  kom.mS'^hun  not  ko.mo\8hun.    Disturbance. 
Latin  commotio  (can  [con]  moveo,  to  move  together). 

Commune,  kdm'.mune  (noun),  kSm.mune'  (verb).    Kul^  L 

Communed'  (2  syl.);  commun'ing;  communion,  kom.ma',- 
ni.on;  commu'nity;  commu'nicant  (of  the  Lord's  Supper). 

Com'munist,  ccon'munal;  com'munlsm,  com^munistio. 

Fiench  comnvune,  commv/fuxl,  communion^  GomnvumttM,  eomoKiuiiiU ; 
Latin  communio,  communion ;  communiUu. 

Communicate,A;^m.mu'.ni/Eat«;commu'mcat-ed,commu^nicat-ing 

(R.  xix.),  commu'nicat-or  (R.  ;Lxxvii.) ;  commu'nicat-ive, 

commu'nicative-ly,    commu'nicative-ness ;    commu'nica- 

torj;   communicable,  k6m.mu\nukti.b%  commu'm«ably, 

commu'nicable-ness,  freedom  in  imparting;   coxnjDiuni- 

cation,  kdni.mu\ni.kay'\8hun ;  conunu'nicabil'lty. 

French  communication,  communic(U\f,  communicabiliU;  Li^ia  eom* 
municdre,  communicdtio  (communis,  common). 

Community,  plu.  communities,  kdm.mu'.nutXz.    Body  poUtic. 
French  communauU  ;  Latin  communitas,  the  commmiity. 

Commute,  kom..mute  (to  exchange);  commut'-ed,  conJmnt'-ing, 
commut'-er,  commtit'-able,  commut'-ative  (Rule  xix.) 

Commutation,  kSm'.mu.tay^\8hun;  Commu'tQbbil'lty. 

French  commutation,  commutati/:  Latin  commutdre,  to  oon^nnte; 
commutdtio  (com  [con]  muto,  to  change  with  [anotherl). 

Compact,   kom'.pact  (noun);    kom.pacf  (adj-)     Rule  L    Com- 
pact'-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.)»  compact'ed-ly,  compacf-ly. 

Compaction,  kSm.pak'jhun ;  compact'-ible  (not  -able). 

French  compacts :  Latin  compadus,  compact ;  eompadum,  a  cove- 
nant ;  compaction  compaction ;  compactilis,  compatible  (^oqt  fom 
fcon]  patigo,  sup.  pactum,  to  drive  olotie  togethec). 

Companion,  kom.pan\yun ;  compan'ion.able  (not  a  Lai.  word), 
compan'ionably,  companion-less,  companion-^bjp. 
(•ship  Old  Eng.  postfix,  meaning  tenuref  atate,  betnff,) 
French  compagnion;  (cum  pennon,  under  the  same  flag). 


ANB  OF  SPEILIXG.  1J3 

GoBLpfmy,  phi.  oompaiiies»  k8m.pa.niz,    A  party,  a  toa,  d?c. 
("A  firm"  ia  contracted  into  "Co.,"  as  "  Smith  and  Co." 

fkuch  eompagnit  (not.  cKtn  panin  [eating]  bread  together,  as  is 
QsnalJb^  given,  but  eum  pennon,  under  the  same  flag). 

Compare,   k8m.pai!r^;    compared'  (3  syL),  oompar'-ijig.   com-  ^ 
pSr'-er  (R.  xix.)    Comparable,  h($m'.pa,ra.b%  worthy  t<> ' 
be  compared,  followed  by  to  (Lara.  iv.  2) ;  htimpaii^ .a.h'U 
able  to  be  compared  with  each  other,  as  "  The  two  th^i^'S 
are  not  comparable,**  cannot  be  compared  together. 

Gomparative,  kom'.par^ra.tiv.    In  a  more  or  less  degree. 

Compcuiaon,  kSm.par^ri,nm  not  comparason. 

Latin  eornpardre  {com  [con]  paro,  to  majce  or  set  things  tc^ether.) 
(The  "i"  of  compariwn  is  indefensible;  it  is  the  conjugational 
letter,  and  transfers  the  word  from  eornpardre  "to  compare,"  to 
eomparire  '*  to  be  extant."  We  are  alone  in  this  outrage,  which  is 
a  great  stumbling  block  to  young  spellers.  Latin  eomparaUo, 
Itidian  companmon^,  Spanish  comparacion,  French  comparaison.) 

Oofflpartment.    A  special  department  or  part  of  a  niachine. 
French  compartiment,  but  appartementt    (Latin  com  pars,  partis  ) 

Com'paaB.  plu.  com'passes ;  com'passed  (2  syl.),  com'pas«(-ing. 

French  compos,  verb  oompasser,  to  measure ;  Latin  com  [con]  pcusutt, 
a  stride  or  paee  in  common. 

Oompaaaion,  kSmpa8h\un ;    eompassion-ate,  -compassionated, 
compassion at-ing   (Kule   xix.),   compassionate-ly  '  (Bule 
xvii.),  eompassion-able.     (French  compoision.) 
Latin  eomptuaio  (from  com  [eon]  pdtioT^  to  suffer  with  [another]). 
Compatible.  k}5m.paf  ,%.Vl  not  -cible  (not  of  the  Ist  Lat.  ouiy.) 
Gompafibly,  compatlbil'^ity,  compatlble-nees. 

French  compatible,  compatibility;  Lat.  com  [con]  pSt^re,  to  seek  the 
same  thing,  not  compdHor,  to  suffer  the  same  thing. 

Ckimpatriot,  kamp(it\ri.ot.  A  fellow  patriot.  (Ita).  compatriotto.) 
Gcmpeer',  an  equal.  Compare,  kompair^,  to  judge  by  comparison. 

*' Compeer,"  French  eompbre;  Latin  compar,  a  compeer  or  equaL 
Compel'  (to  force);  compelled'  (2  syl.);  compell'-ing,  compell'-er, 
eompell'-able  (Bule  i.) 

Latin  compellire  (com  [con]  pello,  to  drive  together). 

{** Compellai>le"  is  quite  incorrect,  a«  it  would  he  derived  from  com- 

pell&re,  to  address  or  accost  some  one.  It  ought  to  be  "-ible;"  and 

^*  eompel "  would  be  better  wilh  doubU  "  £.") 

Gompen'dinm,  plu.  compen'diiima  or  compendia  (Latin). 
Compensate,    kihn'pen^sate ;    eom'pensat-ed,    com'pensat-ing ; 

compensator,  kom'pen^a.tor  (not  -ter,  Rule  xxxyii.) ; 

oompensation,  kom\pen.say'* .shun,  amends  (Bule  xix.); 

compensatiye,  kom.pen' ^a.Viv  ;  compen'sative-ly. 

lAtin  eompenswre,  to  make  amends,  eompensdiio;  French  wmpenser, 
to  compensate,  compensation^  compensatoire. 


124  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

QorsL'peiie^'k&m.peef ;  compet'-ed,compet'-ing;  coinpet'-er(R.xix. 
Gompetitor,  fern,  competitress,  competitrix,  or  competitor 
k5m.pef,i.tor^  hSnupetfA.tress ;   compefitory;    competi- 
tive,  kom.pet'.i.ttv ;    coxftpefitive  ly,   by   competiiion ; 
eompetition,  kdm.pe,tish'.unt  rivulry  in  merit. 
lAtin  compitUor,  eompiHre  (com  [con]  pito^  to  stek  with  [another]). 
Gomp'etence  or  cOm'petczicy,  jplu.  coiii'i)etenrie8,  -teme-ez, 
Gom'petent  (not  competant),  able ;  competent-ly  (adv.) 
Latin  (see  above)  compi^tenter  (adv.),  eompitenst  gen.  -teniis. 
Ck)mpile,  kom.plle'  (to  pile  or  get  together),  compfled  (2  gyl.), 
compir  ing.compil'-er  (R.xix.);  compile'-ment  (R.xviii.1[) 
Gompilation,  kom'.pi.lay'\8hun»    A  b(><  -k  compil*^d,  <fec. 

French  compiler,  compilatum;  Latin  compllo  eompUdtio  (from 
com  [con]  pilo,  to  pile  together.    Our  word  *'  pillage.") 

Complacent,  k6m.play\8ent.    Gomplaisant.  kdm^pUusaTW. 
Gompla'cent,  affable ;  com'plaisanf  (French),  courteous. 
Compla'cent-Iy,  affably;  complaisanf-Iy,  courteously. 
Gompla'cence,  affability;  com'plaisance'  (French),  courtesy. 
Gom'placency,  kom.play'^en.sy  (same  as  compla'eence). 

Latin  eompldcens  -centis  (com  [cnn]  placirej,  to  please  altogethT 
(All  the  French  words  [com/plaisanif  &c.]  are  wrong.  If  from 
compldceo  the  -a  of  the  last  syL  should  be  -« ;  if  from  compltiedrt 
[compldcana,  to  pay  court  to  one]  the  -s  of  the  last  syl.  should  be  -eX 

Gomplain",  complained'  (2  syl.),  complain'-iug.    To  find  fault. 

Complaint'.     Dissatisfaction  expressed  in  words. 

Gomplain'ant,  a  plaintiff.   Complain'er,  one  who  complains. 

French  complainte,  eomplaignant ;  Latin  com  [con]  plangert,  niphie 
planctuniy  to  bemoan  with  [someone  about  a  grievance]. 

Complaisant,  kom'.pla.zant\     (See  Complacent.) 

Complement,  kom.plee'.ment ;  compliment,  kom'.pltmenL 

Comple'ment.  That  which  completes  or  supplies  a  defioienc^. 

Com'pliment.    An  expression  of  praise  or  civility. 

Complemenf-al  or  complemenf ^ry.  Adj.  of  comple'ment 

Complimenf-al  or  compliment'-ary.   Adj.  of  com'plIm«nt 

Com'plemenf-ing.    Supplying  what  completes. 

Com'pliment-ing.     Paying  a  compliment. 

"Complement,"  >  atin  complementum  (com-plere  to  oompleta). 

" Compliment,"  French  compliment  (from  Latin  complire).  In  Italiaa 
complim^nto  and  Spanish  complimiento,  both  meanings.  French 
compUmeni,  compliment ;  German  complemeni,  complimtid. 

Complete,  kbm.pleet ;  complet'-ed,  complet'-ing,  complet'-er  (one 

who  completes),  complet'-er  Ccomp.;,  complet-est  (superl,)^ 

complet'-ory  (R.  xix.)     (Suffix  -oryj  l.at  .on[t«]  added 

to  adj.),  completely,  complete- ment,  complete- ness  (Bule 

xvii.)  Completion,  kom.plee'^hun,  finish.   (Rule  xxxiii) 

French  completer,  completemtni  :  Latin  compleo,  complHwai. 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  125 

Oomploz,  hm^.plex  (noun),  k^nupleaf  (verb).    Rule  L 

Oomplexed,  kom.plexfs  complex'-ing,  complez'-ity,  com- 
.  ^xedness,   kdm.plex\ed.ne88 ;  complicaUon,   kom'.pVL- 

kay^^hun,  a  mixture  of  several  things. 
Wxtnch  complext;  Lat.  eomplexuM  (com  [oon]  plecto,  to  twine  together). 

Oomplezion,  k»m.plek'^hun.    The  hue  of  the  face. 

JFraneh  complaeUm.  An  old  medical  term,  from  the  notion  that  the 
■kin  *'  embraced"  or  contained  a  hue  corresponding  to  the  humour 
or  element  of  the  body :  If  the  element  of  the  body  is  Jire,  the 
humour  is  Hie,  and  the  hue  yelloto;  if  air,  the  humour  is  blood, 
and  the  hue  red;  it  earth,  the  humour  is  black-bile  or  " melan- 
choly," and  the  hue  livid  grey;  if  vxiter,  the  humour  is  phUgm, 
and  the  hue  of  the  skin  dead  tohiU.    What  contains  the  *'  key/' 

Gooiplicate,  kofnf.pVi.kate  (to  involve);  com'plicat-ed  (R.xxxvi.); 
com'plicat-ing  (Rule  xix.);  com'plicat-er  (Rule  xxxvii) 

OompUcation,  kdm^pVLkdy^^hun.     Intricacy. 

Gomplicacy,  k5m\pli,ka.8y  not  kom.plik\a.8y, 

Gomplicative,  kom'.pli.ka.Viv  not  kom.plikf .a.tlv. 

Latin  eomplicdre  (com  [con]  plico),  to  fold  together,  to  tangle. 
Complicity,  k5m.pli8\i.ty.    Participation  [in  guilt]. 

French  complidtd  (complice,  an  accomplice) ;  Latin  eompli^re. 

Domplimeiit,  kom\pVi.ment.  Complement,  kdm.plee'.ment  (q.v.) 
••  Present  my  compliments  "  (salutations),  not  complements. 

Gomplimenter  not  -tor,    (It  is  not  a  Latin  word.) 

"jcmpValff  cowiplott'-ed,  complott'-ing,  complott'-er.     (Rule  i.) 

UmjfiY,  complied'  (2  syl.),  complies  (2  syl.),  compli'-er,  compli'- 
ance,  compii'ant,  compli'-antly,  compli'-able,  compli'-ably, 
coropli'-ableness,  but  comply'-ing.     (Rule  xi.) 

Latin  eomplicdre  {com  [con]  plico,  to  fold  with  [yon],  to  agree). 
It  is  not  from  compleo,  nor  yet  from  ompUiceo,  generally  given. 

ompo^'nent  not  compo'nant.    Constituent.    (Latin  componens.) 

omport,  kom.port%  to  suit ;  comported,  <fec. ;  comport'-able. 
Fr.  eomporter;  Lat.  comportdre,  to  carry  together  (com  [con]  portoj. 

ompofle,  k6m.poze^;  composed'  (2  syl.),  compos'-ing,  compos'-ible. 

Oompofledly,  kom.pd'jsed.ly,  calmly;  compo'sednoss  (4  syl.) 

Composure,  kSm.po'jshur,    Tranquility.    (Rule  xix.) 

OompoBition,  kom\p8.zi8h'\on.    A  putting  together. 

Compositor,  kSm.p8z'.i.tor,  One  who  sets  up  type  in  printing. 

Composer,  kdm.po'j:er.    One  who  composes. 

Composite,  kom\p6z.zite.    Not  simple,  mixt. 

Cami>ositiB,  kom\pdz\i.tee.    An  order  of  plants. 

French  composer,  composite,  composition;  Latin  comp^ire,  eompo- 
9Uio,  eompd*Uor  (cum  [con]  p&ito,  to  put  together). 


126  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 


Compound,  hmi'.pownd  (nonn),  kom4>ound'  (verb).    Eule  L 
Gomponnd'-ed  (-ed  forms  a  sepiarate  bjI.  aftar  4  dr  t). 

Oompound'- able  (Rule  xxiii);  compound^er. 

Latin  componderdre  (com  [con]  pondgro),  to  weigh  out  (Vlifferei 
tilings  for  a  mixture].    (Not  from  eompwngto,  to  put  t(^;etiMr.) 

Oo1lIpreheIld^  comptehen'sfble,  comprehen'sibly. 

Gomprehensidn,  k5ni'.pre.heri".8kttn,    (Rule  xxxiii.) 

Gomprehen'flive,  comprehens'ive-ly,  comprehen'sive-ness. 
Latin  eomprihendire,  sup.  -hentum  {eom  [eon]  prifhendo,  to  grasp). 
Gompress,  kdm'.prees  (noun),  kSm.presa'  (yerb).    Rule  1. 

Compress',  compre88ed'(2syl.),  compress' -ing.  To  press  clo8( 
compress'ive,  compress'-ible  (not  -a&Z«),  compress'lbil'lt; 

Cdmpression,  kdm.presk'.un ;  oompressore,  kSm.pre8h\itr. 

Compress-or  (not  -er).  That  which  serves  to  ccmipress.  (R.  xxxvii 

Latin  compressi^y  tompreasor,  eomprfmot  sup.  oompr€$awn  (earn  [coi 
pr^mo,  to  i^ress  or  squeeze  together). 

Comprise,  kom.prize'  («  between  two  vowels =z),  to  include 

comprised'  (2  syl.),  compris'-ing,  compris'-al.   (Rule  xix 

French  comprU,  past  part,  of  oomprendre;  Lat.  eomprthennum,  siq 
of  etympr^endo  (cum  [con]  prehendo,  to  seize  hoid  of). 

Compromise,    k5m\pro.imze    not    kom.prom\iz^    com'promise 

(3  syl.),  com'prorais-ing,  com'promis-er.     (Rule  xix.) 

French  compromis;  Latin  eompromisaum  (cum  [con]  pro  mUtOf  i 
send  forth  with  [a  bond] ;  i.e.,  to  give  bona  to  abide  by  arbitration 

Compt,  county  an  account  (nearly  obsolete) ;  comxitroUw,  k^ 
troJ^.er,  an  officei*  to  control  or  verify  accounts. 
French  compte,  an  account ;  Latin  eomputo  [comp'tl,  to  compute. 

Ccmipulsion,  k5m,pul\shun  (force);  compnlBive,   kom.ptiV^v 
compul'sive-ly,  compul'sive-ness.    (Rule  xvii.) 

Compulsory,  kom.puV.8S.ry  (adj.),  compul'sori-ly  (adv.) 
Latin  compello,  sup.  compulsum  {cum  [eon]  pello,  to  drive  together). 
Compunction,  kSm.punk\8hun.    A  pricking  of  conscience. 

Compunctious,  kdm.punk'shu8.  Having  quarms  of  conscieno 
Latin  nompunctiOy  twrn  [con]  pungo,  to  prick  wltii  [remorse]. 

Compute'  (2  syl.),  compiit'-ed,  compfli'-ing,  comput'.er,  oomput 
able  (Rule  xix) ;  computation,  kom\pu.tay'\8hun, 
French  camput,  computation;  Latin  compvMre,  to  compute. 

Comrade,  kdmWad,     Companion.     (French  camerade.) 

From  camSrat  a  chamber,  one  who  occupies  the  same  chamber.    Oi 
word  has  quite  lost  sight  of  the  true  meaning. 

Con-;  also  co-,  oog-,  col-,  com-,  and  cor-.    (Latin  prefix.) 

Co-,  before  a,  e,  t,  o,  and  fu  Also  before  any  letter  "vith 
hyphen,  as  "co-mate,"  "co-partner,"  " co-tmstee."  1 
Mathetnatict  ^  complement,  as  "  co-sine, '  "  co-secant  ** 


AND   OF  SPELLING.  127 

iSOg.,  befbre  naseoT^  noscoj  tUimeny  with  their  derivatives. 

Coi-,  before  I,  as  **  col-lect." 

Com-,  before  h^  m,  jp,  and  u.    Also  with  fit  and  /ort. 

C^n-,  before  c,  «  ;  d,  Z,  e  ;  q,  v,  /  (except  "  fit "  amd  "  fort " ). 

Cor-,  before  r,  as  "  OGr-rect." 

Coxl:  As  pro  ai*d  eon,  "for**  and  "against"  [a  proposal].    In 
this  sense,  it  is  a  contraction  of  contra  (Latin)  against. 

Oon  (to  learn  by  repetition),  ooimed,  kSnd  ;  conn'-ing  (Rule  i.) 

Old  English  cof»n(an]  or  eimnCftn],  to  know ;  ooh,  can. 
Ooneatenate,  ko^Jk&tfXnate ;  concat'enat-ed,  concat'enat-ing. 

Goncatenation,  k8n,kaf.e.nay^\8hun.    To  link  together. 

(In  Latin  the  "  e  "  of  all  these  words  is  long, ) 
Latin  eoncdtinare,  to  chain  together  {catina,  a  chain).    Bule  ziz. 

Concave,  hSn^.hdve.    Hollowed  out.    "  Bulged  out "  is  con' vex. 
T'he  inside  of  a  C  ^s  "  concave,**  the  outside  is  "  convex." 

Gon'cave;  concaved,  kon\kdved;  concav-ing,  kdn.kdve\ing 
(B.xix.)  Concavity,  kon.  kdv'.tty.  The  reverse  is  Convexity. 
(When'put  in  opposition  the  accent  is  thrown  on  the  final 
tyllahte,  om  glasses  for  short  sight  are  concave",  for  fur 
sight  the^  are  convex'. ) 

Ijttfn  etm-edvuSf  aHogether  hollow ;  conc&vUcts  fcdvtu,  a  cave). 

OOkie^al,  kihi-seer  ;  concealed'  (2  syl.),  conceal'.er,  coucear-able. 
Latin  eon-elldre,  to  hide  altogether  foSlo,  to  hide). 

Concede,  kon.seedf.  One  of  the  seven  verbs  in  -cede.  The  three 
in  'teed are  "exceed,** "proceed," and  "succeed."  (R.  xxvii.) 

Conceded,  kSn,8eed\ed;  conceding,  kon.8eed'ing  (Rule  xix.) 
Conceesion,  kSn.ses\shun.    Something  conceded. 
French  oonotder  ;  Latin  eon-eSdo,  to  go  vdth  [you],  to  yield  to  yon. 

Conceit,  kdn^seef,  vanity.    Conceited,  k6n,8eef.ed,  vain.    (Rule 
xxxvi.)    Conceit'ed-ly,  conceit'ed-ness.    (Italian  concetto.) 
Latin  oondHjAo,  sup.  eonceptum,  a  conceived  [opinion  of  oneself]. 

Conceive,  kdn.seev'  (to  suppose,  to  comprehend,  &g.)  ;  conceived' 
(2  syl.),  conceiv'-ing,  conceiv'-er,  conceiv'-able  (Rule  xxiii.), 
conceiv-ably,  conceiv'-ableness  (Rule  xix. ) 

Conception,  kdn,sep* .shun.    Notion,  impregnation. 

('"  'Ceives ''  take  e  first,  *'  -lieves ''  take  i  first.  Rule  xxviii. ) 
Iiatin  eoncipire,  c&nceptio,  (con  cdpio,  to  take  with  [you]  X 

Concentrate,  kdn' .8en>.trdte  (to  bring  together);  con'centrat-ed, 
eon'oentarat-ing  (R.xix.);  concentration,  -tray" .shun. 

Omoentrative,  k&n.8en\tra.tiv ;  concen'trative-neflfl. 
ItaUan  eolt6Mt¥are,  to  concentrate ;  ooncenirazione,  concentration. 


1:>«  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 


Concen'tre,  to  bring  to  a  point.    Gonsen'ter,  one  who  coDsents. 
Goncentre,  kSn.sen'.ter ;  concentred,  kdn^en'.terd; 
concentring,  kon.8en\tring  not  1(dn.8en'.ter.ing  ; 
concen'tric,concen'trical;  concentricity,  kdn'.8en.trU^.i.ty, 
French  eoncentrer;  lAtin  conceatrtcus  {eon  centrum,  oommon  eentreX 
Conception,  k8n.8ep'^hun.    Notion,  impregnation. 

Conceptiye,  k5n.8ep\t%v,    {See  Gonceiye.) 
Concern'  (noun),  affair;  (verb)  to  take  interest  in  something. 
Concerned,  kdn,8emd\    Moved  with  interest  or  sympathy. 
Concernedly,  kon^er'.ned.ly.    Sympathetically. 

French  coTuxmer;  Latin  concemirit  to  separate  {cum  eerno,  to  sepa- 
rate and  put  together  [what  belongs  to  each]). 

Concert,  kon'sert  (noun),  k(m,8erf  (verb).    Rule  L 

Con'cert,  a  musical  entertainment.    Concert^,  to  schema. 
Concerto,  plu.  concertos,  not  concertoe8.    (Rule  xHi.) 
Concertina,  plu.  concertinas,  kdn\8er.tee'\naht  &c 
Concert-ed,  kdn.sertf  .ed ;  concert-ing,  kon.8ertf.ing, 
French  concert;  Ital.  concerto;  Lat.  con  certdrCt  to  strive  togeihar. 

Concession,  kdn.8esh'-dn,  a  grant;  concession-ist,  a  granter. 

Concession-ary,  kdn.8e8h\dn.a.ry ;  concessory,  kon^e8'.$6.ry. 

("  Conce88ion-ery  "  would  be  more  correct.) 
Latin  conceasio  and  concessum,  a  concession  (con  cedSre,  to  gire  way). 
Conchifera,  kdn.kif  .e.rah.  The  mussel,  oyster*  and  other  bivalvei* 
A  single  specimen  is  a  Conchifer,  kon\ki,fer. 

Conchoidal,  kon.koy'.dal.    Having  a  concave  and  convex 
surlace,  like  a  bivalve  shell.  (Gk.  kogchi  eidos,  cockle-like.) 

Conchology,  kdn.koV.d.gy.    The  natural  history  of  shells. 
Conchologist,  kon.kSV.d.gist.     One  skilled  in  conchology. 
Greek  kogcM  Idgda,  shell  lore ;  Latin  concha,  a  shell. 
Conciliate,  kdn.siV.l.ate,  to  propitiate;  concillat-ed  (R.xxxvi); 
conciriat-ing  (R.  xix).    Conciliatory,  kdnjsil\%.d,t5.fy. 
Conciliator,  fern,  conciliatrix,  kdnMV X.a.toT,  -trix. 
Conciliation,  kdn.s\V .i.d'\8hun.    Reconcilement. 

Latin  conciliator,  conciliatrix,  conciliatio,  concilidre,  to  reconcile /'eoM 
cAlo,  to  call  together,  hence  to  unite  or  bring  together). 

Concise,  k6n.si8e'  (brief),  concise'-ly,  concise'-ness,  brevity. 
Latin  concleus  {concldo,  to  cut  small ;  con  ceedo,  to  cut  entlreljX 
Conclude,    kdn.klude',  conclud'-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.),  condud-ing, 
conclud-er  (Li.  xix.).    To  detei*mine,  to  end,  &c. 

Conclusion,  kdn.hW .shun^  the  end  (R.  xxxilL);  Oonelnsiye, 

k6n.klu.8iv  ;  conclusive-ly,  conelusive-ness  (Rule  xvii.) 

Latin  conclusio,  verb  conciado,  supine  eoncUtsum,  to  ooneliide  (frooi 
con  claxulo,  to  shut-up  altogether,  hence  to  tlnish). 


AXD  OF  SPELLING,  129 

Coniooct',  oonooct'-er  (not  -tor);  concoction,  kSn.koh\8hun, 
Latin  etmeodiOt  e(m-c6qw)y  to  oook  together,  to  concoct. 

Concomitant,  concomitance,  concomltaDt-lj,  concomltancy. 
Latin  ooneHmXtans,  -tantU  {con  cdmitdre,  to  go  often  together). 

Concord,  k8n\kord  (noun),  k6n.kord'  (verb).    Bule  1. 

Goncord'ance  (not  kon'.kor,dance).    An  index  of  words. 

Conoord'ant,  concord'^ant-ly,  concord'anoj. 

Concor'dat.    A  convention  between  a  king  and  the  pope. 

Latin  eoncordta;  eoncorddre,  to  agree  (con  corda,  hearts  together). 
French  eoneordancef  concordant,  concordat,  ooncord«r,  to  agree. 

Con'eourse,  not  con'cottrce.  (Fr.concowr*,  a  throng;  Ital.  concor^o.) 

Latin  eoncursu«  {con  ctirro,  sup.  cursum,  to  mn  together). 

(This  is  one  of  the  puzzles  of  spelling :  course,  source.  Bulk. — Every 
word  beginning  toith  "c"  is  followed  by  "»,'*  and  every  word 
beginning  toith  "«"  is  followed  by  "c";  coarse,  corse,  course, 
** eon-course,"  ** dis-cov/rse,'*  *' inter-course,**  <kc.:  source,  "re- 
source,**  sauce,  <kc  The  only  other  words  in  "-ee**  of  a  siv^ilar 
sound  are  force,  with  its  compounds  "en-force,"  *' per-foreCf'*  **r§- 
mfvrct^*  and  divorce.^ 

Concrete,  kon\kreet  (noun),  kon.kreef  (verb).    Rule  1. 

Concret'-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  concret-ing,  concret-ive  (R.  xix.) 

Concretion,  kon.kreei'^hun,  A  concreted  mass,  union  of  parts. 

Con'crete  (noun),  a  cement;  adj.  having  a  real  existence, 
not  abstract.     White  is  abstract,  white  paper  concrete. 

French  ooncret,  ooncretion;  Latin  concritum,  concritio,  a  concretion 
(from  eon  creseo,  supine  crUum,  to  grow  together). 

Concubine,  kdn'.kuMne.    A  woman  who  acts  as  a  wife. 

Concubinage,  kSn.kil\b%n.age ;  concubinal,  kon.ku' .hln.ah 
Latin  WMuXyinus,  a  concubine  {con  cQbdre,  to  lie  togetherX 

ConcupiBcence,  kSn.ku^pis. sense,  lust ;  concu'piscent,  lustful. 
(  The  -8C-  is  the  Latin  frequentative  or  intensifying  prefix.) 
IsUn  eoncupiscentia  (con  oupiscens,  -entis,  greatly  desiring). 

Concur,  kihi.kur^,  to  agree;   concurred'  (2  syl.),  concurr'-ing, 
concurr'-ence,  concurr'-ent,  concurr'-ently.     (Rule  i.) 
Latin  eoncwrrens,  -entis  (con  currifre,  to  run  together). 

Cououflsion,  kon-kOsh^on;  concussive,  kon.kus'jtiv. 

Latin  eoncussio,  a  striking  together  {con  gudtio,  to  shake  together). 

Condemn,  k8n.dem';  condemned,  kon.demd';  condemning,  kSn.  - 
dem'.ing  (not  k6n\dem.ning) ;  condenmer,  k6n.dem\er ; 
condemnation,  k8n\dem\nny'\8hun ;  condemnable,  kon.- 
dem'.na.Vl  (not  kon.dem\a.b'l),  censurable;  condemna- 
tory, kon.dem\nd.tS.ry,  worthy  condemnation. 
Latin  condemndtio,  eond&nndre  (eon  damno,  to  cast  in  a  law-suit). 


1.10  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

GondenBe',  condensed'  (3  syl.),  oondens'-ing,  condens'-er  (Rule 
xix.),  condens'-ity,  condens'-able,  condensation,  kihi'.- 
den.8ay'\8hun.    To  shorten,  to  make  more  close. 

Latin  condensdtio,  eondensdref  to  condense  {eon  deruo,  to  make  thick). 

(There  are  nearly  seven  hundred  toords  ending  in  *'nce,**  and  only 
nine  in  "-nse":  viz.,  dense  and  condense;  dispense,  expense,  pre- 
pense, and  recompense ;  immense,  sense,  and  tense.  The  larger 
part  of  the  seven  hundred  have  as  rnuch  claim,  to  **$**  a$  these  nine.) 

Condescend,  kdn\de.8end\Xo  %U)0^  (morally);  conde8cend''-ence; 
condescension,  kon\de.8en' ^hun  (Rule  xxxvii.) 

Latin  con  descendi^e  (de  scando,  to  climb  down,  dis-moont). 
Condign,  kon.dine't  deserved ;  condign'-ly,  condign'-ness. 

French  condigne,  appropriate ;  Latin  con  dignus,  wholly  deserved. 
Condiment,  kdn'.dl.merU.    (FreDch ;  Latin  condimentum,  sauce.) 

Condition,  kdn.disK.on;  condition-al,  condition-ally,  condition- 
ary,  condition -ing ;  conditionality,  kdn.di8h\on.aV\i.ty ; 
conditioned,    kdn.dish'-ond;  condition-ate. 
French  condition;  Latin  conditio,  eonditionaUs  (adj.) 

Condole,  kdn.dole';  condoled  (2  syl.);   condol'-ing,  condol'-eTf 
condol'-ence  (Rule  xix) ;  condole'-ment  (Rule  xviii.) 
Latin  condolentia,  con  dolere,  to  grieve  with  [those  who  grieve]. 
Condor,  kon\dor.    The  vulture  of  S.  America.     (Span,  condor.) 

Conduce,  k&n.duse';  conduced'  (2  syl.),  conduc'-ing,  condiic'-ible 
(not  -a6i«),  conduc'-ibly ;   conducive,  kon.du\B\v;   con- 
du'cive-ly,  condti'cive-ness  (Rule  xix.)    Tending  to. 
Latin  oonducibilis^  con  ducirCy  to  lead  with  [you],  to  conduce. 

Conduct,  kon\duct  (noun),  behaviour;  kori.duct'  (verb),  to  guide; 
conduct'-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.),  conduct'-ing,  conducf -ive. 

Conducfor,  jem.  oonduct'ress ;  conduction,  kfm.dxL}^ .ihxoi, 

Conductibility,/r^.^i«A;'.t{.Mr'.{.t^.  Capacity  of  transmittiDg. 

French  cxyndAuAicm :  Latin  oondujdiOy  con  ducire,  to  lead  with  (yon]. 
Conduit  (French),  kon\dwit  not  kun'-dit,  a  duct. 

Latin  con  dtico,  supine  ductum,  to  convey  [by  pipes,  &c] 
Cone,  kdne.     A  shape  like  a  sugar-loaf;  the  fruit  of  a  fir  tree. 

Conic,  kdn'.lk;  conical,  kdn'.i.kul  (adj.),  cone-shaped. 

Conies.    The  geometry  of  conical  figures.    (All  the  9cienee$ 
in -ic, except " logic"  " music," and  "'rhetoric " are phtraU) 
(The  "o"  of  "conic**  in  Latin  and  Greek  U  long,) 
French  coiu;  Latin  convA;  Greek  h6n6s,  a  cone. 
Conifer,  plu.  conifers,  k(f.nl.ferz;  Coniferss,  k5.n^.e.ree,  tl^ 
cone  bearing  plants.    (Latin  conus  f^o,  to  bear  cones.) 

Coniferous,  ko.nif.e.ru8,  cone-bearing ;  co'niform. 
^lonoid,  kd'.noid  (Greek  kdnds  eidos,  cone-Hke). 

Conoidal,  ko.no%d\al;  oonoidic,  kd,noy*dik;  conoi'dical. 


AXD   or  SPELUXG.  V,X 


ConfiOnilmto,  kSn.fab'.uJaU,  to  chaA;  confab'alat^  (Rxxxvi.), 
eoDtab'iiliiUiiig,  confab'olat-oir  (not  -er.  Role  xxx\-ii.) 
Oonftkbiilstoiy,  kdn.fab\u.la,rry  (Role  xix.).     Gossip. 
CgnAbnlatlini,  kSn.fab'.u.lay^ahun,    Gossip. 

French  coi^abu!er,  eonfabulatum  ;  Latin  eon  fahuUUt,  to  tell  stories 
or  gooipy  tales  together,  hence  to  ch«t,  fte. 

CoofSsetUm,  k5n,fiyjhun;  oonfec'tion-er,  confec'tionery  (not 

-ary).    Sweetmeats,  the  maker  or  seller  of  pa8tr\ ,  Jtc. 

ftvndi  oo^feeUon;  Latin  om^ecfio,  eon^/Mo,  rapine  -ftduwiy  to  make 
ivith  (flogar,  kc] 

CoofBdarate,  kSn.fed^Xrate^  to  lea^rae  together ;  confedVrat.fd. 
confiMi^erat-ing  (R.  xix.).  confed'er&t-or  (not  -er,  R.  xxx\  ii.) 

OonfedAration,  kSn.fe^.€.ray"jihun,    A  league. 

Oonfederaoy,  plu,  oonfederaoiea,  konJeiT .e.rHMz    (R.  xliv.) 

(In  Latin,  the  first  **e"  of  aU  these  words  in  long.) 
Latin  con  faderatio,  a  confederation  (eon  fceduty  a  leagueX 
Confei^,  cmferred  (2  syl.),  conferr'-ing,  oonferr'-er  (Rule  i.) 
Confer-enoe,  kon*.fer,ence  (not  -once,  and  only  one  r). 
(This  abnormal  word  is  borroved  from  the  French.) 
Frendi  eonfifwr,  eonfSrence  ;  Latin  eonfiro,  con/fretu,  to  confer. 
Coofiarva,  phi.  oonfervas,  k^n.fer^.vah,  kon.fer^.vee,  fresh- water 
plants.    Confefyaceous^  kon'.fer.vay" uthtis  (adv.)     Con- 
fervoid,    kon.fer^.void,    articulated    like    the    confervH*. 
Confervitef  j7{ii.  confervitas,  kon.fe/vites,  fossil  couftTvn'. 

Latin  conferva,  from  conferveo,  to  Join  together  like  broken  bones. 
Pliny  tells  ns  the  covfervce  were  so  called  because  of  their  efficacy 
in  knitting  together  broken  bones,  f Pliny,  27,  45 J 

GonfeBs',  ooofeBaed'  (2  syl.),  confessed-ly,  kon.fes'.sed.ly* 

ConfeaB-or  (not-er,  R.  xxxvii.)  A  priest  who  hears  confessions. 

Oonfession,  k9n.fe8h'.on ;  confesslon-al,  confeRs'ion  Sry. 

French  confessor,  to  confess ;  confession,  confessiovcU ;  Latin  con/tsaio, 
eonfessdritu,  conJUeor,  -fessus  (confaieor,  to  confess). 

Coniide,  kSn.fide'  (to  rely  on);  confided,  kdnfi'.ded  (R.  xxxvi.); 
conf idling,  confid'-ingly,  confid'-er.     (Rule  xix.) 

Coiifldaiit,/em.coiifidante  (Fr.),  *on'./«.danf.  A  bosom  frien<l. 

Gonfident,  konff\.dent  (positive) ;  con'f ident-ly,  con'fidence. 

OonfldentiaU  kon\fl.den*\shal ;  confidential-ly. 

(In  Latin,  the  "i"  of  all  these  words  is  long.) 

Lat.  eof^fidentia.  confidence ;  confidens,  -entis,  confident ;  eon  -fldAre, 
to  tnut  one  wholly ;  French  confidence,  confident,  cor^idant,  &o. 

Oonflne,  kSn\fine  (noun),  a  limit;  k^n.fine'  (v.),  to  imprison  (R.  1.) 
Oonfined,  kon.fmd\  confin'.ing,  confin^er  (Rule  xix.),  con- 

fin'-able  (Rule  xxiii.),  confine'-ment  (Rule  xviii.  ^). 
Conflnity,  kdn^n\l.ty, nearness.   (In Lat.  the  "i"  is  long.) 

French  eor^ner,  to  confine ;  Latin  eonflnium,  eonflnitas,  eonflndlis 
(adj.),  09»  fUortf  to  finish  with  [some  limiting  boundary]. 


1.12  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Gonfiim',  conflrm'-able,   (not  -iftle),   confirm'-Stive,  confirm'- 

atively ;  confirm'-er,  one  who  corroborates ;  conflrmat-or, 

kon.Jir\md,tor  ;  confirm'atSry  (the  "a"  w  long  in  Latin); 

confirmation,  kon\Jir. may'* , shun,  corroboration. 

Latin  eon  jirmdre,  to  make  strong  with  [additional  assurance],  eon- 
JwmatiOy  c<mfirm&tor;  French  conjirmatif,  conjwrmation,  eonjirmer. 

Confiscate,  kon* .fis.kate  not  kon.Jis^kate,  to  alienate ;  con'fiscat-ed 
(R.  xxxvi.),  con'fiscat-ing  (R.xix.),con'fi8cat-or  (R.  xxxvii.) 

Can&Bcakiiou.fk<m\Ji8.kay'*jihun,  A  forfeiting  to  the  exchequer. 

Confiscable,  kon.Ji8\kd.b'l ;  confiscatory,  k8n.Ji8\k(i.to.ry. 

Latin  confincdtio  ;  con  fiscdre,  to  confiscate  ffisciu,  the  exchequer}. 
Conflagration,  kbn*Jla,gray*\8hun  (not  k(m\fii.gay'' ^hun), 

Lat.  wnfidgrdtio,  eonjidgrdre,  to  bum  wholly  ;  Greek  phligo,  to  bum. 
Conflict,  kon\Jlict  (noun) ;  kdn.Jlict*  (verb),  to  contend  (Rule  1.) ; 
conflict'-ed  (R.  xxxvi.);  confiict'-ing,  confijictive,  kon.- 
JlW.tiv;  conflictive-ly ;  confliction,  kon.fi\k' ^hun. 

Latin  conjlictio,  conflictus,  conjligdre,  jllgire,  to  dash  together. 
Confluence,  kon* .Jlu.eTice.    The  meeting  of  two  or  more  streams. 

Con'fluent,  flowing  together.    Conflux,  a  crowd,  a  flood. 

Latin  confiHentiay  confl/Aena  (confltto,  sup.  Jhueum,  to  flow  together). 
Conform',  conformed'  (2  syl.),  conform'-able,  conform'-ably. 

Confirmation,  kSn.Jir.may'^^hun.    The  act  of  confirming. 

Conformation,  kon*. for. may** ^hun.    The  act  of  conforming. 

Conform'^ty,  conformist;  non-conformity,  non-conformist 
('*  Conform,'*  "  conformable,"  are  followed  by  "  to,*'  as  **Be 
not  conformed  to  this  world "  [Rom.  xii,  2].  **  C<mfarm' 
ity  "  m^y  have  either  "  to  "  or  "  with,"  as  *'  In  conformity 
with  your  wish,"  "  In  conformity  to  your  order.") 

"CoDformare  se  ad  [to]  voluntatem..,''  or  "mentem  meam  ifA 

cogitatione  [m</i]..conformabam."  f  Cicero  J 
Lat.  cov/ormdtio,  conformttas,  con  formdre,  to  form  like  [something]. 

Confound'  (to  confuse),  confound'-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  confound'-er. 
Confuse',  confused'  (2  syl.),  confus'-ing,  &q.    {See  Conftuse.) 
ItoXij^  fionfund^e,  sxipine  fuavm,  to  pour  together. 
Confront,  kon.frunt*  (not  konfronf),  to  bring  face  to  face;  con- 
front'-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.),  confront'-ing ;  con£ront-er. 
French  con/ronter,  to  QOi^front ;  Lat.  confrons,  front  with  [front]. 
Confuse',  confused',  confus'-ing;  confused-ly,  kon.fil*jsed.ly; 
confused-ness,  konju* .zed.ne8s  (with  -ly  and  -ness);  con- 
fusion, kdn,fil*.zhon,  disorder;  confus-er,  kon,fitjser» 
Latin  confund^e,  supine  fusum,  to  pour  together.    {See  Confoimd.) 
Confute',  confut'-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  confut'-ing,  confiit'-er,  confat'- 
able  (not  -ible),  confut'-ant  (R.  xix).    To  prove  wrong. 
Confutation,  k5n*.fu.tay**.8hun.  Disproving,  a  denial  pro?ed« 
Latin  eonfutdtio,  co7^/iltdre,  to  argue  against  [another]. 


AND  OF  SPELLING,  l^n 


G(mg6  (French),  kdm^Jtjaf,  Leave  of  absence,  discharge,  farewell. 

Gong^  d'61ire,  Tton^.zja  de-leer^.    The  sovereign's  request 
to  a  dean  and  chapter  to  elect  a  bishop. 

P.P.O.  (pour  prendre  congS),     To  take  leave.     (Written  on 
cards  on  leaving  home.) 

Congeal,  kon.jeeV  (to  freeze) ;  congealed'  (2  syl.),  congear-able. 

Congelation,  k6n\j^.lay''.8hun  (not  congealation), 
{The  "a"  of  "congeal,"  (&c,  is  a  great  error.) 

Latin  eongi^latio,  eongil&biUs,  eon  g^o,  to  freeze  thoroughly;  French 
congder  {:=conge-lerf  2  ajh),  oongilable,  congHation. 

Congener,  kon.jee\nSr.  Of  the  same  origin  or  kind.  Gongener'ic. 

Latin  con  ginery  of  the  same  itock.    (The  -ge-  in  Latin  is  short.) 
Congenial,  konjee'.ntal  (social) ;  conge'nial-ly,  conge'nial'lty. 

Latin  con  g^nidlis,  genial  with  [others],  con  g^nialltiu. 
Congestion,  k5n.je8\tchun;  congestive,  kon.jesWlv;  conprest-ible. 

Lat.  oongtstiOy  con  gSrire,  sup.  -geatum,  to  bring  together,  to  amass. 

Conglomerate,  kon,glom'.e.rate  (one  m),  to  amass;  conglom'- 
erat-ed     (Kule    xxxvi.),    conglom'erat-ing    (Rule    xix), 
conglomeration,  kon* .glom.e,ray'\8hun,  a  collection* 
Latin  congWrn^raxCt  to  wind  into  a  ball  (gl6mu$y  a  ball). 

Congratolate,  kfyn,grdif.u.late;  congrat'ulat-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.), 
congrat'ulat-ing,  congrat'ulat-or  (not  -ter.  Rule  xxxvii. ) 

Congratulatory,  kSn.grSf.ii.ld.t*ry.    Expressing  joy  (R.xix.) 

Congratulation,  kSn.grafM.lay^'.shim,    Expression  of  joy. 

Lat  congrdiiUdtio,  congrdtHldtor,  congrdtiUdre,  to  rejoice  with  [you]. 

Congregate,  kSn\gre.gate  (to  assemble  in  a  crowd) ;  con'gregai-ed 
(Rule  xxxvi.),  con'gregat-ing,  con'gregat-er  (Rule  xix.) 

Congregation,    kon\gr^.gay'\8hun ;    congreo:ation-al,    con- 

gregutional-ly,  congregational-ism,  congrei^ational-ist. 
LUln  congrifgdiio,  con  gr^gdre,  to  herd  together  {grex  grggis,  a  herd). 

Congress,  kon'.gress,  a  senate;  congressional,  kbn.gr es' .shun. al. 

Latin  congresses,  a  meeting;  congridior,  sup.  -gressum.  to  meet  to- 
gether {eon  grddior,  to  go  with  [others] ;  grddus,  a  step). 

Congmity,  k&n,gru\\.ty  (fitness);  congruous,  kbn'.gru.us,  &q. 

Lai  congruus,  eongmire,  to  nock  together  like  cranes  {gnis,  a  craneX 
"Biitls  of  a  feather  [which]  flock  together,"  exactly  meets  the  idea. 

Conia,  kd.n%\ah.  Hemlock  and  other  plants  of  the  same  genus. 

Coneine,  ko.nee'.in.    The  poisonous  alkaloid  of  hemlock. 

Greek  k&neidn,  hemlock.    ("  Goneine," A;o.ne^  i»,  is  not  well  formed.) 

Oonic,  kSn\ik;  conical,  Hke  a  cone;  conies,  kovfdks.  (See  Cone.) 

Conifer,  ko.ntfer;  oooiferons,  kd.nlf.&nu;  conifersB.   See  Cone. 


134  ERnonS  OF  SPEECH 

Conjecture,  JcihtJ^.tekur  (a  sannise,  to  snnnise) ;  eoDJec'tnred 

(8  syl.),  conjee'ttir-ing,  coDJec'tnr-er ;   conjec'tur-al,  con- 

jec'iural-ly  (Rule  xix.).  ccnjec'tur-able  (Rule  xxiii). 

Latin  eovjectura,  a  guess,  coi\}tctur&lis :  eonjidre,  to  aanoiie  (eon 
jdcio  to  cast  [two  and  two]  together  [to  form  a  gneas]). 

Gonjngal,  kon'.ju.gal.    Pertaining  to  marriage. 

Latin  conjugdlis  (from  amjux,  a  husband  or  wif eX 

Conjugate,  kdn\ju.gate;  con'jugat-ed  (R.  xxxyL),  con'jugat-ing. 

Conjugation,  kdn\ju.gay^'.8hun;  con'jngat-or (R.  rix,  xxxvii.) 
Lat.  eonjUgatio,  eonjUgator,  eoniX&gdre  (eonjugo,  to  joke  together). 

Conjunction,  k6n.junk\8kun  (union);  conjunctive,  kSn.junk.tiv; 
conjunc'tive-ly,  conjunc'tive-ness  (Rxvii.);  conjunctuie, 
k8n.junk^,tchur,  a  crisis,  a  critical  period. 
Latin  conjunetio,  eor^ungo,  supine  -jwictum,  to  join  together. 
Conjure,  kun'jer,  to  play  tricks ;  konjwre\  to  implore. 

Con'jure,  kun'.jer;  con'jured  (2  syl.),  con'jur-ing  (R.  xix.), 

con'jur-er ;  conjuration,  kun\ju.ray'\shun. 
Conjure,  kdn.jure'  (to  implore) ;   conjured'  (2  syl.),  coiy fill- 
ing: conjur'-er,  one  who  conjures';  conjuratioiL,  k9n\ju.- 
ray^\8hun,  invocation  to  a  prisoner  to  answer  on  his  oath. 

Both  these  are  the  same  word.    A  con^jurer  is  one  who  acts 
with  a  confederate  bound  by  oath  to  secrecy.    A  eoiytir'er 
is  one  who  calls  on  another  to  answer  on  his  oath. 
Latin  eon  jwro,  to  swear  together. 
Connect",  connect'-ed  (R.  xxxvi.) ;  connective,  kon\nek^.VSv. 

Connection,  a  junction  of  substances ;  connexion,  a  relative. 

("  ConTiexion  "  is  not  required,  ** connection  "  answers  both  meanings.) 
Latin  con  necto,  supine  nexum,  to  bind  together. 

Connive',  connived'  (2  syl.),  conniv'-ing,  connlv'-er  (R.  xix.X 

conniv-ance  (R.  xxiv.)    (Ought  to  be  connivence.) 

French  connivence,  conniver,  to  connive ;  Latin  connivena.  tmmivirt 
(con  nlveo,  to  wink  with  [the  eyes],  to  pretend  not  to  see). 

Connoisseur  (bad  French),  kdn'.nis.seur'.  A  judge  of  the  fine  arts. 

French  connaisseur:  Latin  cognosco,  to  know  thoroughly. 
(It  is  surprising  that  the  host  of  bad  French  words  which  diagraee  ow 
language  shmUd  be  suffered  to  remain.  J 

Connubial,  kon.nu\M.al.     Pertaining  to  wedlock, 

Latin  conwuhidlis,  con  mubo,  to  many  together. 

Conquer,  kon\kwer  not  kSn'.ker;  conquered,  kon^ktoerd: 

conquering,  k6n\kwer.ing  ;  conqueror,  kfin\-kwer.or ; 

conquer-able,  kon\kwer.a,h'l ;  conquest,  kon^kwest, 

French  con/guerir,  to  conquer ;  Old  French  eongueste^  now  ^omquMt, 

Latin  eonqutr^re  (qucero,  to  seek,  to  acquire,  to  conquer). 

Consanguinity,  kon\8an,gwin'\\,ty.     Relationship  by  blood. 
Consanguineous,  k6n.8an.gwin'\e.u8.    Related  by  blood. 
Latin  consanguXnitas,  oonsangulnifus  (oon  sanguis,  same  UoodQi 


AND  OF  SFELLINO.  ir,') 

Conscieiioe,  kSn'jkVenee;  conscience-less;  ooiucious,  kdn.$h^ii*; 
conscions-ly,  conscious-ness  (Latin  conscius^  conscious) ; 
conscientious,  Aon^^^.en''^/ius,con8cientiouBly,  coDscien  - 
tious-ness  (French  consciencieux,  conscientious) ;  oon- 
scionable,  kdn\8hun,a.b'l,  consoionably,  conscionable-ness. 
**For  conscience  sake"  (not /or  conscience'  sake,  nor  for 
conscience's  sake).  *'  Conscience  "  has  no  possessive  case. 
Only  nouns  personified,  and  those  which  denote  animal 
life  have  possessive  cases. 

(Note  the  "-sc-*  which  are  the  initial  letters  of  "  science,") 

Latin  con  scientia,  knowledge  with  [another].  Man  being  supposed  to 
be  a  dual  being,  conscience  is  the  privacy  of  the  "  inner  man"  to 
^e  acts,  &c.,  of  the  "  outer  man";  French  cotucience. 

Conscription,  kon.8krip\shun.    Enrolment  for  military  service. 

French  conseriptio;  Latin  conscripHo  (which  is  incorrect),  con  scribd, 
supine  -gcriptum,  to  write  with  [other  names]. 

(kmsecrate,  kon' .sS.hrate,  con'secrat-ed,  con'secrat-ing  (R.  xix.), 
con'secrat-or  (not  -er,  R.  xxxvii);  consecration,  k6n'.sf..- 
kray*\shun,  dedication  to  sacred  uses. 
Latin  consecrdtio,  consecrdre  (eon  aacrOf  to  hallow  with  [sacred  rites]). 

ConsecutiYe,  k6njiekf.u.tiv.  following  in  systematic  order;   con- 
secutive-ly,  consecutive-ness  (Rule  xvii.) 
French  consecutif,  consecutive;  Latin  consequA'e,  to  follow  in  order. 

Consent,  kM^senf,  to  agree  to,  an  agreement.    Consenf-er. 

Consentaneous,  kon*.sen.tay'\nSMSy  consistent  with;   con- 
sentaneous-ly,  consentaneous-ness  (suitableness). 

Consentaneity,  kon.8en\ta.nee'\i.ty,    JVIutual  agreement. 

Consentient,  kSn-sen'.she'ent;  consentingly,  kon.sen'ting.ly. 

Latin  coTisensus,  consensu),  eonsentdneus,  consentiens,  -eniis,  verb 
consentio,  sup.  -sensum  {con  sentio,  to  think  with  [another]). 

Consequence,  kon* .s^.kwence ;  consequent,  kon^se.kwent;   con- 
sequent-ly  (therefore);  consequential,  kon'.se.quen'\8hal 
(important) ;  consequential-ly  (conceitedly). 
French  consequence;  Latin  consi^quentia  (con  siquor,  to  follow  upon). 

CotDBerve,  kon'.serv  (noun),  a  jam ;  k6n.8erv'  (verb),  to  preserve. 
Conserve,  kSn^serv^;  conserved'  (2  syl.),  conserv'-ing,  con- 
serv'-er,  conserv'-able  (R.  xx.),  conserV-ant,  conserv'-ancy 
(R.  xix.);  conservation,  kon\8er.vay"^hon;  conservi^ 
tive,  kdn.ser'.va.tiv ;  couser'vative-ly,  conser'vative-ness ; 
conservatism,  kdn.ser'.va.tizm ;  conservator,  kdn^se/.va.- 
tor  (R.  xxxvii.);  conservatory,  kon.8e7^\va.t5.ry ;  con- 
servatoire, k6n.8er^ .va.twor  (Fr.),  a  public  school  of  music. 

French  eonserver,  to  keep :  conserve,  fruit,  &c.,  preserved  in  sugar. 
J^atin  wnservdioT,  conservaru,  con  servdre,  to  preserve  with  [sugar,  Ac.] 


136  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Consider,  Tt^in.std'.er  {to  think  about);  considered,  k6n^%df.erd; 
consid'er-ing,  consid'ering-ly ;  considerable,  kSn.$ld\er.- 
a.Vl;  consid'erable-ness,  conBid'er-ably. 

Considerate,  kSn,8id\e.rate ;  coD8iderate-l7,considerate-ne8S. 

Consideration,  k5n.8id\e.ray''^hun.    Mature  thought. 

French  eortsdderahley  consideration^  eonsiderer;  Latin  conaidfirdtiOf 
eon  ndirdre,  to  consult  the  stars  (Hdira,  the  stars),  contemplate. 

Consign,  konMne';  consigned'  (2  syl.),  consign'-ing,  consign'-er, 

consign'-ment ;  consignee,  k8n\s%,nee,  one  to  whom  goods 

are  consigned;  consignor,  kon^si.nor'f  he  who  consigns 

the  goods. 

French  eonsi^pier,  to  consign :  Latin  eon-Hgndre,  to  seal  with  (your 
own  seal]  as  a  Toucher  that  the  consignment  is  authorised. 

Consist^,  consist" -ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  consist'-ing,  consist'-ent,  con- 
sist'ent-ly,  consist'-ence,  consist'-ency.    To  be  made  up  ofl 

*' Consist  of"  =  composed  of.     "Consist  with"  =  to  be  in 

accordance  with. 
French  consistert  to  consist ;  Latin  con  aisUfre,  to  stand  together. 

Consistory,    k5n.8i8\tS.ry,  a  *'  spiritual "   court ;    consistorial, 

kon'.sis.tdr^'ri.al ;  consistorian,  kSn'.sls.tdf'H.an, 

French  eonsistoire,  consistory,  consistorial;  Latin  con$ist6rittm,  a 
council,  the  priTate  council-chamber  of  Roman  emperors ;  now  it 
is  applied  to  the  college  of  cardinals,  the  court  of  the  bishops,  &c. 

Console,  kon\8ole  (noun),  an  ornamental  bracket;  kon-sole'  (verb),- 

to  comfort;  console',  consoled'  (2  syl.),  consol'-ing,  con- 

sol'-er,  consol-al)le  ( R.  xix.) ;  consolation,  &d7i'.«^.2a^''^Au7i, 

comfort;    consolator,   kiSn.8})l\a.tory  one  who  consoles 

another;  consolatory,  k6n.86l\a,to.ry,  comforting. 

Fr.  consoler,  to  console,  consolation^  consolahle,  console  (in  Architee.) 
Lat.  consOldtio,  consdldtor,  con-s6ldri,  to  solace  with  [words]. 

Consolidate,  kon.8oV.i.date,  to  form  into  one  mass;  consol'idat-ed 
(Rule  xxxvi.),  consol'idat-ing  (Rule  xix.) ;  consolidation, 
kon.8ol\uday".8hun,  condensation,  union. 
French  consolider,  consolidation;  Latin  consdliddrc,  to  Join  together. 

Consols,  kon.86lz\  "  3  per  cents."    Consuls',  Roman  magistrates. 

"Consols,"  i.e.,  consol-idated  stocks.  Govornment  has  borrowed 
money  at  different  times  from  various  sources,  and  at  different 
rates  of  interest.  In  1751,  the  several  sto<^  were  consolidated, 
with  a  uniform  interest  of  3  per  ceiit. 

Consonant,  kon\8o.nant  (adj.),  agreeable  (followed  by  to  or  with). 

Consonant,  plu,  consonants.     All  letters  except  vowels. 

Consonance,  concord ;  consonancy,  kon\8}i.nan.8y, 

(In  Latin  it  i8  followed  by  "  to" :  a8  "8ibi  consSnam,**) 

Latin  consdnans,  -nantis,  consHnantia,  con-sdndre,  to  sound  together. 

A  "consonant"  is  a  letter  which  carries  in  its  sound  another  letter^ 

thus :  "  B  "  carries  with  it  the  sound  of  e,  and  "  K  "  the  loand  of  a! 


AND  OF  SPELLING,  1,17 


Gonflort,  k^*^ort  (noun);  k^.sorlf  (verb).    Con'cert,  concert'. 
Oonsort,  kSn'^ort.    Husband  or  wife  of  a  crowned  head. 
Ck>n8ort,  kSn^orf.  To  associate  together  (followed  by  "  with"). 
Concert,  kSn'jierU    A  musical  entertainments 
Gonsert,  h6n.8erif  (to  league) ;  consert^-ed,  conserf -ing. 

**Con'8ort,'*Lat.(Jorw(>r«,  -«orfi«, a  partner  (eon  sors,  same  lot  with  fyoul). 
"Gonaort'/'  a  verb  coined  from  the  Latin  eonaortio,  partnership. 
"Concert,**  Fr.  concert;  Ital.  concerto;  Lat.  concertdre,  to  concert. 
"Goncertv*  Lat.  con  eertare,  to  strive  together,  hence  to  plot. 

Oonspicnons,   kon.8pik'ku.iL8    (obvious) ;     conspicuous-lj,    con- 
spicuous-ness ;  conspicuity,  /c(5n.sp{./(u'.t.t2^.  visibility. 
Latin  eonspicuMS,  conapidre  (con  apecio^  to  see  with  [clearness]). 
Coogpire,  kon.8pvre';  conspired'  (2  syl.))  consplr'-ing  (Rule  xix.) 
Clonspiracy,  plu,  conspiracies,  k6n.8pi7^raMz,     Plot  for  evil. 
Conspirator,  k^^pir^rador  (R.  xxxvii.)    One  of  a  conspiracy. 
French  eonapirer;  Lat.  eonspirdtiOt  eon  spvrdre,  to  breathe  together. 
Constable,  2:un^8^a.&'Z,a  peace-officer.  Constablery, constabulary. 
Constabulary,  kun.8tay.ii.ld,ry  (acy.)    Pertaining  to,  Stc. 
Constablery,  kun' Ma.VLry  (noun).     The  whole  body,  &c. 
Constablewick,  hun\8ta.h'l-wik,    A  constable's  district. 
Lord  High  Constable,  plu.  Lords  High  Constable. 
High  Constable,  plu.  High  Constables.     Of  a  county. 
Petty  Constable,  plu.  Petty  Constables.     Of  a  parish. 

French  constahU:  Latin  cdmea  stahUliy  superintendent  of  the  impe- 
rial stables,  then  *' Master  of  the  Horse,"  then  "  Commander-iu' 
chief  of  the  army  "  (Obsolete). 

Constaot,  kSn*. slant  (frequent) ;  con'dtancy,  persistency. 

Latin  eonstantia  (eon  stdre,  to  stand  together,  to  be  con-sistent). 

Constellation,  kon'MeLlay'^^shun  (double  2;,  a  group  of  stnrs. 

French  constellation  ;  Latin  consiellatio  {con  stella,  stars  together). 

Consternation,  kdn\8ter.nay'\8hun.    Amazement  with  terror. 

French  consternation;  Latin  eonstemdtio  (con  stemo,  to  cast  down). 

Constipate,.  kdn'Mtpdte,  constipated  (R.  xxvi.) ;  constipat-ing. 

Constipation,  kSn\8ti.pay'\8hun,  costiveness  (Rule  xix.) 

Fr.  eonstipation;  Lat.  constlpdtio  (con  stlpdre,  to  cram  together). 

Constltaent,  kSn.8tif.u.ent  (adj.),  essential,  elemental. 

Constitnent  (noun).    One  who  is  an  elector. 

Constituency,  k5n.8titf.u,en.q/.    An  entire  body  of  electors. 

Lat.  eonstUuo,  part  constltuens,  to  constitute.  A  ''constituent"  is 
one  who  by  his  vote  "constitutes"  or  elects  a  member  of  parliament. 

Constitate,  k<5n\8t\,tute  (to  establish) ;  constitut-ed  (R.  xxxvi.), 
constitut-ing ;  constitiit-er,  one  who  constitutes  (R.  xix.) 
Constitation,  khn' Mi.tvf^shun  (frame  of  body,  of  a  govern- 
ment, &c.) ;  constitution-al,  constitution  al-ly ;  constitu- 


ins  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

tional-ist,  a  lover  of  a  constitutional  government;  oonstl- 
tntion-ist,  one  who  advocates  snch  a  government. 

(**G(mstituiion-al*'  should  be  **  constitution-el."     TJie 
French  have  preserved  the  right  vowel, "  constitutionneL" ) 
Fr.  constitution;  Lat.  eonstUHtio  (con  statu£rt,  to  set  up  together). 

CJonstrain,  konMrain^  (to  compel) ;  constrain'-able  (B.  xxiii.) 
Ck>n8trained^  constrainedly,  k5n.strain\eddy  (Rule  zxxvi.) 
Constraint,  kon.strainf.    Restraining  influence  in  action. 
French  contraimdre,  contrainte;  Latin  con8tringir$,  to  bind  fast. 

Constrict,  konMricif  (to  bind) ;  constrict'-or  (not  -<r,  R.  xxxviL) 

Boa  Constrictor,  plu.  Boa  Constrictors,  Bore  Kon,strik' ,tor 
The  serpent  which  with  its  coils  binds  its  victim  fiist. 

Lat  coTMtringOy  supine  tonstriduin,  to  bind  fast. 
Construct,  kon.strucf  (to  make),  oonstruot'-or  (not  -er,  R.  xxzvii.) 

Construction,  k8nMruk^,8hun,  construction >al ;  constmctiye, 

k5n.8truk\t%Vf  constructive-ly,  constructive-ne^s  (R.  xvii.) 

Frvnch  construction;  Latin  eonstructio,  constructor,  construire,  to 
heap  together ;  Greek  str66,  stdrid,  to  spread,  &c. 

Construe,  kon'-stru;  construed,  kon' strode,  (not  k6n.stru\  k^n,- 

strude*) ;  con'stru-ing,  con'stru-er  (R.  rix.)    To  translate. 

Fr.  construire,  to  construe ;  Lat.  eoTistruire,  to  build,  to  heap  together. 

Consubstantiation,  k6n'-suh.8tan'-8he.a^''8hun,  the  Lutheran  no. 
tioD  that  the  body  and  blood  of  Christ  are  in  union  with 
the  eucharistic  bread  and  wine. 

Transubstantiation,  the  Roman  Catholic  notion  that  the 

eucharistic  bread  and  wine  are  veritably  changed  into 

the  body  and  blood  of  Jesus  Christ. 

Latin  con  substantia,  [in  union]  with  the  substance  (i.e.,  Ohrlat); 
trans  substantia,  transferred  into  the  very  substance  of  Christ. 

Con'sul,  plu.  Con'suls,  Roman  magistrates.  Consols^  British 
3  per  cents.  Consular,  kon^sUMr  (acy.) ;  consulate, 
k^n\8u.late,  the  term  of  a  consul's  office;  consul-ship, 
the  tenure  of  the  office  of  consul.  Consul  graeral,  plu, 
consul  generals  (not  consuls  general). 

Latin  consul,  consiUo,  to  consult  (con  aiUo,  Lt.,  »i  vdlo,  to  emniiM 
and  seH  if  each  one  is  willing,  or  approves  of  a  decree). 

Consult,  kon.8uUf;  consulf-er;  consultation,  kSn'^suLtay^'ahun, 

•*  Consulter"  ought  to  be  **  consultor"  Latin  consudtor. 
Fr.  consulter,  consultation;  Lat.  consultdtio,  consultare,  to  consult 
Consume,  kon^sume';  consumed'  (2  syl.),  consum'-ing,  oonsum'-er 
( K.  xix.),  consum'-able  (R.  xxiii.)     To  devour,  to  bum. 

Consumption,  k8n.8U7np\8hun ;  consumptive,  kon^sump^.tSiv, 

consiimpiive-ly,consumptive-ness  (consumptive  tendency). 

Fr.  coTisumer,  to  consume ;  Lat.  eontumpiio,  eonsumirtf  to  t^T«^int- 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  ir,a 

OoBsiimmate,  kSnMtw,\maU  (a4j.) ;  hm^jium.mate  (verb). 
CoiiBii]n''iiiate,  complete ;  consam'mate-ly  (Rule  xvii.) 
Con''8iuiuiiftte,  con'summat-ed,  con^samm&t-ing  (Rule  xix.) 

CoTwnTnTnation,  k<Sn\8um.7nay'\shun.    Completion,    (-mm-.) 

"ConBtun'mate,**  Latin  consummate,  folly  (fummo,  the  sum  total). 
"Con'sommate,"  Latin  ooiumnwnare,  to  aam  together  [all  the  figures]. 

ConsmDaptixnL,kSn.8ump'jhun;  consumptiYe.    (5^^  Oonsnme.) 
Contagion,  kSn.tay\jun,    Communieadon  of  disease  by  contact. 

Contagions,  k6n,tay\juSy  contagious-lj,  contagious-ness. 
Fr.  €owta4jion:  Lat.  eontdgio  {con  tago  =  tango,  to  touch  together). 
Contain''  (to  hold),  contained'  (2  syl.),  contain'-able  (Rule  xxiii). 
(The  spelling  of  all  these  words  is  indefensible.) 
French  contenir^to  contain ;  Lat. continue  (con  Uneo,  to  hold  together). 
Contaminate,  h6n.tam\%.nMte  (todefQe),  contam'inat-ed  (R.xxxvi), 
contamlnat-ing,  contamlnat-er  (ought  to  be  -or),  R.  xix. 

Contamination,  klin.tamW.nay" .shun.    Pollution,  taint. 

Yr.  oontamineTf  contamination ;  Latin  corUdmfnatio,  con(diMtnd<or, 
eontdminare  {con  tdmlno,  to  defile  with  [assoolationl. 

Contemn,  Condemn,  kon,t^nf,  kdn.dem'  ('*  n  "  not  sounded). 

Contemn,  to  despise ;  Condemn, to  blame,  to  pronounce  guilty. 

Contemned,  kon.t^d\  despised ;  Condemned,  kon.d^md\ 

Gontemn-ing,  k6n.tem\ing ;  Condemn-ing,  k<5n.dem\ing, 

Contemn-er,  k6n.t^\ery  despiser ;  Condemn-er,  kdn.dem'er. 

Latin  coniemTiSre,  to  oontemn  {con  temaio,  to  despise  altogether) ;  but 
eondemndre  {con  damno,  to  doom  with  penalty). 

Contemplate,  kdn\t^.plate  (not  kdn.tem\plate),  to   meditate 

upon ;    con'templat-ed,  con'templar-ing  (R.  xix.),  con'- 

templat-or  (R.  xxxvii.) ;  contemplation,  kon\tem.play'\  - 

shun,  meditation ;  contemplative,  kon.tem\pla.t%v  ;  con- 

tem'plative-ly,  contem'platiLve-nefls  (Rule  xvii.) 

Latin  contem^ldre,  to  contemplate,  contempldtio,  contemplativua,  con- 
templator.  The  Roman  augurs  having  taken  their  stand  on  the 
Capit'oline  Hill,  marked  out  a  space  called  the  templum.  Watching 
on  this  space  to  see  what  would  happen  was  called  "contemplation. " 

Cont^nporaneoiiB,  k5n\t^.p5.ray'\ni.u>i  (not  cotemporaneous) 
(adj.),  of  the  same  period;  contemporaneous-ly.  contem- 
poraneous-ness ;    Contemporary,   plu.    contemporaries, 
kbn.tem\po,Ta.ry,  k6n.tem\po.ru,r%z  (not  cotemporary). 
(*'  Co-"  precedes  a,  e,  i,  o,  and  h.    '*  Con-"  precedes  c,  d,  t ; 

f,  v»  q ;  g  J ;  » <wid  s.) 

Contemporary  of  or  with  f    If  an  article  precedes,  of  must  fol- 
low ;   if  not,  with.     "  He  was  a  contemporary  of  mine." 
"He  was  contemporary  with  me."     In  the  former  ex- 
ample "contemporary"  is  a  noun,  in  the  latter  an  adj. 
Latin  eontempdr&neus  {eon  tempus,  the  same  time). 


140  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

CJontempt,  kon.temf  (scorn) ;  contemptnonsness,  'tem\tu.U8.ne88, 
Gontempt'-ible (worthless);  contempt'uous  {-tu.us)  scomM. 

Oontempt'-ibly (worthlessly);  contempfuons-ly,  scornfully. 

"I  gave  him  a  contemptuous  look"  (not  contemptible). 

"He  treated  them  contemptuously"  (not  contemptibly). 

"He  is  a  contemptible  fE?llow,"  wortbless. 

Latin  contempttts,  disdain  {con  temn^re,  sup.  temptum,  to  scorn  wholly). 

Contend'  (to  dispute);  contention,  kon.ten\8hun,  strife. 

Contentions,  kon.ten\8hu8 ;  contentions -ly,  contentions-neas. 
Latin  contentio,  contentiOsuSf  contencUfre  to  strain  with  [force]. 
Content,  satisfaction ;  (Dis-Content,  dissatisfaction). 

Content'-ed,  content'-ment.     The  negatives  are  "  discon- 

tent'-ed,"  "  disconteni'-ment." 
Gontenfed-ly,  discontent'ed-ly ;  content'-ing. 
Hal-content,  plu.  mal-contents,  persons  not  satisfied. 

Non-content,  plu.  non-contents,  lords  who  negative  a  "  bill." 
Those  who  approve  of  it  are  called  "  Contents." 

Contents  (no  sing.)  of  a  cask,  book,  &c. ;  i.e.,  wbat  it  contains. 

Vr.  content f  contentement  (3  eyl.);  Latin  eontentus.  continiref  supine 

contentum  (con  Un^o.  to  hold  together,  to  contain). 
(*•  Contentus    belongs  to  two  verbs — contendo  to  stretchy  and  conttneo.) 

Contest,  kdn'.test  (noun) ;  kdn.tesf  (verb).    Knle  1. 

Contest,   kdn:te8f  (to  dispute),  contesf-ed,    contesf-lng, 
contestlng-ly ;  contesf-able  (not  -ible)y  contest'able-ness, 
contestation,  kon\te8.tay'\8hun,  strife,  joint-attestation. 
French  contester^  to  contest,  contestation,  contestable;  Lat  contMtdHo, 
con  testdri,  to  call  witnesses  to  prove  a  case  {testis,  a  witnessX 

Context,  kon'.text.    The  part  bearing  on  a  "  text"  or  quotation. 

French  contexte;  Latin  contextus,  eon  texo,  to  weave  together. 
Contiguity,  kon'.ttgW.tty.     Proximity,  contact.    Cowper  uses 
the  word  for  "uninterrupted  extent,"  "continuation": 

Oh  !  for  a  lodge  in  some  vast  wilderness. 
Some  boundless  contiguity  of  shade. . . 

Contiguous,  k6n.tig\u.u8 ;  contiguoiis-ly,  contiguous-ness. 
Fr.contiguitS ;  Lat.  eontigHfos,  adjoining  (con  tango,  to  touch  togetherX 
Continent,  kon'.ti.nent;  continent-ly,  continence,  k6n'.ti.fienee; 
continency,  applied  to  man  as  "  chastity  "  to  women. 

Con'tinent.     A  large  extent  of  land  not  severed  by  sea. 

Continental,  kon\ti.nen*'.tal.    Pertaining  to  the  Continent. 

Fr.  continence,  continent,  continental.  Latin  eontinenUa,  chMtltj ; 
eontinens  -nentis,  mainland ;  contlnire,  to  contain  or  restrain  <meMlf 
{con  tinere,  to  hold  together,  like  different  lands  on  a  "oontinmt.'*) 

Contingent,  kdn.tin\jent  (dependent),  contin'gent-ly. 

Oontingence,  Icon.tin'.jence ;  contingency,  kSn.tin\jen.sy. 

Fr.  contingent,  contingenee;  Lat.  contingena  (con  tangirt,  to  toii6h)L 


ASD   OF  SPELLIXG,  141 

Gontiniial,  kdn.tin\u.al.     (See  next  article.) 

Goiitinne,  kdrLtin\u  (to  last) ;  contm^Tied  (3  syl.),  contin^u-ing. 
Oontixi'ii-er,  one  who  continues;  contin'^na'tor,  one  who  con- 
tinnes  a  book  or  poem  begun  by  another ;  contin'u-able ; 
contin^u-al,  oontiii'iial-ly,  contm'uance,  contmnation, 
kdn.tin'.u.d'\8hun;  contiD.TumB,k5n.tin\u.u8 ;  continuoxis- 
ly,  continiiity,  kon\ti.nu'\i,tyy  uninterrupted  succession. 

Fr.  wnixnuvr,  eo^itinviU;  Latin  cont{nuan«,  continuation  eoniinuvLt 
eontXnuittu,  eontinudre,  to  continue.    (Fr.  continiiel  is  incurrect.) 

CkmtGrt'  (to  twist),  contortion,  kon,tor'jthun,  a  twist. 

Latin  coniortio  or  contorsio,  con  torqueo,  to  twist  wholly. 
Contour,  k&n^toor'  (not  kon.tocy/).    The  outline  of  the  face. 

French  contour,  outline,  turn ;  Latin  con  tomo,  to  turn. 

Contra-  (Latin  prefix),  against,  in  opposition  to. 

Per  Contra.    A  commercial  term,  used  in  ledgers,  &c.,  on 
the  "credit"  side :  as  "  Dr."  (left  side),  "  Per  Contra,  Cr." 

Gon^traband,  illicit  [traffic] ;  contrabandist,  kdn^-tra,banf''4§t, 

Contrabandibta,  kon* -traJban-dU* -tah,  plu.  -Ua,    Sminggler. 

ItaL  eontraJbbando,  to  smuggle ;  Lat.  contra  hannus,  against  tbe  edict. 
Contract,  kdn', tract  (noun) ;  kdn,tracf  (verb;.    Rule  1. 

Con'tract,  a  bargain;  contract^ ,to  make  a  bargain,  to  shorten. 

Contract^ ,  contract'-ed  (xxxvi.),  contract-or  (not  er),  xxxvii. 

Gontracf  (to   shorten),  oontracf-ed,   contracted -ly,  con- 
tracted-ness ;  c6ntraction,  kdn.trac\8hunf  abridgment. 

Contractile,  kon,trac^..U.    Able  to  contract  itself. 

Contr&ct-ible  (not  -able).    Capable  of  being  contracted. 

Contractility,  k5n-trac.tiV'-i-ty,  Having  a  contractile  force. 

Contractibility,  kon-trac-t\.biV*-i.ty,    Having  a  contractible 
property.    The  opposite  property  is  dilatability, 
(**Air  *'  is  contractible^  but  not  contractile^  and  we  speak 
of  its  " contractibility"    Animal  muscle  has  a  '•  contrac- 
tile "  force,  and  we  speak  of  its  "  contractility" 

French  contracter,  to  contract,  contraotite,  contractility,  contraction. 
Lat.  contra^io,  contractus  (fion  PrdMre,  sup.  tractum,  to  draw  together.). 

Contradict,  kdn'-traMct"  (to  gainsay) ;  contradict'-ed  (R.  xxxvi.) 

Contradict'-^r  (not  -or.    Not  a  Latin  word.    Rule  xxxvii.) 

Contradiction)  kdn\tra.dic'' ,shun.     A  flat  denial. 

Contradictious,  kdn/traAic/'shus ;  contradictious-ness. 

Contradictory,  k^\tra.dic'\t5.ry ;  contradictori-ly  (adv.) 

French  contradiction,  contradictoire,  contradictory;  Latin  contra- 
dietio,  contra  dicire,  to  say  the  opposite. 

Contralto,  plu,  contraltos,  kon,traV .toze  (Italian).    Rule  xlii. 

"  Contralto  "  is  a  low  female- voice ;  Soprano  (jso.prah'.noX 

a  high  female-voice. 


142  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Contrariety,  plu.  contrarieties,  k^\tra,ri'\^.tiz.  Antagonism. 
Frendi  etmtratieti;  Latin  oontrSrieUUt  disagreement,  opposition. 

Contrary,  plu.  contraries,  kon\trd.ry,  -riz  (not  k5n.trair^ryt  &c.) 
Contrari-]y,  kdn\trd.H.ly;  con'trari-ness,  con'trari-wiBe(xi.) 
Contrarions,  kSn.trai'/ri.us ;  contrarions-ly,  -ness. 

Contrariety,  kdn\tra.ri'\e.tyy  plu.  -ties,  -tiz.    Antagonism. 

French  contraire;  Latin  contrdrie  (adv.),  contrdrius,  ▼.  contrdHo. 
' '  Contra'ry  "  -is  more  correct,  but  i8  not  in  vm.    Shakespeare  vsa  both : 
"Had  faUely  thrtut  upon  contra'ry  /eet.'*—K.  J.,  iv.,  2.) 

Contrast,  kdn^trast  (noun);  kon.tra8f  (verb).    Rule  1. 

Con'trast.  The  opposite.  (Followed  by  to :  **  A  contrast  to...**) 

Contrast^.     To  show  the  difference  of  things  by  comparison. 

(Followed  by  with:  "Contrast  God's  goodness  with..") 
Fr.  contraster  (v.),  contra^te  (n. ) ;  Lat.  contra  stdre,  to  set  in  opposition. 
Contravene,  kSn,tra.veen'  (to  thwart);  contravened'  (8  syL), con- 
faaven'-ing,  contraven'-er  (R.  xix.),  one  who  thwarts. 
Obntrayention,  k5n'-tra.ven'\8hun.    A  thwarting,  &g. 
y  Wr.  contravention,  v.  contrevenir;  Lat.  contra  venio,  to  come  against. 
Contretebips  (Fr.),  kohW.trd.tah'n'.    Something  inopportune. 
Latin  contra  tempus^  fcoming  at]  the  wrong  time. 

Contrihnte,  k6n.trlb\ute ;  contribut-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  contribut-ing, 
contribut-or  (not  -er,  R.  xxxvii.),  contribut-able  (R.  xxiii.), 
contribnt-ive,-trl6'.M.fCz?;  contribution,  kon\tri.hu"^hun, 

Contributary»-<ri6'.w.ta.ry.  Payingtribute  to  thesamecrown. 

Contributory,  -trib\u.tSry.  Contributing  to  the  same  object. 

Fr.  contribviixm ;  Lat.  contrihutdrius,  contriMiio,  corUrUnUor,  etm- 
tribiUlre  {con  trilmo,  to  give  with  Lothers]). 

Contrite,  kdn\trite  (penitent);  contrite-ly,  kon.trite\ly  (adv.) 

Contrition,  kon.trish\un  (not  -«ton,  R.  xxxiii).  Sorrow  for  sin. 

Fr.  contrit,  contrition:  Lat.  contrltus  {con  tiHfre,  sup.  trit/wm,,  to  mb 
together.     "A  conUite  heart "  is  one  broken  or  bruised  with  rubs. ) 

Contrive,  kon,trive';  contrived'  (2  syl.),  contriv'-ing,  contriv'-er, 
contriv'-able,  contriv'-ance  (R.  xix,)     To  devise,  to  plan. 
Corruption  of  the  French  controuver,  to  find  out,  to  invent. 
Control,  kSn.tr die'  (to  keep  under  restraint) ;  controlled'  (3  syL) 
Controll'-ing,  controll'-er  (R.  i.) ;  but  contior-ment  (R.  ii.  %,) 

Comptroller,  k8n,trole\er.    One  whose  duty  it  is  to  examine 
tax-gatherers'  accounts ;  an  officer  of  the  royal  household. 

Comptroller  of  the  Pipe.    An  exchequer  officer  connected 

with  the  "pipe,"  or  great  roll.    Both  these  words  are 

now  spelt  controller.   {Loyr  Jj&t.  eontrardt&ldtor.)  "Gomp. 

troller  "  is  computus  rotuldtor,  keeper  of  accounts. 

Fr.  contrdle,  i  e.,  contra  r6le;  Lat  contra  rdtiUtu,  a  ooianier  register. 
All  contracts  were  at  one  time  enrolled  in  a  pnbHc  register. 


AXD  OF  SPELLTXG,  \\r> 

Ckmtrovert,  kdn\trS.ver%  to  dispute;  oontrovert-ed  (B.  xxxvi.) 

Controveii'-ear,  one  who  dispates  a  stfttement;  ocmtrovert'- 
ist,  oontroverf-ible,  controvertlbly. 
(The  second  t  in  the$e  words  is  an  error.     The  root  verb 
is  not  ^'vert^e"  to  tum^  hut  "versdri,"  to  dispute,) 

Controveisy,  jjZu.  controversies,  kSn'.trd.verMz,  dis^ui&iion. 

Controversial,  kon.tro.ver^jhal;  controversial-ly  (adv.) 

CSontrovendal-ist.     A  profeBsional  writer  of  controversies. 

Fr.  oontroverse  (n.),  et/ntrtwerser  (▼.).  corUrovers-aJble ;  Latin  contro- 
tergiOf  controverAdri  (not  controverUfre,  to  torn  against). 

(kmtiimacy,  k6n\tu,md,sy  (not  kdn.til\ma.sy)t  obstinate  resistanc^e 

of  authority;   oontumadoiis,  kSn\tu.may*\shus ;  contu- 

madons-ly,  oontumacions-ness. 

Fr.  contuvfMce,  contnmacf;  Lat.  contAmdcia  (eon  tumirt,  to  swell 
aealnst  one.    ContHurMix,  gen.  contiJumdcis.) 

Ckxntnmely,  plu,  contumelies,  kfin'.tii.mi.ly,  kSfi\tu.m^.llz  (not 
k8n.til,'me,ly),  insolence,  affronting  language. 

Contumelious,  kiin\tu.mee'\U.us ;  contumelious-hf. 

Contumelious-ness.     (Same  root  as  "  contumacy.") 

Latin  contHmiHa,  contHmeliCma,  abusive  {con  tumere,  see  tibove). 
Cotttiise^  (to  bruise),  contused  (2  syl.),  contus'-ing,  contus'-er, 
contusion,  kdn.tii',shun  (Bule  xxxiii.),  a  bruise. 

Fr.  contusion;  Lat.  eontusio  (con  tundo,  sup.  tusum,  to  pound). 

Connndnun,  plu,  connndrnms.    A  punning  riddle. 

(Hd  £ng.  cunnan  to  know,  dredm  ton,  **  fun-knowledge."  Like  JUredfnr 
crc^  joy-craft,  i.e.,  music,  &c. 

Convalescence,  k&n\va,les'' ,sense.  Renewal  of  health  after  illness. 
Convalescent,  kbn,va.les",sent.     Restored  to  health. 

("Sc-"  denotes  that  the  action  of  the  word  ij  '^progressive.^') 

Fr.  convalescence,  conval£8cent ;  Lat.  con  vdlesco  (vdleo  to  be  well, 
vcUesco  to  grow  stronger  and  stronger). 

Ocmvene,  kon,veen'  (to  assemble) ;  convened'  (2  syl.),  conven'-ing, 
conven-er  (Rule  xix.),  conven-able  better  conven-ible. 
(The  vyrong  conjugation,  as  untal,  is  a  borrowed  French  error.) 
French  convenir,  contenahle;  Latin  eon  v^ire,  to  come  together. 
Convenience,  k5n.vee\ntense.    Something  commodious. 
Conve'niency ;  oonve'nient,  conve'nient-ly. 
Lat.  conveniens,  oonvinientia  {con  ven/S/re,  to  fadge  together). 
Convent,  k^\ventt  home  for  nuns  [or  monks] ;  conven'tual, 
(monastic) ;  conventional,  -shun.aly  customary. 

A  **  conventional  phrase  or  manner,**  i.e.,  in  vogue,  usudL 
A  '*  convcTiitMl  prior,"  dec,  the  prior  of  a  convent, 

Gonventicle,  kbn.ven\tl,kX     A  dissenter's  chapel  (a  word  of 

contempt),  it  means  a  "  little  "  convent  or  assembly. 

Conventicler,fc^.i;ew'.«.fcl«r.  A  dissenter  (word  of  contempt). 

French  convmJticuU;  Latin  eonneniiciUwm  (-«uZ,  -de,  &o.,  dim.) 


lAi  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

CJonvention,  kon.ven\8hun,    A  meeting  of  delegates,  a  contract. 

Gonven'tioii-al  (customaiy),  conven'tioii-ally  (adv.) 

Conventionality,  kon.ven'^hun,aV\i.ty.    Formality. 

Conven'tional-ism.  Manners  in  accordance  with  the  fashion. 

Gonventionary,  kon.ven\8hun.d,ry.    Settled  by  convention. 

Gonven'tion-er,  a  party  in  a  convention.    Gonyen'tian-ist, 
one  who  makes  a  contract.     (See  Convent  note,) 

French  convention,  conventionnd :  Latin  conventio,  conventiondlii 
{con  venio,  supine  ventum,  to  come  together). 

Converge,  kdn.verj\  to  incline  to  one  point ;  converged'  (3  syl.), 

converg'-ing,  converg'-ent,  converg'-ence,  -ency  (R.xix.) 

French  converger,  convergence  ;  Latin  eon  vergSre,  to  bend  tORether. 

Converse,  kon'.verse  (noun  and  adj.) ;  kon,ver8e'  (verb).    Rule  1. 

Con'verse,  a  proposition  turned  round :  thus,  the  converse 

of  "  every  A  is  a  B,"  is  "  every  B  is  an  A."  Gonverse'-ly. 
Gonversion,  kon.ver\shun,  complete  change.  (See  Convert.) 
Converse'  (to  chat) ;  converse^'  (2  syl.),  convers'-ing,  ccm- 

vers'-able,  convers'-ably,  convers'able-ness.    (Rule  xix.) 
Conversant,   kon\ver.8ant    (not    kon.ver^,8ant)t  acquainted 

[with  an  art,  &c.]  by  familiar  use ;  oon'versant-ly. 
Conversation,  kon.ver.say'\8hun  (chat);   converBation-al, 

conversational-ly,  conversation-ist. 

French  conversation,  converse,  converser  (v.) ;  Latin  eonvertdrif  eon^ 
versans,  conversatio  (con  versor,  to  converse  with  another). 

Conversazione,  plu.  conversazioni  (Ital.)  kon''Ver'8&f'Zl.5''ne, 
A  party  in  which  conversation  is  to  furnish  the  amusement. 

Convert,  kon'.vert  (noun) ;  kon.verf  (verb).    Rule  L 

Gonverf,  convert'-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  convert'-er,  convert'-ing. 

Gonvert'-lble  (not  -able),  convert'-ibly,  convert'-ibil'"ity. 

Gonversion,  kon.vet'.shun.    Entire  change.    (Rule  zxxiii.) 

French  convertir,  convertible,  conversion;  Latin  converaiOf  amveri^ 
bilis,  convertire  (con  verto,  to  turn  completely). 

Convey,  kon.vay^  (to  transmit);  conveyed'  (2  syL), oonvey'-ing, 

convey'-able  (R.  xxiii.),  convey'-ance  (R.  xxiv.),  oonvey'- 

anc-er,  a  lawyer  who  draws  up  writings  for  conveymg 

properly ;  convey'anc-ing,  the  business  of  a  conveyance. 

Low  Latin  conveiancia,  a  conveyance ;  conveidre,  to  convey ;  Latin 
conviMre,  to  convey  by  [horse  and  cart,  &c.] 

Convict,  k5n\victj  a  felon ;  k5n.vict\  to  prove  guilty.     (Rnle  L) 

Convict',  convict'-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  convicf-ing;  oonviotioii, 

kon.vik' .shun,  strong  belief,  proof  or  detection  of  gailt. 

Gonvictive,  kon.vik'.tlu,  condemnatory ;  convictive-ly. 

French  conviction;  Latin  convictio,  v.  convindre,  supine  eonvietvm 
(con  vinco,  to  overthrow  altogether).  In  Latin  there  are  two 
supines  tdike,  "  convivo  "  (to  live  together)  and  *'  convince. **  Henoe 
convictio  means  either,  "  a  living  together  "  or  a  "  oonid<^on." 


AND  OF  SPELLIXq.  145 

CcniTiiioe^  (3  syL),  oonvin'ces  (3  eyL,  R.  liii.),  convinced'  (2  syl.), 
oonyinc'-er,  convinc'-ing,  convin'cing-ly,  convinc-ible. 

Latin  eommneirt^  to  conyfnce  ;  same  root-verb  as  conHet  fq.v.) 
Hence,  Jno.  viiL  46 :  "  Which  of  you  canviTicts  [convicts]  me  of  sin  f* 

OonyiTial,  kon,vWXdl  (jovial);  oonyivial-ly,  convivial-ist. 
Conyiyiality,  konxW .\.aV\l.ty,   Festivity,  social  indulgenre. 
French  eofucivialilU ;  Latin  conioivialis,  com^vo,  to  live  together. 
Convoke^  convoked'  (2  syl.),  conv6k'-ing,conv6k'-er  (Rule  xix.) 
Oonvocation,  k8n\vo.kay'',8hun,     A  clerical  couDcil. 
French  convocation ;  Latin  convdcdtio,  eon  rdcdre,  to  call  t(%ether. 
Goavolntion,  kon\vo.lu'\8hun.    A  fold  or  coil. 

Latin  convdlutus  (eon  volvo,  to  roll  together). 
GoBVolvnIiiB,  kon.voV.  vu.ltu.   The  garden  bindweed  (-tti.  not  -vo). 
Latin  and  French  convolvUltu  {-ithu  dim.),  the  little  twisting  plant. 
CoAVolvnlacefB,  kon-vbV .vu-ldy" ^S.ee.    The  order  including  the 
above.     Tbe  suffix  -acecB  denotes  an  order  of  plants.  • 

Convoy,  kihi'.voy  (noun),  kon.voy'  (verb).    Rule  1. 

Ckm'voy,  an  attendant  for  defence.    Ck)nvoy',  to  attend,  &e. 

Ckmvoy',  convoyed'  (2  syl.),  convoy'-ing.     (Rule  xiii.) 
French  eonvoi;  Low  Latin  convHo;  Latin  convifho,  to  convey. 
Convulse'  (2  syl.),  to  shake  emotionally ;  convulsed'  (2  syl.) 

Ckmvnls'-uig  (R.  xix.);  convulsive,  kon.vuVMv;   convul- 

sive-ly,  convulsive-neBs  (R.  xvii.)    (Fr.  convulsion^  &c.) 
Lat.  eonvulsio,  from  eon  vello,  sup.  vuhum,  to  pluck  or  tear  to  pieces. 
Coo  (like  a  pigeon),  cooes,  koozj  cooed,  kood;  coo'-ing  (R.xliii.) 
An  imitative  wordL 

Go(d£  (to  dress  food),  cooked  (1  syl.),  cookery,  kook\^.ry. 

Old  English  o6c  or  c&e,  verb  cucodan] ;  Latin  c6quo,  noun  cdquus. 
Cool,  oool'-er  (comp.),  cod'-est  (super.)  ;  cooled  (1  syl,),  cool'- 
ing ;  cool'-er  (a  vessel  for  cooling  liquids);  cool'-ly,  coor- 
ness,  cool'-ish  {-ish  added  to  a<^.  is  dim. ;  added  to  nouus 
it  means  *|like,"  as  hoy-ish,  like  a  boy). 
Old  English  c6l,  cool ;  verb  c<il[ian],  c6l-nea,  coolness. 
Coolie,  kooV.^y  a  porter  (East  Indies).    Cool'-ly,  chilly. 
Coom,  koom;  Coomb,  koom;  Comb,  kome. 

Coom.     Refuse  such  as  collects  in  carriage- wheels,  &c. 
Coomb.     Four  bushels  (dry  measure) ;  a  valley. 
Comb  (for  the  hair),  verb  to  dress  the  hair. 

"  Coom,*'  (Jerman  kahm,  mould. 

"  CJoomb/*  O.  Eng.,  a  liquid  measure  ;  a  valley ;  Gk.  kumbS,  a  hollow. 

**  Comb '  (for  the  hair),  Old  English  camb. 

Coop  (a  pen  for  fowls,  to  pen  fowls),  cooped,  koopt. 

Latin  e&pa,  a  butt,  a  coop  ;  Old  English  cofa,  a  box,  a  chamber. 

K 


146  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Oooper,  koop\er,  one  who  makes  tubs.    Oooperage,.  hoeffjeryo^tt 

the  workshop  of  a  cooper,  charge  made  for  coopor's  work. 
Li^in  mpOi  a  butt  or  tub  (-agt  something  done,  -099  to- do).*' 

Ck^-qperate,  ho.bp'.e.rdte  (to  work  in  unison),  co-op^erat-ed  (B. 
xxxvi.),  co-op'erat-ing  (R.  xix.),  co-op'erat-or  (not  -er 
IL  xxxvii.),  co-operative,  kd.op' .S.ra.t%v  (acfj.) ;  oo^ypera- 
tion,  ko^-8p-S.ray**-shun;  co-op'erant  (a^j.) 

French  cooperani^  concurring,  cooperation^  eoopeiw  (Terb);  Latin 
codp^dtio,  codpifrdtor  {co[con]op£rdri  to  work  with  [oUi^rslX 

Co-ordiiiate,  ko.o7^,dl.ndte  (adj).  Of  equal  order,  rank«  or  degree. 

Go-or'dinate-ly,  co-or'dinate-neB8.    Equality  of  rankv  Ac, 

Go-or'dinate,  plu.  co-or'dinates.  Lines,  &c,  ranged  in  order. 

Oo-ordination,  ko.or^.dl.nay'\8hun.    Just  arrangement. 

French  coordination,  coordonner!  (verb}:  Latin  eo-ord{nd<i<>,  eo-ordl- 
ndtlw^,  oo-ordindtus  (coi.con]oi-(2-rndre,  to  arrange  togetherji, 

Gooty  a  water-fowl;  Cote,  a  pen  for  doves  or  sheep;  Goat  {q.v.) 

"CJoot,"  "Welsh  cwtiar,  a  coot  (cwta,  the  bob-tail  [bird]); 
"Cote,"  Old  Eng.  cdte,  a  cot ;  Welhh  cwt,  a  cot,  sty,  &c. 
"Coat"  ca  garment),  French  cotte;  Italian  cotta;  Qerman  ]n»M«. 

Copaiba,  kd.pay'.bah.    A  balsam.    {See  OapiTi.) 

Copal,  'ko'.pal  (not  ko.paV).    A  vamisb.    (Mex.  copalH,  resins.) 

Go-part'ner  (a  joint  partner) ;  co-part'nery,  or  co-part^nexshipi. 

Ckipe,  a  hood ;  Cope,  to  vie  with  others ;  Coop,  a  pen  for  fowls. 

'  Cope "  (for  the  head ],  Old  Eng.  cop,  a  cap  or  hood ;  Welsh  eob^  acoafc. 
' Cope"  (to  vie),  Danish  kappes,  to  vie  with  others. 
'Coop"  (for  fowls),  Latin  cupa,  a  butt  or  coop. 

Coping,  kd\ping.    The  uppermost  tier  of  a  wall  (cqpe»  a  hood). 

Copious,  ko'.ptus  (plentiful),  co'pious-ly,  co'pioua-neasi 
Latin  cdpiosus,  cdpia,  plentf  (co[con]opts,  very  rich). 

Copper.    A  metal,  made  of  copper,  to  case  with  copper,  ajeoin. 
Cop'per-ish.    Having  a  slight  taste  or  smell  of  copper. 

Coppery,  hSp'.pe.ry.   Containing  copper,  resembling  copper. 
Latin  cuprum^  Le.,  ces  Cyprium,  Cyprus  brass ;  German  hu^t^. 

Copperas,  kop\pSr,rds,  Green  vitriol.   (It  ought  to  be  eoppen$y 

Fr.  couperose;  Ital.  copparosa;  Lat  cupri  roa,  liquor  of  cojf^pn,. 

Coppice,  kbp'.pis.    A  wood  consisting  of  brushwood. 

Low  Lat.  copieia;  Gk.  kdptd,  to  cut,  so  called  because  the  treea  are  eat 
to  the  ground  every  few  years,  to  make  underwood  as  oovarfor^came. 

Copse,  kops.    Same  as  Coppioe.    {See  above,) 

Copula,  plu.  copulas,  kbp*.u.ldh,  &c.  The  verb  which  lonites  or 
couples  the  predicate  with  the  subject :  via.,  {«  Of  jit  not. 

Copulate,    k6p\u.late    (to    pair    sexually);    oopfulfit.edi 
cop'ulat-ing  (H.  xix.);  copulation^  k6p\u,ki^''^hm' 


AND  OF  SPBLLJNO.  147 

Oopabktm,  X^^u.2ai<U;,  connectiye,  as  '*  copulative  •on* 
iuQctions."    Copiilatory,  kdp'\u.ld.tb,ry, 

French  eopvXation^  copulative ;  Latin  eOpAio^  eiplUMiOt  dipAlattvui, 
▼.  eSpHUre,  to  unite,  to  couple. 

CopYfplu.  copies,  kSp'py^  kdp'piz,    A  transcript,  a  pattern* 

Cop'y,  copies,  hop'plz ;  copi-ed.  kSp'pXd;  copi-er,  k9p\ter; 

cop'y-ing,  cop'y-ist,  cop'yright,  cop'ybook,  cop'yfaold. 
Fr.  eopie,  » tr&nscr^t ;  Low  Lat.  o&pta,  a' transcript,  Y.  dfpidm, 
Coqnet,  kd.ketf  (verb),  to  *'  play  "  love-making.    Ooqiiette  (non»)« 
Coquet',  coqttetf-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  coquetf-ing  (R.  ii.,  6.) 
Coquette,  kd.kSf ;  coquett^-isb,  coquett'ish-ly  (jauntily). 
French  coqueter  (v.)^  eoquettet  coquetterU  (cd^  [to  imitate]  a  cockX 
Cor-  (Latin  prefix),  con  before  r. 

Coracle,  k8i^rd.k%  a  Welsh  boat;  Curricle,  kur^,ri.k%  a  carriage. 

"  Oorade,"  Welsh  ctorxogl  (cwrtog.  a  frame  6t  carcase). 

*'  Cunicle,"  Latin  curriciUus,  a  little  carriage  (-deot-cuhUf  dlm.^ 

Coral,  ka/ral  (a  zoophyte,  the  shells  conglomerated).    • ' 

CoraU-aceouB,  kdr^raLlay'^skus  (&^j.);  oom^-ine,  M9i^fdl.Ui, 

Corall-iferouB,  kdr^rallif.^.rus.    Containing  coraL 

Corallifomi,  kofrdLLform,  resembling  coral ;  cor'all-ite. 

Coralloid,  kor^ralXoid ;  coralloid-al,  kofral.loid\al. 

Greek  koraUion  eidos^  coral-like. 

C  *Coral '  <mght  to  have  double 'H/' or  iUcompoundi  only  one* 'I."  B.iil.) 
Ft.  corail,  coraline,  C4tmlUflde ;  Lat.  oUrallium,  cdroUum,  or  CMnUiitm; 
6k.  kdrcUlion  or  kourdlionf  coraL 

Gozaiiacli,  kofra.nak.    Lamentation  for  the  dead. 
Gkielie  comh  rdnaich,  crying  together. 

Covbeil,  k&r'.hel  (used  in  sieges).  Corbel,  kcrf.hel  (used  in  archi- 
tecture). The  base  of  a  Corinthian  pillar,  the  projecting 
knob  (often  cnrved)  on  which  an  arch  rests. 

Corl)el,  corT)elled  (2  syl.),  cOr'belling. 
Fr.  eorbeille,  a  small  basket,  a  corbel ;  Lat.  eorbUla,  a  little  basket.    ' 
Cord  (string) ;  Chord  (of  music);  Cawed,  past  tense  of  caw. 

Cord,  to  fasten  with  cord ;  cord'age,  cord  collectively. 

French  eorde;  Latin  chorda;  Greek  ckordi  {-age  snflix  collective). 
Cordelier,  kof'.de.leer^.    A  grey  friar  who  is  girded  with  a  rope. 

French  cordelier  {eorde,  a  rope),  one  Who  wears  a  rope. 
Cordial  (n.),  Ad/.dt'aZ.     A  cheerini?  draught;  (adj.)  hearty. 

Cor'dial-ly,  cor'dial-ness,  cordiality,  k^t'MMV'.i.ty. 

Frendi  cordial,  cordiality  (Latin  cor,  gen.  cordis,  the  heart). 
Cordovan,  kor^.dcvdn  (not  kor.doiVun),  Spanish  leather.     So 
called  from  Cofdova  (not  Corcio'va), where  it  was  first mude. 
Ccoduroy,  kord'roy,    A  thick  ribbed  cotton  for  trousers. 

Fx«aeh  cord  du  roij  the  king's  cord. 


148  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Gordwainer,  kord\way-ner,    A  worker  in  leather,  not  cord  maker. 

French  eordouannier,  bow  cordonniery  a  corruption  of  coTdova/nitr^  » 
worker  in  Gor'dovan  leather. 

Gore,  Corps,  Gaw,  kdr.    Core.    (I^at.  cor  the  heart,  Gk.  hear,) 
Gore  (of  an  apple),  v.  to  take  out  the  core ;  cored,  cor'-iiig. 
Corps,  hor^  a  body  of  soldiers.    (Fr.  eorps^  Latin  corpua.) 
Caw.     The  cry  of  a  crow,  an  imitation  word. 

Coreopsis,  /i;ar're.5p".«l».    The  tick-seeded  sunflower. 

Oreek  Icdris  dpns,  a  bug  in  appearance  [referring  to  the  seed]. 

Coriander,  k5r^ri.an'\der,    A  plant  famed  for  its  seed. 

Old  English  corion;  Latin  cdriandrum'  Greek  kdriannon  or  hSrUfn 
(kdria,  a  bug).    The  bruised  seed  smells  like  that  insect. 

Cork,  Calk  or  Caulk,  Cauk.    All  pronounced  kork. 

Cork  (of  a  bottle),,  v.  corked  (1  syl.),  cork'-y,  tasting  of  the 
cork ;  cork'i-ness,  having  the  buoyancy  of  a  cork. 

Calk.     To  close  the  seams  of  a  ship  with  oakum. 

-€aiik.     A  sulphate  of  bary'ta.     (A  miner's  word.) 

"  Cork,"  German  kork  ;  Latin  cortex,  the  bark  of  a  tree. 

"  Calk,"  Latin  calco,  to  tread  or  press  (calx,  the  heel  of  the  foot). 

Cormorant,  kdr^.mo.rant.    A  glutton,  the  sea-raven. 

French  cormoran;  Latin  corvtts  marirms^  the  sea-raven. 
Com.     Grain;  an  excrescence  on  the  feet;  to  salt  meat. 

Com  (grain),  has  no  plural,  except  when  the  general  crop  or 

different  varieties  are  referred  to,  as  "  Corns  are  better." 
Old  English  com;  German  kom;  Danish  kom;  Latin  gramwn. 
Com,  plu.  corns  (on  the  feet);  com-y;  cor'neous,  homy. 
Old  English  com;  Welsh  cotti;  French  come;  Latin  comu,  hem. 
Com  (to  salt  meat),  corned  (1  syL),  com'-ing. 
German  komen,  to  com  or  salt  meat. 
.€omefb,  kor\ne.ah.    The  membrane  in  front  of  the  eye. 
French  corn^e;  Latin  eom^tts,  homy  (comu,  horn). 

Cornelian,  kor.nee'.luan,    A  chalcedony.    (See  Cameliaa.) 

Comet,  ko/.net,  a  cavalry  ensign;   a  horn.      Cor'net-cy  (-cy 

denotes  "  rank  ").  Cor'net-a-piston,  a  musical  instrument. 

French  comette,  a  cavalry  officer ;  comet,  a  horn  ;  comet  d  pisUm. 
T^e  officer  so  called  carries  the  "  comette  "  or  ensign  of  his  company. 

Cornice,  k5r^.nl8  (not  comUh,  as  it  is  very  often  prononnoed). 
The  border  round  the  ceiling  of  a  room. 
Italian  cornice;  Greek  kdr&nis,  the  end  or  finish  of  anytiiing. 
Comn-arn'monis  (not  -ammo'nU),  the  ammSnite  (q.v,) 
Cornucopia,  kof-nuxd'-pl.ah.     Emblem  of  abundance. 

Latin  comii  cdpia,  horn  of  plenty.    It  was  the  horn  of  AmalfthSa 
(nurse-goat  of  Jupiter)  which  AchSloiis  gave  t<.*  HerotUte. 


ANi)  OF  SPELLING,  MI> 


Corolla,  fto.roZ'iWtA,  blossom ;  coroUaceOns,  koi^.rhl.lay'\shu8{BjA']. 
of  corolla) ;  coroUet,  kor^rUMt^  one  leaf  of  a  blossom. 
Latin  edroUc^  » little  crown  (dimin.  of  cOrOTuiy  a  crown). 

Corollary,  kor^rol.ld,ry  (not  ko.roVM.ry  nor  kor^rol.lairWy), 

An  inference  which  rises  out  of  an  inference :  Suppose  it 

is  proved  that  matter  was  created,  then  it  foUows  as  a 

"  corollary "  that  there  was  a  creator  anterior  to  the 

existence  of  matter,  and  that  matter  is  not  eternal,  <&c. 

Latin  eSTOlldrium^  a  consectary  (from  edrolla,  a  garland  which  was 
given  invariably  to  an  actor  who  had  performed  his  part  well). 

Coronilla,  kofrSMiV.lah  (not  coroneUa),    A  plant  so  called  be- 
cause the  flowers  crown  the  branches  in  a  corymb. 
French  eoroniUe  (Latin  cdrorui,  with  a  diminutive  ending). 

Corona,  ko.ro'.nah,  a  halo ;  the  upper  surface  of  molnr  teeth;  the 
margin  of  a  radiated  compound  flower ;  a  drip,  &c. 

Coronal,  koT^ro.nalj belonging  to  a  crown;  coronet,  k6/ro.neU 
the  crown  worn  by  a  nobleman ;  a  downy  tuft  on  seed. 

Coronation,  kor^ro.nay" ^hun.    The  ceremony  of  crowning. 

Coroneted,  kor^ro.net.edt  entitled  to  wear  a  coronet;  coro- 
nated, kdr^ro.ndy.tedy  crowned ;  coronary,  kor^roma.ry, 

French  coronal  ("coronation"  is  one  of  the  very  few  words  in  -tion 
which  is  not  fVenCh) ;  Latin  cdrdna,  cGrdndtiOy  e6r6ndiu$. 

Coroner,  koi^roMer,     So  called  because  he  has  chiefly  to  do  with 
"  Pleas  of  the  Crown."    (Low  Latin  corondtor,  a  coroner.) 

Corporal,  Corporeal,  ko7^.po.ralt  kor,po\r^.dl  (adjectives). 

Corporal.     Pertaining  to  the  body,  bodily,  of  the  body. 

CorporeaL     Having  a  material  body. 

"Corporal  punishment,"  bodily  punishment;  not  corporeal 
punishment  (punishment  having  a  material  body). 

"Corporeal  substance,"  "This  corporeal  frame,"  that  is  a 
substance  or  frame  having  a  material  body. 

"  Corporal  pain,'*  pain  of  the  body ;  "  Corporal  injury." 

Corporeal  rights,"  rights  over  material  substances. 

Corporal "    is    opposed    to    Mental;     "  Corporeal "    to 
Spiritual  or  Immaterial, 

Cor'poral-ly,  bodily.    Corpo'real-ly,  in  a  material  form. 

"  He  was  present  corporally"  bodily,  in  his  proper  person. 

"  The  ghost  in  Hamlet  is  shown  on  the  stage  corporeal-ly," 
that  is,  not  as  a  spirit,  but  having  a  material  form. 

Corporallty,  bodily  state.    Corporeality,  materiality. 

Baleigh  speaks  of  the  "  corporality  of  light,"  it  should  be 
«*  corporeality,"  meaning  that  light  is  material,  according 
to  Newton's  theory;  but  it  would  be  quite  correct  to  speak 


15#  JCJiRORS  OF  BPEECE 

of  the  "corporaMty  "  of  ihe.^host,  meaning  his  embedied 
state,  or  Laviog  his  own  veritable  body. 
Cor'poraL    The  lowest  ofi&eeor  in  a  company  of  foot^oldlers. 

Corporale,  kor^.po.rdle.  The  cloth  which  covers  the  <«ii(duur- 
istic  elements.     Hence  a  Corporal  Oath  (or  Corporale 
Oath\  one  taken  while  touching  the  efucharistic  cloth. 
(The  spelling  of  "  Corporal,*"  for  an  officer  is  ineorreet.    It 
ought  to  be  eaporal.    French  caporal;  Italian  caporale; 
Spanish  caporaU  a  ehi^;  Latin  caput,  a  head  .-(head  of 
the  men  under  him). 
"Corporal,"  Fr.  corporcU,  corporaliti;  Lat.  eorpirSlis,  torfOreKtas. 
Oorporate,  ko/.po.rate,  united  in  a  corporation ;  corporarte-ly. 

Corporation,  ko/ .po.ray'^ ,shun,    A  body  politic. 
French  corpora,tion  ;  Latin  corp&rdtio,  eorp&rdtus  (corjnu,  a  bodj). 
Corporeal,  kor-po* sS.dL    Material,  opposed  to  spiritual. 

^rpo'real-ly,  csorporeal'-ity,  corpo'real-ism,  raateriakHsm. 

•Ctoipo^real-ist,  one  who  denies  the  existence  of  spirit  inde* 

pendent  of  matter;  corporeity,  fcor'.p^.rcg't.tt/,  materiality. 

(Corporeal  or  Corporal,  see  tt»<icr<)orporal.) 

French  corportl,  corporeity;  Latin  corpSreu»,  bodily  (corpta,  a  body). 

Corps,  plu.  coips,  kor,  plu.  korz,    A  body  of  soldiers.    {SeeKkae,) 

Covpse,  plu.  corpses,  korps,  plu.  korps\Sz.    A  humian  dead  hody. 

Freneh  eorps;  Latin  eorptM,  a.body  [twpo  itpifre,  flesh  fashionedX 
Corpulence,  ko'/.pUMnse  (not  corpnUance),  oor'.pulMicy,  bulki. 
ness  of  body;  cor^iileat,  stout;  cor'pulent-ly,  fleshily. 
French  corpuUnee,  corpulent;  Latin  corpulewtiat  corpulerUe  (adv.) 

Corpnscule,  plu.  corpuscules  or  corpuscula,  kor.p^l8'.kute,  pin. 
kor  pus^kulz  or  kor. pits'. kii.lah.     A  minute  particle. 

Corpus'cular  (a^j.),  corpnscularian,  kor.pu8\ku.laif^\tan. 

One  who  maintains  that  corpuscules  were  the  germs  of 

all  material  substances,  and  not  the  *•  Divine  Word." 

French  corpu^yule,  eorpuseulaire ;  Latdn  corpwcAkim  (oeipus  a  body, 
and  -ciUum  a  diminutive). 

CoEFOct.  The  degrees  are :  nearly  correct,  more  nearly  correct, 
very  nearly  correct,  quite  correct.  More  correct  is  the 
comparative  of  "incorrect;"  most  correct  means  quite 
correct,  the  moKt  correct  means  that  all  otjiers  jve  iooQcreot. 

Corveot  (adj.),  right;  (verb)  to  punish,  to  put  right. 

Correction,  k5r.rek'ishim.    Emendation,  punishment. 

Correc'tion-al.    (This  word  ought  to  be  correcHom'^) 

Corrective,  khr.re^.t^.    That  which  corrects. 

Oorrect-or  (not  -«r.  Rule  xxxvii.).     One  who  corveets. 

French  corredif,  oorrectum,  correctiormel :  Latin  oorrsetio,  corrtchu, 
V.  eorrig^re  {cor  [con]  rego,  to  regulate  or  set  quiJle  x^^). 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  151 

'  Oof^retpond,  to  hold  intercourse  by  letters ;  correBpond'-faig, 
writiDg  letters,  similar;  eorretpond'-ent,  one  who  cor- 
responds, something  which  *'  pairs  "  with  something  else. 

Oonre0pGDd''hdnoe.    Intercourse  by  letters,  similarity. 

Oorrespond'^stJy.    In  a  corresponding  manner. 

Ooitedpond-ing-ly,  by  let  tnr ;  Oorresponsiye,  kor'.TfjpiotC'jiiv. 

Prencfa  ootr^pondance  (incorrect),  etyntspondant  finoorreet),' t.  tor- 
rtspondrt:  Lat.  eor  [con]  rtspondirt,  to  answer  with  or  to  [another]. 

Oozfeidor,  har^.fijdor  (French).  A  gallery  communioating  with 
diiOferent  apartments  of  a  house.    (Latin  curro^  to  run.) 

Ccmlgendam,  plu.  corrigenda,  kor^,ri.jen'\dum,  plu.  hof^si.- 
jen'\dah.     To  be  coriecce*!  (Latin).     Kule  xlvi. 

Corrigible,    k(y/,ri,jiVl,  capjible  of  correction.     Incorrigible, 
hopelessly  bad,  regardless  of  reproof. 
French  corrigible,-  Latin  corrigibtlis  (corrigire,  to  correct). 
Corroborate,  kor.r5b\o.rate  (not  kosob'.e.rate),  to  confirm. 
OorroVorat-ed,  corrob^orat-ing  (E.  xix.),  corrob'orat-or. 
Corroborat-ive,  kor.rob\o.ra.tiv ;  corroborant,  kor,rS6',o.rant. 

Corroboration,  kor.rob\o.ray" .shun  (not  ko.r5b\e.ray"^hun), 
(In  Lat.  "  -ro-"  is  long ;  koi-.rO'.bC.rate  would  he  better.) 

French  corroborer,  corroborant  corroboration;  Latin  eorrSb(MI/r€(e&r 
[con]  rdb&ro,  to  strengthen  with  oalc,  rCbur,  oak). 

Oouhxlde,  kor.rode'  (not  ko.rode'\  to  eat  away  by  degrees,  as  by 
rust,  &c.;  corrod'-ed,  oorrod'-ing.  corrod'-ent  (not  -ant) ; 
oorrod^ble  (not  -able),  corrOd'-er  (U.xix),  corrodlbil'lty. 

Corrosion,  kor.rS'.shun  (not  ko.ro'. shun).     A  fretting. 
Corrosive,  kor.rd'.siv ;  corro'sive-ly,  corro'sive-ness. 
Corrosibility,  kor.ro'.si.bil" .iJy  (not  ko.ro\8i.bil'\i.ty). 
Fr.  oorroder,  eorros\f  corrosion ;  Lat.  cor  [con]  rOdSre,  to  eat  away. 
Cormgate,  kor'.ru.gate,  to  wrinkle ;  cor'rugat-ed  (R.  xxxvi.) 
Oor'iragat-ing  (R.  xix.),  cor'rugat-or  (R.  3fixvii.) 

6omigation,   kor^ .ru.gay^.i'hun,   a  wrinkling;    cor'ragant 
(not  corrugent,  as  many  diciioiaries  j^ive). 

Trencih  cormgcdion ;  Lat.  corruffitio,  corrugans  -antis,  corritgdre  (cor  • 
[con]  rugo,  to  make  into  wrinkles  with  [frowning],  ruga,  a  wrinkle^. 

Cormpt,  kor.rupt'  (not  ko.rupt').  to  spoil ;  oorrupt'-ed  (R.  xxxvi.), 
eorrupt'-ing,  corrupt'-er  (more  corrupt),  oormpf-est 
(most  corrupt),  cormpt'-or,  one  who  corrupts  (R.  xxxvii.), 
fern,  corrup^tress ;  corrupt -ly,  corrupt '-neas,  corrupt- 
ible (not  -able),  corruptibly,  corrupt'ible-ness,  corrupf - 
ibil"ity  (not  A;^7.rM;)'.^/6ir'/.///),  corruption,  kor.rup'.8hun. 

■Ft.  oorruptibiliU  corruptihle,  c/)rrup>i'>n;  Lat.  corruptio,  corruptor* 
fern,  eorruptrix,  oorrump&e,  sup.  -rttp  <um  (cor  [con]  rumpo,  to  break). 


152  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 


Corsair,  k&r.sai'/,  a  pirate.    Coarser,  kor^^er.    Courser,  ko'r-ser. 

"Corsair,"  Fr.  corsaire  (fr.  Ital  coraa,  a  race).  The  word  was  first 
applied  to  ships  of  chase  during  war,  then  to  the  captains  who 
had  "letters  of  mark,"  and  ultimatelf  to  sea-rovers  and  pirates. 

"  Coarser/'  comp.  of  coarse,  q.v.    *'  Conrser,"  a  swift  horse. 

Corse,  Coarse,  Course,  Corps,  Cores,  Caws,  Cause. 

Corse,  korse.  Poetical  for  "  corpse."  (Latin  corptu,  a  body.) 
Coarse,  ko'rse.  Bough,  not  refined.  (Old  Eng.  gorstt  rough.) 
Course,  koo'rse.  A  race.  (Latin  cursuSy  a  race.) 
Corps,  korzy  plu.  of  corps,  kor  (French).  Bodies  of  soldiers. 
Cores,  korzj  plu.  of  core.  Hearts  of  apples,  &c.  (Latin  cor,) 
Caws,  korzj  3rd  per.  sing,  of  caw.  Applied  to  the  cry  of  crows. 
Cause,  korz.   The  reason  or  motive.    (Latin  causa,  a  cause.) 

Corset,  Cosset,  Corslet,  kor^set,  kos'^et,  kors'.let 

Corset  (Fr).  A  bodice  for  women  (corps,  a  body,  and  -et,  dim.) 
Cosset.  A  pet  (Old  Eng.  cos,  a  kiss,  a  little  thing  for  kisses). 
Corslet.   A  little  cuirass  (Fr.  corselet,  corps,  a  body,  -letj  dim). 

CoTSD.edtkor' ^ned,  A  piece  of  consecrated  bread  used  for  an  ordeal. 

Old  English  corsncede  cors  sruxd  curse  morsel  The  person  under  trial 
said,  "May  this  morsel  prove  a  curse  if  I  am  guilty,  and  torn  to 
wholesome  noiCrishment  if  I  am  innocent" 

Cortege,  kof,taje\    A  train  of  attendants.    (French  cort^e,) 

Latin  corpiLS  tig^re,  to  cover  the  body,  a  body-gaard. 
Cortes,  kor^.tiz  (Spanish).    The  parliament  of  Spain  or  Portugal. 

Spanish  corte,  a  resident  of  a  town,  the  reprei^entatives  of  towns. 
Coruscate,  kor'.us.kate,  to  glisten;   cor'uscat-ed  (Bule  xxxvi.), 
cor^uscat-ing  (B.  xix.);  coruscation,  kbr'.us.kay'*^hun. 
French  carusccUuyn, ;  Latin  cdruscdtio,  cdrttscdre,  to  glisten,  to  flash. 
Corvet  or  Corvette,  kor.vet',    A  sloop  of  war.    (French  corvette,) 

Latin  corhita,  a  hoy ;  corhltdre,  to  freight  a  ship. 
CorylacesB,  k^ .rLlay'' ,se.e.    An  order  of  plants,  including  the 
oak,  beech,  chestnut,  and  hazel. 
Latin  corylus;  Greek  kdriUds,  a  hazel  (-aceas  denotes  an  "  Order  *7. 
Corymb,  k5,rimb,  a  bunch  or  cluster ;  corymbiated,  k8,rim"M,~ 
d\ted  (not  corymbated),  having  btrries  or  blossonis  in 
clusters;  corjrmbiferous,  k(5.r%mMf\S.ru8y  bearing  clus- 
ters ;  corymbose,  ko.rim'.hose  (adj.) 

Latin  e&rymhifer,  a  berry-bearer,  like  ivy,  e&rymbus,  a  duster. 
Greek  korvanboa,  a  cluster  of  fruit  or  flowers  (kOrua,  a  headX 

CowMcant,  ko'-8ee'\kunt.     The  secant  of  the  complemental  arc 
Co-sine.     The  sine  of  the  complemental  arc. 
Latin  aicanSf  gen.  gifcantis,  cutting.    Sinus,  a  curve  or  baj. 
Cosey.     Should  be  cosy,  adv.  ooai-ly,  kd\zy,  ko'jstly, 

(The  adv.  **  cosily  "  cannot  be  formed  from  "cosey."  Rxiii) 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  l^iS 


Cosmetic,  k^sjnut.ic,    A  preparation  for  beautifylDg  the  face  by 
remoying  freckles,  <&c.    Also  an  adj. 
GJk.  hOnmitikSSt  a  beautifyer ;  Tcdsmid,  to  adorn ;  Fr.  coanutique. 
GoBmogony,  Goemography,  CkMsmology,  Geology,  Geography. 

Cosmogony,  kos.mdg'.OMy,  An  *'a  priori"  theory  of  the 
world's  origin.  (Gk.  kosm^s  g6niy  the  world's  generation.) 
Gen*  i.  is  tibe  Bible  theory  of  the  world's  origin. 

Qeologytjeei'.dl.o.jy.    An  "  a  posteriori"  view  of  the  wrrMs 
origin.     It  explains  from  known  facts,  how  the  rockn, 
&c.,  of  the  earth  have  been  produced. 
Greek  gi  graphS,  a  description  of  the  earth,  in  detaiL 

Cosmography,  kos.mbg'.ra.fy.    A  description  of  the  struc- 
ture, figure,  and  order,  of  the  world,  the  relation  of  its 
parts,  and  how  to  represent  them  on  paper. 
Greek  hOsmds  grapM,  description  of  the  earth,  as  a  whole. 

Cosmology,  kd8.mSV.o.jy*  A  treatise  on  the  elements  of  the 
earth,  the  laws  of  nature,  and  the  modifications  of  ma- 
terial things.    (Greek  kosmos  logSs,  treatise  of  the  world.) 

Geography,  je.8g\ra.fy.     A  df^scription  of  the  puiface  of 

the  earth,  its  countries,  inhabitants,  and  productions. 
Greek  gi  graphs,  description  of  the  earth  in  detail. 

Fhysical  Geography  treats  of  climates,  elevations,  configu- 
rations, influence  of  coast,  tides,  winds,  &c. 

Gosmog'ony  (v.8.),  cosmog'onist.    A  writer  of  cosmogony. 

Gosmo'graphy  (v.«.),  cosmog'rapher,  a  writer  of  cosmography ; 
cosmographical,  kos'.mo.graf'd.kal;  cosmographical-ly. 

Cosmology  {see  above)  cosmologist,  a  writer  of  cosmology ; 
oosmological,  kds.mo.ldf.i.kdl;  cosmological-ly. 

Cosmopolite,  kds.mdp'.o.lite.    A  citizen  of  the  world. 
Cosmopolitan,  k58\mo.p8V\i.tan  (adj.) 

Cos'moporitan-ism.    A  system  which  regards  man  (regard- 
less of  nationality)  as  a  citizen  of  the  world. 
Qteok  kdsm68  pdlitSa,  citizen  of  the  world  (-ism,  doctrine,  system). 
Cosmorama,  plu.  cosmoramas,  kos\mo.rdh'\mdh,  plu.  -mds,     A 
representation  of  the  world  in  large  panoramic  pictures. 

Cosmoramic,  kos^mo.rdm'* dK     Pertaining  to  the  above. 
Greek  kdamds  hordma,  a  view  of  the  world. 
Cosmos.     The  world  considered  as  a  whole.     The  word  means 
the  "beauty  of  arrangement."  and  was  first  applied  to 
creation  by  Pythagoras.    Cos'mical,  cos'mical-ly. 
Greek  kdsm&s,  the  world  ;  kdsmSo,  to  arrange. 
Oonack,  khs'.sak.     One  of  the  Cossacks;  a  Russian  tribe. 
Goaset,  a  pet  lamb,  brought  up  by  hand.     Corset,  a  bodice  {q.v.) 
Old  English  cos  and  -ei  dim.    A  little  thing  to  be  kia&ed. 


i:.i  ERROllS  OF  SPEECH 

Oost,  past  cost,  past  part.  eost.    Ooast,  koste  (of  the  sea). 
Costly,  kSstf.ly ;  costli-ness  (R.  xi. ),  expensiveness. 

Ital.  costo  (n.),  expense :  costare  (y);  Lat.  eonsto,  to  eo«l    (#6  nj, 
"  What  did  it  stund  you  in?"  [cost];  eon  5to,  to  stand.) 

Gestermonger,  kSs'-ter.mun^-ger,    Cormption  of  eoritortf^Mm^^r, 
a  seller  of  "  costards ;"  thut  is,  apples. 
Old  English  costard,  a  species  of  apple ;  monger,  a  d^er. 
OoAtive,   kds'.tlv,  contraction   of  "con'stip.itive";    ofMT^i^e-ly, 
cos'tive-ness,  having  the  bowels  con'stipated. 
Latin  constipo,  to  cram  close  together  (con  riipo,  to  stiiff  togeiherX 
Goetnme,  kds.tume'  (French).    National  slyle  of  dress. 

Cosy,  kd\sy,  snug  and  comfortable.    Gosi-ly«  'kd'M.lyf  fomgly. 
Scotch  cosie.    Old  English  cos,  a  kiss  (not  etwey). 

Got,  Gote,  Goat,  Goot,  kdt,  kdte,  kdte,  koot. 

Cot,  a  cottage ;  an  infant's  bed,  &c.  Gott-ar,  a  cottager. (R.  L) 
Cote.    A  pen  for  sheep,  dovei),  &c.,  called  sheepeote;  Ac 
Coat.    A  raiment  for  men  or  boys.    (Fr.  cotter  Ital.  eottaJ) 
Ccot.    A  small  black  water  fowl.    (Welsh  cwtiar,tk  coot.) 
Old  English  cdt  or  edte,  a  cottage,  a  bed,  a  pen. 

Go-tangent.  The  tangent  of  the  complement  of  an  arc.  (8§e  Go-.) 

Gotemporary,  cotemporaneoiis.     (S««  Contemporary.) 

Cotillon,  ko.tlV.ydn.    The  ''petticoat"  dance,  so  called  because 
ladies  hud  to  hold  up  their  gown  and  show  their  petlicoat. 
French  cotillon,  a  i>ett.icoat ;  a  dance. 
Cottage,  kdt'.tage  a  peasant's  house.    Cot'tag-er,  ooftier,  1;^.- 
ti.eTt  a  squatter,  an  independent  peasant  (ObsoUte), 
Low  Latin  cott<igium,  a  cottage ;  cottantu,  a  cottager. 
Cotton,  kofMt  thread  made  from  the  cotton  plant,  a  f  ibric  made 
of  cotton ;  cotton-y,  containing  cot  ton,  feeling  like  cotton. 
Cottons,  cotton  threads,  cotton  fabrics.    Cottoki  (verb),  to 
ding  to  a  person  fondly,  as  cotton  clings  to  one's  clothes.' 
French  colon,  verb  coUnmer  :  Arabic  dl  goton,  the  cotton-plant. 

Cotyledon,  kot'-i.lee''-don.     The  seminal  leaf  of  plants  iirhidl 
first  appears  above  ground,  and  forms  part  of  the  embiyo 

Dicotyledons,  di'-.    Plants  with  two  seminal  leaves. 
Konocotyledons,  mSn'-o-.    Plants  with  one  cotyledon. 
Acotyledons,  a'-.     Plants  without  a  seminal  leaf, 
Lat.  coty'idon,  the  hollow  of  the  huckle-bone ;  Gk.  UiMlHUlii,  aaoelD 

Coneh,  k6wch  (n.),  a  sofa ;  (v.)  to  hi-'e,  to  fix  a  spear  in  itb  rer 
couched  (1  syl.),  couch'-ing,  couch-er,  conch-ant;  kawe 
ant  or  koo'.shong  (in  Her.)  Inug  down  with  head  raise 
Fr.  cowUm,  a  bed ;  cowker  (▼.),  couchant;  Lat  eoH  [ooi|]  foeAra,  to 


AiYB  OF  SPELLING,  165 

GoiigiL,^M/(n.  andv.);  coughed,  X^/t;  coughing,  hHifAng, 

There  aro  twentj-ifive  words  ending  in  -ough,  with  eight 
.distinct  sounds, — viz.,  ok,  of,  uf,  tfp;  ow,  ow,  oo,  rer. 
Only  two  ("  cough"  and  "  trough")  have  the  sound  of  of. 
These  are  both  native  words,  coh'  and  trohy  guituraL 
(Not  one  of  the  twenty-Jive  words  have  any  right  to  the 
diphthong  **  ou,"  and  if  the  original  vowels  had  been  pre- 
served much  of  the  present  absurdity  of  pronunciation 
would  have  been  avoided.)  (Rule  xliv.) 
Old  English  eohh*,  contraction  of  coJutian  {—koft.an),  to  congh. 

Gonld,  kood  (to  rhyme  with  "good"),  past  tense  of  Can,  "to  be 
able,"  "to  know  how,"  never  an  auxiliary,  but  it  stann^fl 
in-ve^men  with  other  words  without  to  between  them  : 
as  "I  could  write."  Here  write  is  infinitive  mood,  being 
the  latter  of  two  verbs  in  regimen. 
Our  word  "  could"  is  a  blunder.  The  Old  Eng.  cunnlan] 
"to  know  how  to  do  a  thing,"  makes  can  in  the  present 
tense,  and  cUthe  in  the  past;  but  the  verb  ciithlian]  "  to 
make  known,"  has  cUthode  for  the  past  tense,  contracted 
ito  eu'd  our  "eouM"  {I  interpolated). 

Council,  Counsel,  Connoillor,  Counsellor. 

Ocfun'ciL  An  assembly  met  for  consultation.  (L&t.conmium.) 
Gknm'sel.     Advice,  a  pleader.    (Latin  consXUum,) 
Goun^cill-or.    A  member  of  a  council.     (Bule  iii.  -il.) 
OomiBellror.    One  who  gives  advice,  a  barrister.   (R.  iii.  -il.) 
Coiui''Belled  (2  syL),  advised ;  coun'sell-ing,  advising. 
Council-board,  plu.  council-beards. 

(E'Cumen'ical  council,  plu.  OB'cumenloal  councils. 

The  distinction  may  be  remembered  thus :  Council  is 
concilio,  con  calo,  to  call  [the  board]  together ;  but  counsel 
is  consUlo,  to  consult.  You  consult  a  "  counsellor,"  you 
eall  together  "  coimcillors." 

Count,  a  foreign  title,  fern,  countless.  We  retain  the  feminine, 
but  have  substituted  our  native  word  "  earl"  for  count. 

Countless,  plu.  count'es^es,  poss.  countess's,  plu.  countesses'. 

Comt-y,  plu,  counties,  coun'Mz.    We  have  retained  this 
word,  and  also  our  native  word  "  shire,"  [a  count's]  share. 

IMliancotUe;  Fnnoh  compte;  Latin  ctfme«,.gen.cdmi<i«,  a  companion 
of  the  chief  or  leader ;  cemitdhu,  a  county  or  share  of  the  cSmes. 

OoQUt,  to  reckon ;  counter,  one  who  counts,  base  money  to 
asdst  in  reckoniMg,  a  shop  table  where  accounts  are  paid; 
(adv.)  the  wrong  way,  contrary  to ;  a  prefix. 

Italian  eontare;  French  compter;  Latin  computdre,  to  compute,  con- 
tvaoted  to  eomp^t,  and  corrupted  into  count. 


156  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Counteract,  kovm'-ter,ac1f.    To  frustrate,  to  act  contrary  to. 

Latin  contra  ago,  supine  actunif  to  act  in  opposition  to. 
Coimterbalance,  kovm'-ter.hdV-ance,    (Only  one  {  in  balance.) 

Latin  contra  Hlanx,  [balance]  against  balance. 

Counterfeit,  kown'-ter.feet  ^noun),  kowvf-ter.fU  (verb); 

connterfeit-er,  kown-ter.fUer;  coiinterfeit-ed(R.xxxvi.) 

Latin  contra  ficSre,  supine  fectum  [facia],  to  make  against  Paw],  to 
toTge,  to  imitate  without  authority  or  right. 

Counterfoil,  kownf-ter.foiL    Part  of  a  check  kept  by  the  drawer. 
Latin  contra  fdlium,  the  corresponding  leaf. 

CoTintermand,  kown'-ter.rmnd*.    To  withdraw  a  command. 

Latin  cordra  mando,  to  command  the  opposite  [of  a  command]. 
Countermarch,  kownf-ter. march'.    To  march  back  again. 

Low  Latin  contra  marchio,  to  march  in  the  opposite  direction. 

Countermine,  kown'-ter.mine ;  coun'termined"  (3  syl.), 

ooun'termin"-ing,  coun'termin"-er.     To  <Ug  a  gallery 
underground  in  search  of  an  enemy's  mine. 
Low  Latin  contra  mvnero,  to  make  a  mine  in  the  contrary  direction. 

Counterpane,  kown'-ter-pain.     A  bed  quilt. 

A  corruption  of  the  Latin  cul&Cta  puncta,  a  quilt  worked  in  a  pattern. 
French  courtepointe,  a  counterpane. 

Counterpoise,  kown'-ter.poyz^  to  counterbalance ;  coun'teipoised 
(3  syl.),  coun'terpois-ing  (Rule  xix.) 

Latin  contra  penso,  to  weigh  against  [a  given  weight] ;  French  eotUrt 
poise,— i.e.,  poids,  [weights]  agaiubt  weights.   (See  AYOlrdopolBe.) 

Countersign,  kown'-tersine,  to  sign  a  document  in  attestation 
of  a  signature;  countersignature,  kown'-ter.8i^\na,tchur: 
countersignatories,  kown'-terMg''-na-t5.Hz, 
Latin  contra  Hgno,  to  alga  against  [another  signature]. 

Countess,  plu.  coun'tesses,  hown'.tessy  hown'tess.ezy  poss.  sing, 
countess's,  kown\tes8.iz ;  poss.  plu.  countesses',  houm',- 
tesa.ez.     The  wife  of  an  earl  or  of  a  foreign  count. 
Italian  contessa;  French  comtesse;  Low  Latin  comitissa. 

Country,  plu.  countries  (R.  xi.),  kiin'.try,  kun'.triz  (Fr.  contrfo); 
coun'tryman,  fern,  coun'trywom'an,  plu.  coun'trymeii, 
countrywomen,  -wlm'.en;  poss.  sing,  -man's,  -woman's, 
po88,  plu.  -men's,  -women's,  -wim'.enz. 
(Obs.   The  y  is  not  changed  to  i  in  these  words.  Bole  xi) 

Countrify,  hun.tri.fy  (B.  xi.),  to  give  the  air  and  mien  of  a 
rustic ;  counttified,  kun\tri.Jide,  having  the  air  and  mien 
of  a  rustic.    (Latin  con  terra^  land  contiguous  [to  a  town].) 

County,  plu.  counties  (E.  xi.),  hown'.ty^  kown'.tiz, 

Norman  French  covmU,  French  comU;  Latin  comXtaUu,  a  eountj. 


AXD   OF  SPELLIXG.  157 

oup  (Fr.),  &00,  a  stroke.    Goup6  (Fr-)»  koo.pay\  part  of  a  coach. 

Gonp  d'etat,  koo'.da-tar^.    A  sudden  raid  on  political  foes. 

Goup-de-grace,  koo'd'.grds.     The  victor's  last  blow. 

Ck>np-de-inaiii,  koo'd\mdh'n.    A  sudden  attack  on  a  fort. 

Ck>up-d'(Bil,  koo\dy'*e.    A  comprehensive  yiew  of  a  scene. 

Conp-de-soleil,  koo'd^sd-lay^'e.     A  sun-stroke. 

oap6  (Fr.),  hoo.pay'.     The  first  division  of  a  stage  coach,  a 
private  railway  carriage  furnished  with  only  one  bench. 
French  cowper,  to  cut.    A  part  cut  off  for  travellers. 

onple,   kupHy  a  pair,  to  link  together;    coupled,   kupWd; 
conpling,  kup'.ling,    (Fr.  couple;  Lat.  cDpulay  a  couple.) 

onpon,  koo'.pone.    The  part  of  a  bond  presented  for  a  dividend. 
Fr.  eouper,  to  cut  off ;  because  they  are  cut  off  as  the  claim  falls  due. 

oarage,  kur^rage,  bravery ;  courageous,  ko.ray'.jus  ; 

coura^geous-ly,  coura'geous-ness,  boldness  of  heart 
French  eouragey  cotirageux;  Latin  cor  ago,  to  move  the  heart. 
^arant.  Currant,  Current,  koo\rdh'n,  hifrant^  ku/rent. 

An  courant,  o  koo\rdh'n.     Posted  up  to  the  time  being. 
Fr.  itre  cm  cowraiU  (2e . . .to  be  posted  up  in . . .    (Lat.  ciirro,  to  run.) 
Cur^rant,  a  fruit.    (Lat.  uv<e  Corinthidca  or  Corinthia.) 
CiUTent,  kur^.rentf  running.     (Lat.  currens,  gen.  currentis.) 

lonrier,  koo\ri.er,    A  special  messenger  sent  with  a  dispatch. 
(This  word  ought  to  be  spelt  with  double  "  r."    As  it  now 
stands  its  base  would  be  coeur,  the  heart ;  or  cura,  care.) 
French  cownieT:  Latin  corriere;  Latin  curro,  to  run. 

loiUBe,  Corse,  Coarse,  Corps,  Cause,  Caws. 

Course,  korse,    A  career,  to  hunt.     (Lat.  cursus  ;  Fr.  cours.) 
coursed  (1  syl.),  cours'-ing,  cours'-er,  cours'-es  (2  syl.) 

Corse,  korse.  Poetical  form  of  corpse.    (Lat.  corpus,  a  body.) 

Coarse,  ko'rse.    Gross,  not  fine.    (Old  Eng.  gorst,  rough.) 

Corps  (plu.),  korz.    Companies  of  soldiers.     (French  corps.) 

Cause,  kawz.    The  reason,  a  plea.    (Lat.  causa,  a  cause.) 

Caws,  kawz,  third  person  sing,  of  caw,  to  cry  like  a  crow. 

knixt.     The  royal  palace,  those  attached  to  it,  a  place  for  trying 
criminals,  &c.     To  woo,  to  strive  to  please,  &c. 

Court  (a  palace),  courtier,  kor^dVer,  one  of  the  court. 

Oourt'-ly  (adj.),  fit  for  a  court;  courtli-ness  (Eule  xi.) 

Courteous,  kor.te'v^  (not  kort.tchus  nor  kur^.tchus)f  affable ; 
cour'teous-ly,  courteous-ness,  hy/.tS'us.ness. 

Court-plaster,  kort  plas\ter  (not  play\ster).  Black  sticking 
plaster,  once  used  by  court  ladies  for  beauty-spots. 


158  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Ooortesan,  koY.t^.zan  {not  kur^dejsan,  nor  kor1f,e,zan),    A 
woman  of  immodest  characteF.    (French  courtisane.) 
(This  word  meant  originally  a  "female  courtier,'*  and 
tells  a  sad  tale  of  the  past  history  of  courts.) 

Oonrt  ( of  justice),  Court  of  Fqnity,  plu.  Courts  of  Bqvity ; 
court-martial,  plu.  court-martials,  >es8ioD8  of  the  same 
court ;  courts-martial,  different  courts  {7nar^.shal)^ 

Court.    A  paved  way.    (French  court,  curt,  a  short  [cut}*) 

Court-yard.  A  yard  before  a  house.  (Latin  eohors,  gen.  co- 
hortiSj  a  yard  with  outhouses  for  poultry,  cattle;,  pigB,  &c.) 

Court  (to  woo),  courf-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  court'-ing,  Gourt'- 


"Oourt"  (a  palace  or  hall  of  justice),  Fr.  cour;  Ital.  eorte;  Lat.  euria 

(from  cura,  care),  where  the  "  pablic  cares  "  are  attended  to. 
"Court"  (to  woos  Fr.  faire  la  cour,  to  make  a  [love]  suit,  cauriisar. 

Courtesy,  plu,  courtesies,  kor^.tesy,  plu.  kor^.tejiz  {kur^,te^  ia 

nearly  obsolete),  civility. 

Courtesy,  plu.  courtesies,  herf.sy,  kerf  .Ax,    Woman's  act 
of  reverence.    A  man's  is  a  bow  (rhyme  with  now). 

Courtesy,  kerf.sy  (verb) ;  courtesies,  kert.sU  ;  courtesied, 
kertf.sid;  oourtesy-ing,  kertf^sy.ing.   To  make  a  woman's 
act  of  reverence  by  bending  the  knee. 
('Sy  postfix,  denotes  an  act.    A  "courtesy"^  is  an  act  of 
reverence,  situilar  to  that  which  is  used  at  court.) 

Cousin,  Cousin-german,  Cozen.    All  pronounced  Auz'n. 

Cousin.      The  children  of  my  aunt  or  uncle  are  my  first 
cousins ;  the  children  of  my  great  aunt  or  uncle  are  my 
second  cousins;  the  children  of  my  aunt  or  uncle  by  a 
second  marriage  are  my  step  cousins. 
"Step"  is  the  Old  £ngli8h  steop,  an  orphan,  one  parent  being  losl 

Cousin-german,  plu.  cousins-german.    First  cousins. 

Latin  germdnus,  of  the  same  stock  {germen,  a  branch). 

Cozen,  to  cheat.    (Italian  cotzerie,  cheating.    HalliwelL) 

*'  Ck>uflin "  French,  a  male  cousin ;  cousins,  a  female  ooudn.    Wf 
want  a  similar  distinction ;  Latin  coicsofynnus,  a  couabi. 

Covenant,  kuv\e,nant.    A  stipulation  on  stated  terms. 

Covenant-er,  kiiv\e.nant.er.    One  who  joins  in  a  coYemar 

French  covenant,  a  contract :  Latin  convent%m,  an  agreement  (m 
venio,  to  come  together  [to  make  teroM]). 

Cover,  kuv'.er,  to  overspread ;  cov'ered  (2  syl.),  oov'ez^-iBC.' 

Coverture,  kUv'.er.tchur.     Shelter,  the  state  of  a 
woman  who  is  under  the  "  cover  "  of  her  husband. 


French  eouvrir,  to  cover :  eouveriure,  not  in  the  Esglisk 
meaning  a  eonef  for  a  book,  &c.    ' '  Coyeitore  *'  ia  J^ack  is  ah 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  159 

OaWti,  buv'.ert,  secret.    Coyet,  kuv\et,  to  desire  eagerly. 
O^r^rt^  cov'ert-ly,  cov'ert-ness.    (French  convert.)  • 

Coret,  kiiv.et  (see  above);  cov'et-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  cov'et-ing, 
oov'etiDg.lj ;  cov^et-er,  one  who  desires  wrongfully  4 
oovetoos,  kuv'.it.us  (not  kUv'.e.tchua),  greedy  to  obtain ; 
o^yetons-ly,  kiiv'.iUus.hf  ;  covetons-nesa,  kuv\H.ii9.nes»; 
cove4»«ble,  kuv'M.d.b%  worthy  to  be  wished  for. 
(Dean  Alford  says  covetous  and  covetousness  are  **  eom- 
menly  mangled  by  our  clergy"  into  *'covetioas"  anil 
••  covetiousnes'*." — Queen's  English,  p.  76.  j 
Lattn  eAjMus,  greedy  (from  cOpio,  to  desire). 

Corey,  kiiv\y,   A  brood  of  partridges,  &c.    (Fr.  couvie,  a  brood.) 

Cow,  plu,  cavn  or  kine.    Cow  rhymes  with  now  (not  coo). 

(Of  the  sixty-eight  words  ending  in  "  ow,"  ten  monoRylla- 

bles  and  two  dissyllables  have  the  "  on  "  sound,  like  *'  cow/' 

and  fifty-six  the  "o"  sound  like  ** grow."    See  Rule  lix. ) 

(Md  English  cH,  plu.  cy  (=ky).    Kine  is  a  collective  plural,  Jby-cin, 
corrupted  into  k-ne.    The  plural  suffix  -en  is  seen  in  ox-ttt, 

Obw  (to  dispirit),  cowed  (1  syl.),  cow-ing.  (Danish  kite,  to  subdue.) 

OowBxd,  kSw'.ard;  cow'ard-ly,  cow'ardli-ness  (Rule  xi.), 

cowardice,  kow'.ar.di8,  want  of  sourage.    {ow  as  in  noir.) 

French  couard,  eounrdise,  a  corruption  of  culvard  nr  culvert  (etUwr^ 
Old  English  cul/re,  a  pigeon).  In  heraldry,  coward  means  an 
animal  with  its  tail  between  its  leg*.     Latin  cHlum  vertifre. 

Oozeomb,  koaf.kdmey  a  fop ;   coxcombry,  kox'.kome.ry  (not  eox- 
conibery) ;  coxcomical,  kox.kom'.i.kdl,  foppish. 

The  ancient  licensed  jesters  were  called  coxcombs,  because  they  wure 
a  cock's  comb  in  thf  ir  caps. 

Coy,  shy,  demure :  coy'-ly,  coy'-new,  coy'  ish  (Rule  xiii.),  coy'isli- 

ly,  ooy'ish-ness  {-ish  added  to  adj.  is  diminutive). 

Fr.  e9i;  Lat.  quietus  (from  quies,  rest ;  6k.  k&,  to  lie  down  to  sleep). 

Ootea,  to  cheat.     Cousin,  a  relative,     {See  Cousin.) 

Oiabv  ft  crustacean,  a  wild  apple,  a  machine ;  crabb'ed  (2  syl.), 

unamiable;  crabb'-ed-ly,  crabb'-ed-ness  (Rule  i.) 

"The  crustacean,"  Old  Eng.  craJbba\  Lat.  caTdb\us] ;  Gk  kardhds. 
"  A  morose  person,"  Lat  crdbro,  a  hornet  or  waspish  person. 

Orack.    Excellent,  to  boast,  to  split,  to  make  a  sharp  noise. 

'•  In  a  crack  **  (instantly),  French  crae  ;  Latin  crepltu  digit&rium. 

Cracked  (1  syl.),  crack'-er,  a  small  firework. 

"Crack  **  (excellent),  T  at.  crepdre.  to  boast :  Fr.  crnquer.  to  boast 
"Crack"  (to  split),  Old  Eng.  erac[ian] ;  Germ,  krach  (n.);  Fr.  crae. 

Oriokle,  krak'.'l  (dim.  of  •*  crack  ") ;  crackled,  krakWd ;  crack- 
ling, krak\lingt  part.,  also  the  skin  of  roast  pork. 

^^ticknel,  krak'.vel,  a  brittle  cake.    A  corruption  of  the  Freach 
eroquignole  (kro.kin.yol),  from  croquet,  crisp. 
("  Take  with  thee  ten  loaves,  and  cracknels.,,''  X  Zgs.xxM.^,^ 


iro  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 


Cradle,  kray\d'l,  an  infant's  bed,  to  put  into  a  cradle ;  cradled, 

kray\d'ld ;  cradling,  kray\dling.    ("  Cradel "  is  older.) 

Old  English  cradel;  Greek  krddao,  to  swing. 

Graft,  a  trade,  guile,  a  small  ship.    Crafty,  kraf\ty ;  craf' ti-ly 

(Rule  xi.),  craf 'ti-ness,  skill  in  device,  cunning. 

Old  English  craft.  This  word,  like  ''cunning,"  had  originally  no 
reference  to  underhand  dealing,  but  referred  to  skill  in  workman- 
ship, knowledge  of  one's  trade,  contriyance,  &c. 

Crag,  cragg'-ed  (2  syl.),  rugged;  cragg'-ed-ness  (3  syl.),  Rule  i.; 
cragg'-y,  of  a  rugged  character;  craggl-ness,  a  craggv 
state;  craggl-er  (more  craggy);  craggi-est  (most  craggy.) 
Welsh  eraig,  a  crag  ;  Greek  7irac/i,[ia],  a  crag  or  rock. 
Cram,  crammed  (1  syl.),  cramm'-ing,  cramm'-er  (Rule  i.) 

Old  Eng.  crammtiianX  to  stuff ;  past  &rammode,  past  part  orammod. 
Cramp,  a  contraction  of  a  muscle ;  v.  cramped,  krampU 

Crampoons^  cramp-irons  for  raising  stones ;  crampons  (in 

Bot.)t  the  roots  which  serve  as  supports  to  ivy,  &c. 

Old  Eng.  hramma,  a  cramp ;  Fr.  crampon,  a  crampon  or  crampoon. 

Cranberry,  plu.  cranberries,  krdn\ber.riz  (not  cramberry), 

German  kranheere.  the  crane-beny,  so  called  because  the  fruit-stalks, 
before  the  blossom  expands,  resemble  the  head  and  neck  of  a  crane. 

Crane  (1  syl.),  a  bird,  a  lifting  machine. 

Old  English  erdn;  Welsh  garan,  the  long-legged  bird  (from  gar,  the 
shanks,  our  "gaiter").  Heron  or  hem,  is  a  variety  of  the  same 
word.    Greek  g^rdnJs;  Latin  flfru*. 

Cranium,  plu,  crania,  kray'.ni.um,  plu.  kray\n%.dhy  the  skull; 
cranial,  kray'.ntal,  pertaining  to  the  skuU. 

Craniology,  kray* .ni.oV\o.gy ^  now  called  phrenology, 
Craniologist,  kray\ni.oV\o.gi8t,  now  called  phrenologist, 
Lat.  crdnium,  the  skull ;  Gk.  krdnion  ("a"  short  in  Lat.,  long  in  Gk.) 
Crank  (a  machine),  a  conceit  or  twist  of  the  mind ;   cran'ky, 
crank'i-ness  (R.  xi.),  liable  to  be  upset,  crotchetinebs. 
Crankle,  kran'.Vl;  crankled,  kran'.kld;  crankling  (dim.) 

"Cranky"  (weak),  German  kranklich  (krank,  sick). 
"Crank"  (a  machine),  French  cran,  a  cog,  crank,  or  notch. 

Cranny,  a  chink ;  crannied,  krdn.nid  (adj.),  full  of  chinks. 

French  cran,  a  notch ;  Latin  crena,  a  notch  or  split. 
Grantara,  krun.tdh^rdh.     The   fiery  cross  which  formed  the 
rallying  symbol  of  the  Scotch  highlanders. 

Gaelic  crean  tari^fh,  cross  of  shame ;  because  disobedience  to  tha  sum- 
mons incurred  certain  infamy. 

Crape.    A  fabric.    (French  crSpe,  from  crSper,  to  curl  or  wrinkle.) 

Cratch,  a  rack,  a  manger.    Scratch,  a  slight  skin-wound. 

' '  Cratch, "  Ital.  craticia,  a  rack  or  crib :  Fr.  creiehe :  Lat.  er(Ue«,a  hordla. 
"Scratch,"  German,  kratze,  v.  kratzen,  to  scratch. 


J 


AKD  OF  SPELLING.  161 


Grater,  kray'.ter.    The  mouth  of  a  yolcano. 
Latin  crdier;  Greek  kraUr,  a  cup  or  bowL 

Graimch  or  Gnmch,  to  crash  with  the  teeth  (not  scrunch); 
crannched  (1  syl.)*  craonch'-ing;  cnmched,  cninch'-ing. 

Cravat,  kra.vaf  (not  krav'.at).    A  necktie. 

Trench  eravaU,  said  to  be  from  the  Crahats  or  Cro&U,  whose  linen 
and  muslin  neck  bands  were  introduced  into  France  in  1G36.  We 
have,  however,  the  Danish  kravtt  a  collar,  and  hravetf  a  little  collar. 

Crave,  to  long  for;  craved  (1  syL),  crav'-ing,  crSv'-er  (Rule  xix.) 

Old  English  erOffiianl  to  implore ;  Welsh  or^,  to  crave. 

Craven,  kray^-ven.    A  coward. 

In  former  times,  says  Blackstone,  controversies  were  decided  hj  an 
appeal  to  battle.  If  one  of  the  combatants  cried  out  Craven  (i.e., 
I  crave  mercj)  he  was  deemed  a  coward,  and  held  in  infamy  for 
not  defending  his  claim  to  the  utmost. 

Ciaw.     The  crop  or  first  stomach  of  a  hird. 

Norse  hraaty  the  crop  or  craw ;  Gkrm.  kragen,  the  neck  (our  "scrag"). 
Grawffih.    A  corruption  of  icrevUse  (French),  a  crustacean. 

Latin  eardbvs;  Qreek  kdrdboa,  a  crab  or  lobster. 
Crayon,  kray\on,  a  chalk  for  drawing.     Crayons,  chalks  for 
drawing,  drawings  done  in  chalk.    Crayoned  (2  syl.) 
French  crayon  (from  oraie,  chalk ;  Latin  oreta). 
Craze  (1  syl.),  to  distract ;  crazed  (1  syl.),  craz'-ing,craz'-y  (Rule 
xix.),  cr^i-ly;  crdzi-ness  (R.  xi).    Fr.  ecraser,  to  crush. 

Creak,  kreek,  to  make  a  grating  noise.     Creek,  a  small  bay. 
C^eak,  creaked  (1  syl.),  creakMng. 

Welsh  crech,  a  screech,  creg,  hoarse ;  French  criqtier,  to  creak. 
"Creek,"  Old  English  crecca,  a  bay  or  creek ;  French  criqiie. 

Cream,  kreem  (n.)  (v.  to  skim) ;  creamed  (1  syl.),  cream'-ing, 
cream'-y  (adj.),  creaml-ness  (R.  xi.),  cream -faced,  pale. 
Old  English  ream;  French  crime;  Latin  cr^mor,  cream. 

Crease,  krecej  a  mark  made  by  a  fold,  to  mark  by  a  fold,  <tc. ; 
ereased  (1  syl.),  creas'-ing,  R.  xix.  (Welsh  creithen,  a  scar.) 

Creasote,  kre\d.sote.    A  liquid  obtained  from  coal-tar. 
Greek  kreas  s6zd,  I  preserve  meat  (being  an  antiseptic). 

Create,  kre.ate\  to  make  out  of  nothing ;  creat'-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.), 
creat'-ing  (R.  xix.);  creat'-or  (R.  xxxvii.) ;  creative,  kr^.- 
aWiv ;  crediive-ly,  credtive-ness;  creation,  kre.d^shun. 

Creature,  kree\tchur.     Every  created  animal  or  thing. 
Latin  credtio,  creator,  crcdtwra,  a  creature ;  credre,  to  create. 
Credence,  kree'dence  (not  -dance),  belief;   credential,  kre.den\' 
shal;  credentials,  -shalz,  letters  of  testimony.     Creed. 
Gredendum,  plu.  credenda,  kre.den\dah.    Articles  of  faith. 

Credence-table.  A  small  table  to  hold  the  bread  and  wine 
before  consecration.    (Ital.  credenzat  a  shelf  or  buffet.) 

L 


1G2  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Credible,  krH\i.Vl  (not  -dbU),  worthy  of  belief  (Lat.  eridl- 
hilis))  credlble-ness,  credibly,  eredUiility,  krSd\%MK''i.ty, 

(Credulous,  kred'.uXm;  cred'ulons-ly,  ered'ttlouflvnaai. 

lAtin  cnMlut.    (The  '*  e  "  is  long  in  Latin.) 
Credulity,  kre.du'.li.ty.   Prone  to  belieye.   (Lat.  eridSUtat,) 

Fr.  or^denoe,  or^ibUiU,  cr4d%UiU;  Lat.  crid/ent,  eridSn,  to-btliere. 

Credit,  krSdf.itj  trust,  to  trust ;  cred'it-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  cxedlt-ing, 
credlt-or,  credit-able,  credltable-ness,  creditably. 

Credible,  worthy  of  belief;  creditable,  praiseworthy. 

Credibly,  trastworthily ;  creditably,  praiseworthHy. 

Oredlbleness,  probability ;  credltablenesa,  estimation. 

Fr.  cridit,  v.  oriditer;  Lat.  credit,  be  trosts,  eridUor,  erido,  to  tmst. 

Credulous,  kr^d'.u.liLs.    (See  Credence.) 

Creed.  Articles  of  religious  faith.  (Lat.  crS(2o,  I  believe ;  Fr.or^tiai) 

Creek,  kreek  (not  krik),  a  small  bay.    Creak,  a  harsh  noise. 

•*  Creek,"  Old  Eng.  crecea  ;  Pr.  erique.    "  Creak,"  Welsh  ertg,  bo«M. 

Creep,  past  and  p,p.  crept,  creep'-ing,  creep'-iog-ly,  creep'-er. 

Old  EngUsh  credp[an],  past  credp,  pant  part,  cropen,  to  creep. 
Latin  r^,  to  creep ;  Oreek  hirpd,  to  crawl. 

Cremation,  kre.may^shun,  a  burning  of  the  dead.    (Lat.  cr^mdUo.^ 

Cremona,  kre.m^.nah.  Violins  made  by  the  Amad  fiimily  and 
by  Straduarius  of  Cremona  (Milan).    See  CromornA. 

Creole,  kr^.ole.  A  Spanish  American  bom  of  European  parents. 

French  Creole,  a  West  Indian ;  Spanish  eriollo  (cria,  a  brood). 
The  word  means  a  "little  nurseling"  (criar,  to  nurseX 

Crepitate,  krep\i.tate,  to  crack ;  crepitat-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  crepitat- 
ing, crepitation,  kr^' .i.tay'' ahun,  a  cr&ckling  noise.^ 
French  cripUation;  Latin  crSpUare,  to  crackle  {cripo,  to  raU^X 
CrepuBCule,  kre.pus'.kule,  twilight;  crepus'cular  (a^.) 

French  erepuscule,  orepusculaire ;  Latin  crgprucfUnji^  twilight  (from 
cripira  [luzl,  doubtful  light ;  -culum  diminutive). 

Crescendo,  plu.  crescendos,  kre.8hen\do,  plu.  kre»8hen\doze  (Ital.) 
A  mark  (•<:)  in  music,  to  denote  that  the  force  is  to  increase. 
The  contrary  word  is  diminuendo  and  the  mark  (:>»). 

Crescent,  kres'^ent,  shaped  like  the  "homed"  moon;  poetical 
for  Tarkey,  a  crescent  being  the  national  symbol;  growing. 

Latin  crescens,  gen.  orescentis,  increasing. 
Cress,  plu,  cresses  or  cress.    A  spring  vegetable. 

Old  English  eerse  or  oresM;  French  oresson;  German  hrt$m. 

Cresset,  kri^,8^t.  A  beacon-light,  so  called  because  it.  was 
originally  surmounted  by  a  little  cross. 

French  eroiaetU  (dim.  of  eroix,  a  cross).    It  was  bf  canyiam  alKrai  a 
'*fleK7  croa"  arniw  were  at  one  time  aMemblcid  In.ibMeJtliiiidi. 


AND   OF  SPELLING.  163 

An  annorial  device,  &  bird's  comb,  the  cone  of  a  helmet. 
French  eruU  now  erHe;  Latin  eritttkt  a  erett. 

Cretaeeons,  kte.tay' x^ui,  chalky.    (Latin  crlta,  chalk.) 
Crevice,  Gtetis,  Grevaase,  hrSv\U$t  kr^.vee^,  krS.vasi'. 

Greyice,  a  chink.    CreTifl,  a  crayfish.    Crevasse,  a  huge 

rent  in  a  glacier,  &c. 

"  Crerioe  **  and  *'  OTOvaase  **  French  orertane,  a  cranny,  a  chink. 
*'  CmylSt**  Pr-  icrevis$e,  a  crayfish ;  Lat.  edrdbus;  Ok.  kdrOMs. 

(keW,  kroOy  a  ship's  company ;  pott  tense  of  oiX>w.     {See  Crow.) 

Cre'wal,  fine  worsted  yam.    Gmel,  inhuman  (both  krew'.el.) 

(Shakegpea/re  epeaki  of  "  cruel  garters." — K.  Lear,  ii,  4.) 

''Crewel,'*  corruption  of  clewd,;  eUw,  a  ball  of  thread  ;  Old  EagUsh 
^inoe,  a  hank  or  ball  of  wormed.    *'  Cmel,"  Latin  erudHis,  cmeL 

Cxib,  a  stall  for  cattle,  a  bed  for  infants,  to  pUfer ;  cribbed  (I  syL)^ 
eiibb'-iag,  cribb'-er  (B.  i.);  eribV-age,  a  game  at  cards. 
Old  English  cri^,  a  stall  or  crib ;  Welsh  eribddaU,  piUi^,  extortion. 

Cribble,  ftn6'.67,  a  corn-sieve ;  eribbled,  krih'.h'ld;  cribbling. 
(The  double  b  [as  if  from  "  crib  '^  is  a  blunder.) 
Fr.  eri&I«,  a  riddle ;  t.  eribler;  Lat.  eribrare,  to  sift ;  eribeUwn,mienre. 

Crick,  stiffness  in  the  neck.   Creek,  a  cove.  Creak,  a  harsh  noise. 

"Crick,"  Welsh  crlg,  a  crick ;  Old  English  hrase,  rheumatic  pain. 
" Creek,"  Old  English  orecca.    **  Creak,**  Welsh  creg,  hoarse. 

Criek'et,  an  insect,  a  game.    Crick'et-er,  one  who  plays  cricket. 

"Cricket"  (the  insect),  Welsh  erieiad;  Pr.  criquet-  Lat.  a-erid-ium. 
**  Cricket"  (the  game).  Old  English  criCy  a  club,  and  -et  diminutive. 

Crier,  kri\er,  one  who  weeps;  cries  (1  syl.),  cried  (1  syl.),  cry'-ing. 

Cryer.     The  town-cryer  or  bellman.    {See  Cry.) 

Crime,  sin  ("i"long  in  the  simple,  but  short  in  all  its  compounds). 

CriBiinal,  kfim'.i.nal;  crim'inal-ly,  crim'inal'lty ; 
criminous,  krim'.i.nus;  crim'inous-ly. 

Criminate,  krim\i.nate ;  crira'inat-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.),  crim'* 
inat-ing  (Rule  xix.),  crim'inat-or  (not  -er,  Rule  xxxvii.) 

Criminatory,  krXm'.i.na.fry.    Involving  crime. 

(In  Latin  the  "  cri-"  is  long  in  every  instance.) 
Latin  crimen,  erfmlneUis,  crVm/Cndtio,  ertmlndtor,  crlmXnosus,  &e. 

Crlxn.  CoA.     Contraction  of  "  Criminal  Conversation,"  meaning 
adultery.     Crim.  Con.  actions  cannot  now  be  brought. 

Crimp,  to  frizzle;  a  decoy ;  to  decoy  [sailors  and  fleece  them]. 

"Crimp"  (to  frixzle),  Old  English  ge-crympi,  curled;  Welsh  eriv^. 
"Orimp"  (a  decoy),  the  same  word,  meaning  "to  pinch  or  squeese." 
To  "crimp"  a  collar  is  to  pinch  it  into  litUe  furrows. 

Crimson,  krim\z'n,  a  colour;  orim'soned  (2  syl.),  crim'son-ing. 
ItalDu^  ertmt^no  (from  heriMS,  the  cochineal  insect). 


1^4  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Cringe,  kfinj,  to  fawn  with  servility;  cringed  (1  syl.),  czing'-ing, 
cring"  er  (Rule  xix.).  cringes,  krinf.ez. 

Old  English  crin^anl,  or  crindian\  to  cringe,  to  fawn. 
Crinkle,  krin'.Kl,  to  run  in  bends.    Cringle,  krin^g'lf  a  loop. 

Danish  kririkelrkrog,  a  place  with  tortuous  ways. 
Crinoline,  krln\o.lin  (not  krWodiney  nor  krin' .o.leen), 

French  crinoline  (from  erin,  hair :  Latin  crlnis  llnum,  hair  linen). 
(An  ill-formed  word,  which  ought  to  mean  "reddish  Virun^**  from 
crlnon,  a  reddish  lily.    "  Crinis  "  cannot  make  crino. ) 

Cripple,  krip\p%  one  who  is  lame,  to  maim ;   crip'pled  (2  sjl.) ; 
crippling,  krip\pling  (O.  E.  crepel,  a  creeper,  v.  cre6p\an]). 

Crisis,  plu.  crises,  kri'.sist  kri^seez,  A  decisive  or  turning-point. 

Latin  crisis;  Greek  hrisis  (from  krlno,  to  judge).  HTpocrfttfis  said 
that  all  diseases  had  their  tidal  days,  when  physicians  could 
"  judge  "  what  turn  they  would  take.    (First  syllable  short  in  Lat.) 

Crisp,  brittle,  to  curl;  crisped,  krlspt;  crisp'-ing,  crisp^nees. 

Old  English  crisp;  Latin  crUpus,  frizzled. 
Criterion,  plu.  criteria,  krl.tee' .ri.on,  kri.tee\ri.ah,    A  standard 
by  which  judgment  may  be  formed. 

Greek  kritSridn,  means  of  judging  (from  kritis,  a  judge.    Short  i.) 

Critic,  krif.ik;  critical,  krU\i,kal;  crifical-ly,  critlcal-nesB, 
criticise,  A;ri^.t.st2;«;  criticised  (:3  syl.),crit'icis-ing  (K.xix^), 
crit'icis-tr;    criticism,    krif.iMzm;    critique,   kri.teek^; 
criticisable,  krlf.i  size'\a.h%  open  to  criticism. 
Fr.  critique:  Lat.  critlcus;  Gk.  krltikds  (from  krind,  to  judge). 

Croak,  kroke  (like  a  frog).     Crook,  a  shepherds  staff. 

Croaked  (1  syl.),  croakMng;  croak'.er,  one  who  grumbles. 
Old  Eng.  cracet[an],  to  croak;  Lat,  crocio;  Gk.  kr6z6,  to  croak. 
Crochet,  Crocket,  Croquet,  kro^sha,  krok'.et.  kr<y.ky. 

Crochet,    krd^sha ;     crocheted,    krd'.shed ;     orochet-ing, 
krd^.8ha.ing,   fancy-work   done   with  a    hooked    needle.  • 
Also  (a  term  used  in  fortification.) 

Crocket,  krok\et  (a  term  used  in  architecture.) 

Croquet,  krd\ky,  a  game ;  v.  croqueted,  kro'.kade^  <fec. 

"Crochet,"  French  crochet  (croc,  a  hook,  and  the  dim.  -e<). 
"Crocket,"  French  crochet  (in  Arch.),  a  crocket. 
"Croquet,"  French  baton  armi  d'un  croc  (Du  Cange). 

Crock,  an  earthen  pitcher.     Crock-ery,  kr6¥.e.ry,  earthenware. 

Old  Eng.  croc,  a  pitcher ;  Welsh  crochan,  a  pot :  croche/twi^  pottery. 

Crocket,  krok'.et  (in  Arch.)    French  crochet,    (See  Crochet.) 

Crocodile,  krok' .o.dile  (not  kr6kf.o.dill),tL  reptile  of  the  lizard 

kind.    Crocodilea,  krok\o.diV'.e.ah,  the  crocodile  order. 

Crocodilean,  krbk'.o.dil.e.an  (adj.  of  crocodile). 

Latin  crdcddlUis,  crdcddllea ;  Greek  hri^ddeilds,  a  lizard. 

(" Crocodilea" not  " crocodilia," which Tneans thittUs.-^PHn. 27, 41.^ 


^  AND  OF  SPELLING.  165 

Groeus,  plu.  crocuses,  krd'.hus,  krS'.kus.iz;  croceous,  krd^fte.iu. 

Lat.  crdcus,  plu.  crdeif  the  saffron  flower ;  6k.  JbrdX^«,  the  crocus. 
GTomlecli,  krSm\lek,    A  huge  stone  supported  by  uprights. 

Welsh  cromlech  (erom  Uech^  an  incumbent  flag-ttone). 
Gromoma,  kro.mor^.nah  (not  cromona).    An  organ  stop. 

Cremona,  kre.mo.nah^  a  violin.    {See  GremOna.) 

French  cromome;  Italian  cromomo  ;  (German  krump-hom. 
Crone,  an  old  woman.    (Irish  crion^  withered ;  crionay  old.) 
Crook,  a  shepherd's  staff.   Croak,  kroke  (like  frogs).  Crock  iq.v.) 

Crook,  to  bend  into  a  curve ;  crooked,  krookt ;  crook'-ing. 

Crooked,  krook'.ed  (adj.),  not  straight;  crooked-ly,  krook\ 

ed.ly  ;  orooked-ness,  krook\ed.ne88, 

'*  Crook,"  Welsh  croca,  tortuous,  croeaUj  to  make  crooked. 
"Croak,'*  Old  Eng.  cracet[an] :  Latio  crOcto,  crocUo;  Greek  krdzd. 
*'  Crock,"  Old  Eng.  croc,  a  pitcher ;  Welsh  croehan,  crochenu,  pottery. 

Crop,  the  produce  of  a  field ;  the  craw  of  a  bird ;  to  lop  or  reap. 

Crop,  crept  or  cropped  (1  syl.),  cropp'-ing,  cropp'  er  (R.  i.), 
a  pigeon  with  large  craw ;  crop'ful  (Rule  viii.) ;  to  crop- 
out,  to  shew  itself  on  the  surface ;  to  crop  up,  to  reappear. 

Old  English  crop  or  crapp,  a  crop,  a  craw,  a  top,  whence  to  lop  or 
reap ;  WeUh  cropa;  Low  Latin  oroppa,  a  crop  of  corn. 

Croquet,  krS'.ka,  a  game.    Crochet,  kro'^ha,  work  done  with  a 

hooked  needle.    Crocket,  krdk^.et  (in  Arch.) 

"Croquet."  ordqiie,  oroguebois,  croouet:  *'Bdton  armS  d*un  croc,  ou 

qui  est  recourbi"  (Du  Cange,  viii.,  p.  115). 
"Crochet"  and  "Crocket,"  French  crochet,  dim.  of  croe,  a  hook. 

Crosier,  kro\zher.    A  bishop's  staff  surmounted  with  a  cross. 

Low  Latin  crocia,  crodarius,  one  who  carries  a  crosier. 
Cross.    A  gibbet,  ill-tempered,  to  pass  over,  to  cancel. 

Cross,  plu,  crosses,  kro8'.8ez.    A  gibbet  made  thus  (f,  X  +). 

Cross,  ill-tempered;  cross-ly,  cross'-ness,  cross-grained. 

Cross  (v.),  crost  or  crossed  (1  syl.),  cross^ing,  cross'-es. 

Crossette,  kr8t.8etf  (in  Arch.);  cross'-let,  a  little  cross. 

Crosswise  (not  cro88way8\  adv.,  transversely. 

Welsh  eroes,  a  crucifix,  transverse  :  Latin  crux,  gen.  cr&cig. 
"Cross"  (ill-tempered),  contraction  of  the  Fr.  courrouc6,  angered. 

Crotch,  a  hook  or  fork.     Crutch,  a  staff  for  the  lame. 

Crotch,  crotched  (1  syl.),  hooked;    crotch'-et,  a  note  in 

Music,  a  whim ;  crotch'et-y,  full  of  whims ;  crotch'et-ed. 

French  crochet,  a  little  hook,  dim.  of  croe,  a  hook ;  croehe,  a  note  in 
muflic ;  erocheter,  to  make  "crochets"  for  porters. 

Gr6ton-0il.     Oil  expressed  from  the  Croton  Tiglium. 
Crouch,  crouched  (1  syl.),  crouch'-ing.    Crutch.    {See  Crotch.) 
Wdah  erweoM,  to  bow,  cryeydu,  to  squat.    Old  Eng.  orue,  a  crook. 


1C6  EBRORS  OF  SPEECH  ?, 

Group.  loflammation  of  the  larjnx,  d^c;  the  buttocks  of  a  horse. 

French  tnmp  (the  disesse),  crvupe  (the  huttooks). 

Gnmpier,  kroc/.pX.^  or  kroo\pi,a,  the  ns^^istaixt  of  a  gaming 

table.    Crupper,  krup\per,  a  strap  of  a  saddle. 

*'  Croapier  **  sits  at  the  '*  oroup  **  or  hottom  ol  the  table. 

Grow,  a  bird,  an  iron  lever,  to  cry  like  a  cock,  to  triamph ;  crow, 

past  crew  [crowed,  1  syl.],  pant  part,  crowed  [crown]. 

Old  English  crdw,  a  c<x)w ;  Greek  h)r&n4,  a  crow. 
**  Crow-bar."  6k.  Jlrur<}n^,  a  plough  beam :  Wrieh  er»e»4>ar,  Acrom^bar. 
''Crow"  (verb).  Old  English  erdw[a»],  peat  creow,  p^p.  crifwen. 
Latin  crddfO ;  Greek  kr6a6,  to  crow. 

Crowd,  krmid  (to  rhyme  with  loud)^  a  throng ;  a  fiddle. 
Crowd  (verb),  crowd'-<ed  (Rule  xxxvi.),  crowd'*ing. 
Old  English  crydlian\,  past  credd,  p.p.  ge-cr6den;  eredd,  a  crowd. 
"Crowd "  (a  fiddle),  Welsh  crwth,  a  crouth  or  violin. 
Crown  (to  rhyme  with  town),  crowned  (1  syL),  crown'-ing. 

French  couronne;  Latin  cdrona;  Greek  kdrdni,  agariand. 
Crucial,  kru'MMl  (not  cru\8hejil),  severe,  crosswise. 

Lord   Bacon  says  that  two  different  diseases  may  run 
parallel  for  a  time,  but  must  ultimately  cross  each  other. 
The  point  where  they  cross  will  tell  their  true  nature. 
Hence  "  crucial"  means  that  which  tents. 
Crucible,  kru'M.bl.    A  vessel  for  melting  metals,  &c. 

Low  Latin  cruHbulwn,  the  little  tormentor  (from  crUclo,  to  torment), 
because  the  metals  were  "tortured"  by  fire  to  yield  up  tJieir  secrets. 

Crucifix,  krn' ,sx.jix.    (Latin  cruciiixuSy  fixed  to  the  cross.) 

Crucify,  kntM.fyy  to  fix  to  a  cross ;  omcifies,  kru'.8l.fiz€ ;  cru- 
cified, hrv^Mjide;  cru'dfi-er,  hut  cru'cify-ing.    (R.  xi.) 
Gru'cifix ;  crucifixion,  kru.si.Jik^ .shun,  hung  on  a  oroas. 

Latin  crU&(flgo,  supine  erik^Jiamm  (eruci  figtrt,  to  fix  to  a  ctom)  : 
French  crucifix^  cruG\ftxion,  cruc\fUr,  to  crucify. 

Crude,  krood,  not  complete ;  crude'-ly,  crude'-ness ; 

crudity,  plu.  crudities,  kru'.dl.tiz,  immaturity  (Rule  xi.) 

French  crudiU:  Latin  crvdus,  erUdttas;  Greek  kntdddM,  that  is» 
kruds  eidds,  resembling  cold,  henoe  uncooked,  raw,  ^o. 

Cruel,  kru'.el,  inhuman.    Crewel,  fine  worsted  {see  Crewel). 

Cru'el-ly;  cru'el-ty,  plu.  cruelties,  kru\el.t%z,  inhumanity. 

French  cruel;  Latin  crudelU,  cruel ;  orOdiliUUf  cruelty. 
Cruet,  kru'.et.  A  glass  "  castor."  (Fr.  cruche,  a  glass  vessel,  -et  dim.) 

(There  is  no  word  in  French  for  "  cruet-stand/'  or  a  "  set  of  caston.**) 
Cruise,  Cruse,  Crews,  all  pronounced  kruze. 

Cruise,  to  rove  about  the  sea;  cruised,  kruzd;  croi^ing, 
kru\zing ;  cruis-er,  hru\zer,  a  cruising  ship.   (Rule  xix.) 

Cruse,  a  small  cup.     (French  cruche,  a  jug.) 
Crews,  plural  of  crew,  a  ship's  company. 
French  eroiMr,  to  cruise  or  cross ;  German  ItreMonitf,  hnmtm 


•7  ^^^  O^  SPELLTN'O.  167 

Crumb,  kruTii,  a  morsel.  (The  "b"  %$  an  error.)  Cmmbed, 
krumd;  onunb-ing,  krUmf.ing,  breakiDginto  crumbs. 

Onuniny,  krum\my,  {IJ  ''crumb  "  is  accepted,  this  adj.  ought 
to  he  crumb-y.    Either  "  crumb**  or  "  crummy  "  is  wrong.) 

Cmmble,  hrum'.h%  to  break  into  crumbs ;  crumbled, 
kriimWld;  crumbling,  krum\bling;  crum'bler. 

Old  English  crume,  a  fragment.     (N.B.  crumb  meant  "crooked.") 
Oerman  krume,  a  cmmb ;  krumen,  to  crumble. 

Cmmple,  krum\p%  to  ruffle ;  crumpled,  krUm'.p'ld;  crumpling, 
krum'.pling ;  cmmpler,  krum'.pler,  one  who  crumples. 
Old  English  crump,  wrinkled :  crumb,  crooked,  awry. 
Cninch.     To  crush  between  the  teeth.    {See  Crannch.) 
Cmpper.     A  strap  which  passes  under  the  tail  of  a  horse. 
Croupier,  kroo\pi.er.    An  assistant  at  a  gaming  table. 
Both  from  French  croupe,  the  romp,  a  crupper,  Sm. 
Crusade,  plu.  crusades,  krU-sade,  krit-sddz,    "  Holy"  wars. 

Crusade  (v.),  crusad-ed  (B.  xxxvi.);  cru8ad-in<?  (R  xix); 
crusad.er ;  crusado  (a  Portuguese  coin,  with  a  cross). 

Cruse,  kruze,  a  small  bottle.     Cruise,  to  rove  about  tBe  sea. 

Crews,  |)2u.  of  crew.  (Fr.  cruche,  a  jug;  creuset,  a  crucible.) 
Crush,  to  squeeze ;  crushed  (1  syl.),  crush'-ing,  crush'-er. 

Italian  cro8ciOt  to  crush ;  Latin  crucio,  to  torment. 
Crust,  the  external  coat;  crusf-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  crust'-ing; 

crust-y,  hard,  morose;  crust'i-ly,  crust'i-ness  (Rule  xi) 

Latin  crusta,  crust ;  verb  cruMdre,  to  cover  with  a  crust. 
*'ftru8ty,"  morose,  is  ari'haic  erus,  wrathful;  c^oas,  corrupted  into 
curst,  a  contraction  of  the  French  courr(yuc4,  angry 

Crustacean,  plu.  crustaceans,  krus.tay\8S.anz,  oue  of  tbe  "crab" 

family.    Crustacea,  krus.tay' Jie.ah,  the  crustacean  class. 

Crostaceous,  krus.tay' .se.us  (adj.);  crustaceology,  krus,- 

tay' -scoV -o-gy',  a  description  of  crustaceans. 

French  crustacS ;  Latin  crusta  [animals  inclosed  in]  a  shell 
('*  Crustaceology  **  isa  vile  hybrid.    "  Ostrftcorogy  "  ioould  be  a  Greek 
compound,  but  "crustaceology"  is  haJf  Latin  and  half  Orede.) 
If  Mtradan  had  been  adopted  instead  of  "crustacean,"  it  would 
have  been  far  better. 

Crutch,  a  staff  f  ^r  the  Jame.    Crotch,  a  book,  a  fork ;  cmtched- 

friais,  krutcht  fri' .ars  (not  crotchedfriar8),fneiis  badged 

with  a  cross.     (Latin  crux,  crucidtus). 

" Criitch,"  Ital.  croccia,  a  fcrutch.    "Crotch,"  Fr.  erdchet,  a  hook. 

Cry,  cries,  krize;  cried,  kride;  cry'-ing;  cH'-er,  one  who  weeps. 

Cry,  plu.  cries  ( 1  syl.),  street  cries ;  cry-er,  the  bellman. 

Welsh  cri,  a  cry,  a  clamour;  French  crier,  to  cty. 

Crypt,  kript,  the    underground   compartment   o^  a  Cbureh; 

cryptic  or  cryptical,  krip\tl.cal,  secret,  hidden. 

Latin  erypta,  a  vault ;  Greek  krupU  {kruptd,  to  hide). 

Crypto-  (Greek  prefix).    Secret,  concealed. 


168  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH  '• 

. . _ * 

Cryptogamia,  krip''to.gSm"-tdh  (in  Bot.)    Plants,  like  mush- 
rooms, mosses,  ^c,  in  which  the  stamens  and  pistils  are 
not  manifest.    Crjrptogamio,  krip^-to.gdm^'-ik  (a(y.) 
Greek  kruptos  gamoa,  concealed  marriage. 
Cryptography,  krip,tog\ra.fy.     The  art  of  writing  in  cypher. 
Cryptographer,  krlp.tdg\ra.fer.    One  who  writes  in  cypher. 
Cryptographic  or  crjrptographical,  krip\to.grd}'\i.kdl, 
Greek  hniptos  grapJU,  secret  writing. 
Cryptology,  krip.toV.o.gyy  secret  language ;  cryptorogist. 

Greek  kruptos  logos^  secret  language. 
Crystal,  kris^taZ  (not  chrystal  nor  cristal)  n,  and  adj. 

Latin  crystaUum  ;  Greek  krustallos;  French  cristal  (wrong). 
Crystalline,  kris^tul.Un,  clear  as  crystal.     Milton  more  cor- 
rectly caUs  the  word  krls.tdV .lin,    {See  "  Paradise  Lost.") 
Latin  cryatalttnv^:  Greek  krustaXUnoa,  like  crystal. 
Crystallize,  krU' .tdLlize  (R.  xxxii.);   crys'taUized  (3  syl.); 
crys'talliz-ing.crys'talliz-er  (R  xix.);  crvstalliz'-ahle,cryB- 
tallization,  krW-tal-li.zay"'Shun,  congelation  into  crystals. 
Greek  krustcUlizo,  to  shine  like  crystal. 

Crystallography,  J{ri8\tdl.l6g'\rd.fyyScience  of  crystallization; 
crystaUographer,  kfU' .tdl.log'\ra,feryOne  skilled  in  the  above ; 
crsrstaUographic,  krls'.tdl.lo.grdfWk;  crystaUographicaL 
Greek  hmstoMoa  graphi,  a  writing  about  crystals. 
Crystalloid,  kri8\tul.loid.   (Gk.  krustallos  eidos,  like  crystaL) 

Cuh,  kuhy  a  young  fox,  bear.  &c.;  to  bring  forth  a  cub; 

cnhhed  (1  syl.),  cuhh-ing  (Rule  i.).     Cuhe,  kube,  q.v. 

Cube,  kubcy  a  solid  body  with  six  equal  sides.  A  number  multi- 
plied twice  into  itself,  as  3  x  3  x  3  =  27,  whence  27  ig 
the  "  cube"  of  3,  and  3  is  the  "  cube-root"  of  27. 

Cuhed,  kubed  (1  syl.);  cuh-ing,  kube'.ing  (Rule  xix.) 

Cuhic,  ku\b%k  (adj.);  cuhical,  ku'M.kul ;  culiiicaloly ; 
cuhiform,  kU'MJorm;  cuhoid,  kvf.boid,  or  cnboid'-al, 
an  imperfect  cube.    (Greek  kubos  eidos,  like  a  cube.) 

Cuhiture,  kvfM.tchur.    The  cubic  contents  of  a  body. 

Latin  cQJbua,  a  solid  square,  a  die  ;  Greek  hObds. 
Cubit,  ku'.bit,  20  inches,  the  length  of  a  man's  arm  from  the 
elbow  to  the  end  of  the  middle  finger.    Cubital,. A;a'.&{.taZ 
(adj.);  cubited,  ku^.blted. 
A  gallows  50  cubits  high  {Esther  vii.  9). 
A  gallows  of  50  cubits  high  (Esther  v.  14). 
In  the  former  of  these  sentences  "which  is"  must  be  sup- 
plied: "Behold  a  gallows  which  is  60  cubits  high,*'    The 
latter  is  not  good  English. 

Latin  cUMtum.  a  cubit ;  Greek  hOhitdn  (eu5o,  to  recline  at  t4ble  rwt> 
tag  on  the  elbow,  cf&btt?u8,  the  elbow). 


4  AND  OF  SPELLTXG.  169 

Cuckoo,  phi.  cackooB,  kook'.kot  kook'.kdze  (Kule  xlii.) 

French  catusott;  Latin  cUcUltLSi  Greek  kokkux,  a  cnckoo. 

Cuckold,  kuk'.kold.    A  husband  whose  wife  is  faithless  to  him. 

Cackoldy,  kuk'Ml.dy  (adj.);  cnckoldom,  kuk'.kdl.dum,  the 
state  of  being  a  cuckold;  cuckoldry,  kuk'.kol.dry. 

This  word  is  not  derived  from  cuckoo  (Latin  cHlcQIus),  but  from  cur- 
ruca,  the  bird  which  hatches  the  cuckoo's  egg  The  French  word 
is  eocu  not  coucou,  a  cnckoo.  The  Old  English  sutUz  -ol  [-old] 
means  "of  the  nature  of,"  "Uke,"  "full  of":  so  that  "cuckold" 
is  ciMrruc'-old,  like  a  bird  which  hatches  an  egg  not  its  own. 

Cacomber,  ku\kum.ber  (not  koo'-kum.ber,  nor  kow\ktim.ber). 

French  coiico7n&r«  /  Latin  dtct1m«r.    (Vaaro.) 
Cuddle,  kud'.dl,  to  fondle ;  cud'dled  (2  syl.),  cud'dling,  cnd'dler. 

Welsh  eueddol,  fondly  loving ;  tuedd,  fondness. 

Cud'dy.     A  ship's  cabin.    (Welsh  cauedig,  an  inclosure.) 

Cudgel,  kUd'.j^y  a  knobbed  stick,  to  beat ;  oud'gelled  (3  sjl.) ; 
cud^gell-ing,  cud'gell-er.    (Rule  iii.,  -el.) 
Welsh  cv)g,  a  knob ;  cwgyn,  a  knuckle ;  with  -d  dim. 

Caff^  a  wristband,  to  box ;  oafEed,  kuft ;  cofT-ing,  cufT-er. 
(For  rrumosyllahlea  in  /,  f,  «,  see  Rule  v.) 

Welsh  Cfwf,  something  put  over  another  thing,  hence  cwji,  a  hood. 
**Guff  "  (to  strike);  Greek  koptd,  to  strike ;  kop6,  a  striking. 

Ciri  bono,  ki  ho', no  (Lat.)    What's  the  good  of  it  ?    Who  will  be 
the  better  for  it?    Literally,  "  For  what  good  ?" 

Cniiafis,  kwe.rds'  (not  ku.ra8').    A  metal  breastplate. 

French  cuirasae  (from  c^cir,  leather,  of  which  breastplates  were  origi- 
nally made) ;  Latin  corium,  a  skin  or  hide. 

Cuifline,  kwe.zeen'.    The  cooking  department.    (French.) 

Col  de  sao,  plu.  cols  de  sac  (not  cul  de  sacs),  ku'd  sdk  (French). 
A  blind  alley.     "  The  bottom  of  a  bag." 

-cole,  -de,  -kle  (dim.  Lat.  suffix  -cul[u8']\  added  to  nouns. 

Culinary,  kvf .ll.na.ry  (not  kuV.i.ner'ry  nor  ku'.ntler'ry).    Per- 
taining to  the  cooking  department 
Latin  ciUlTUi,  a  kitchen ;  dllindrivs,  culinary. 

Cull,  to  pluck ;  culled  (1  syl.),  cull'-ing,  cull'-er  (Hule  v.) 

Ft.  eueUlir,  to  pluck ;  Lat.  colllgo  (con  fcol]  ligo,  to  gather  together). 

Cnlleiider  better  colander,  kuV.an.der.    A  strainer. 

Latin  colana,  strahiing;  c6lum,  a  strainer.  "Cullender"  is  quite 
indefensible,  it  is  wrong  in  three  places. 

Cnllifl  (bad  French,  for  coulis).    Strained  gravy.    (See  above.) 
Culm,  kiilm.    Stalk  of  corn,  anthrScite  shale. 

"  Colm  **  (stalk  of  com),  Lat.  culrmu,  straw ;  Gk.  kdldmds,  a  reed. 
«<  Calm  "  (shale) ;  Welsh  cwlm;  Old  English  c6l,  coaL 


170  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Culminate,  kuV,mtnate,     To  reach  the  highest  point. 

Cul'minat-ed  (Bule  xxxvi.),  cul'minat-ing  (Bule  xix.) 

Culmination,  kul\mi.nay"^hun.    The  highest  point. 
French  ctUminationf  ctdminer;  Ijatin  eulmen,  the  veitex. 

Culpable,    kul'.pd.b%    blamable ;     oul'pably,    cul'pable-iu 
culpability,  kul\pa.biV\i.ty,  blame-worthiness. 
Latin  culpSMlia  (from  culpa,  fault,  blame);  French  culpdbiHU. 

Culprit,  kul.prit.    One  guilty  of  a  crime. 
Latin  culpa  redtiu,  one  accused  of  a  crime. 

Cultivate,  kiiV.ttvdte,  to  till ;  cui'tivat-ed  (Rule  xxxvi),  cul'ti- 
vat-ing  (R.  xix.),  cul'tivat-or  (not  -«r,  R.  xxxvii.) ;  coltii- 
vable,  kuV.ti.va.b'le  (Fr.  cuUivery  cultivable);  cultiTa- 
tion,  kuV -t\.vay" 'ShuUi  tillage,  refinement. 

French  eultiver;  Italian  coUivare,  coltivazione,  coUivatore;  LatSn 
eulttu,  tillage.  "Cultivation"  ia  one  of  the  few  words  In  -Hen 
which  is  not  French. 

Culver,  a  pigeon.    (Old  English  culfre;  Latin  c^urnba,  a  dove.) 

Culverin,  kuV.vS.rin.    A  long  slender  gun.    (Fr.  eouleuvine.) 

From  couleuvret  a  snake;  Latin  dfliXber;  Italian  oolvbrina.  The 
resemblance  of  this  word  to  "  culver  "  is  merely  accidentid. 

Culvert,  kiiV.vert,     An  arched  passage  under  a  road,  dte. 
French  convert,  formerly  culvert,  v.  coumrir,  to  cover. 

CumHser,  to  overload;  cumbered,  kUm'.berd;  cum'ber-ing,  cmn'- 
ber-«r;  cumbersome,  kum\ber.8um  (-some,  Old  Eng.  suf. 
fix  meaning  "full  of");  cuml)erBome-nefl8,  Gumbxoua, 
kUm'.brus  ;  cum^brous-ly,  cum^brous-ness. 
French  enoomhre,  v.  enctymhrer ;  Latin  cUm/Sklare,  to  beiq»  up. 

Cumbrian,  kum\bri.an  (adj.),  applied  in  Oeol.  to  a  system  of 
slaty  rocks  developed  in  **  Cumbria,"  that  is  Cumberland. 

Ouml>erland,  properly  Comhra-land  or  ComharUmd,  the  land  of  val- 
leys ;  comba,  valleys  or  coombs  (Celtic).     Welsh  curm. 

Cumulus,  kitmf.it.lus  (not  ku' .mu.lus),  applied  to  clouds  when 
they  look  like  mountains.     (Latin  cumulus,  a  pile.) 

Cumulo-stratus,  kiim'.u.lo  atrd'.tUs  (not  ku'.mu.to  $trdh',» 
tfUe'),  the  cumulus  cloud  flattened. 

Cirro-cumulus,  sl/ro  kumf.u.lus,  small  camulous  clouds. 

If  e&milblus  is  from  the  Greek  kHma,  a  wave,  the  length  of  the  u  mm 
changed  when  the  word  was  adopted  in  the  Latin  language. 

^nind  (a  Latin  termination  denoting  "  fulness : ''  as  fo-eund,  fall 
of  speech  ("faii,"  to  speak);  fe-cund,  fiill  of  ifruit  ("fee," 
a  foetus);  jocund,  full  of  joy  ("Jove,"  "juvo,"  to  delight); 
v«r«-cun(2,  bashful  ("vSrSor,"  to  fear);  fuM-tftiiMi,  Aill  of 
redness  ("ruber,"  red). 


AND  OF  SPELLIXG.  171 

Cnntnl,  hu^.nSMy  wedge-formed;  ooneate,  W.ni.ate  (adj.) 

dmeated,  ku\nS.dXed,  tapering  like  a  wedge ;  caneiform, 
ku'.neXform,  applied  to  certain  letters  made  like  wedges. 
Thej  are  found  in  old  Babylonian  and  Persian  inscrip- 
tions.   (Latin  euneuSf  a  wedge ;  French  euniiform,) 

0«n''iibig,  artful ;  caii'ning-47,  ean'ning-nesB.     Originally  these 
words  denoted  **  skill  derived  from  knowledge." 
Old  Eng.  «unn[a»],  to  know  how  and  be  aUe  to  do.    (Ken  and  can.) 

Cap,  kup^  a  drinking  vessel,  part  of  a  flower,  to  scarify ;  cupped, 
kupt;  cupp'*mg,  cupp'-er  (R.  i.);  cupboard,  kub'.b'rd: 
cnpfnl,  plu.  cupfnlB  (not  eupsful).  Two  **cupB  full" 
would  mean  two  cups  filled  full;  but  two  ^'cupfuls'* 
would  mean  a  cupful  repeated  twice. 
Old  English  euppa  ;  Latin  cupa  or  cup^,  a  enp  or  tab. 

Cupidity,  k^.pidf.i.tyy  greed.    (Lat.  cUpiMtM ;  Fr.  cupidiU.) 

Cupola,  pUt.  cupolas,  ku'.pd.lah,  ku\p5.ldhz  (not  ku.po'.lah  nor 
eupulo),    Italian  cupola^  from  cupo,  deep. 

CupreuB,  ka'.prif.tu  (not  eupritu),  coppery ;  cuprite,  ku\prit,  red 
oxide  of  copper ;  cuprifezous,  /ete.|wi/'.«.ri&,yielding  copper. 

Latin  eupreus,  from  cuprum,  copper. 

Cur,  kur,  a  degenerate  dog ;  curr'-iBh  (Rale  i.),  like  a  cur  (-ish 
added  to  nouns  means  '*  like/'  but  added  to  adj.  it  is  dim,) 
Welsh  eor,  a  dwarf ;  Irish  gyr,  a  dog ;  Dntch, horre,  a  housedog. 
Curable,  ku'.ra.Vl;  curability,  ku'.ra.hW.i,ty.    {See  Cure.) 

Cura^oa,  ku\ra.8o'y  a  liqueur.    Curassoe  or  Curaasow,  ku.ras^io, 
a  South  American  bird,  like  a  turkey. 

dm^oa  is  made  from  Curofoa  oranges.    The  Curofoa  Islands  are 
near  Veneznela.    French  eurapao. 

Curate,  ku'.rate.    A  clergyman's  licensed  clerical  assistant. 

Curacy,  plu.  curacies,  ku\rajs%z.  The  parish,  &c,,  of  a  curate. 

Curator,  ku,ray'.tor.  One  who  has  the  charge  of  something. 

Latin  cw&tar,  euratio  (from  cfiro,  care). 
Curb,  kurb ;  curbed  (1  syl.),  curb'-ing,  curb-stone. 

French  courhe,  a  curb ;  cowber,  to  bend ;  Latin  eunnis,  crooked. 
Curd,  kurd ;  curd'-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  curd'-ing,  curd'-y. 

Curdle,  kut'-dH;  curdled,  kuf.d'ld;  curdling,  kurd'. ling. 

Welsh  crwd,  a  round  lump;    archaic  crvd  and  erudle.     The  old 
form  is  the  more  correct.     (Latin  crudus,  crude. ) 

Cure,  kure;  cured  (1  syl.),  cur-ing,  kur^.ing;  cur-er,  kure\er ; 
onr-able,  ku'.rd.b'l;  curable-ness ;    curability,  fcfi'.ra.- 
hiV\i.ty,  possibility  of  being  cured ;  curatiye,  ku'.ra.tiv. 
French  cure,  cwrcMft  ewer  (v.) ;  Latin  eO^ra,  eUraMlii. 


172  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

•   -•  -       —  I- 

Curfew,  kur^.fu.  A  bell  rung  in  former  times  at  8  o'clock  p.m., 
to  announce  that  it  was  bed-time. 

French  couvre-feu  [time  to]  cover-fire.    Where  wood  is  burnt  the. 
ashes  at  bed-time  are  thrown  over  the  logs  ;  and  nelt  morning  the 
whole  is  easily  rekindled  by  drawihg  the  blower  down.    In  some 
places  a  sort  uf  meat-cover  iis  put  over  the  logs. 

Curious,  ku'.H.ti8.  inquisitive,  remarkable ;  ca'rious-ly,  ca'rions- 
nesfl;  curiosity,  plu.  ooiiOBities,  ku.r%.d8\i.tU,  a  rarity, 
&c. ;  curioso,  plu.  coriosos,  ku.ri.d^so,  ku»ri.d' .soze,  one 
fond  of  collecting  curiosities.  (Rule  xlii.) 
(In  the  sing.  num. "  curiosity'*  ':neans  also  "inquisitivene$8.** ) 
Latin  curiosus,  c&ridsitas;  Italian  cwrioso  (from  cv/ra,  care). 

Curl,  curled,  kurld ;  curl'-ing,  making  curls,  a  game ;  cnrr-er, 
plu.  curl'-ers,  a  pLiyer  at  the  game  called  "curling," 
curling-ly;  curl'-y;  curli-ness  (Rule  xi.) 

Welsh  cwr,  a  circle,  with  -{  dim. ;  Latin  circfOXtLS^  a  little  circle ; 
Welsh  cwr;  Old  Eng.  circul;  Lat.  drcHlus;  Gk.  Mrkds,  a  circle. 

Curlew,  kw/.lu.    A  sort  of  snipe.    (French  eourlieu.) 

Curmudgeon,  kur.mud'.jun.    A  churlish  fellow,  a  miser. 
Old  English  ceorl-mddigan,  churl-minded  or  tempered. 

Currant,  kw/.rantt  a  fruit.     Current,  hut'. rent,  a  stream. 

"  Currant,"  a  corruption  of  Corinth,  the  **  Corinthian  grape. 
"  Current,"  Latin  cwrrens,  gen.  currentis,  running  [water,  &c.J 

Currency,  kui^ren-sy,  current  coin ;  current,  kur'rent,  v.s. 
Curricle,  kur^ri.l^l.     An  open  ciuriage,  with  two  wheels. 

Curriculum,  kur  rik'M.lum.    A  course  of  study. 
Latin  curriculvm,  a  race  course  (curro,  to' run,  and  dim.  -eulumy, 

Curry,  kur^ry,  to  dress  leather;  curried,  kur'rid;  cttiries, 
kur'riz ;  cur'ri-er,  one  who  dresses  leather  (R.  xi.),  hvt 
courier,  koo\ri.er,  an  expi'ess  messenger.    (Fr.  courrier.\ 

Curry,  to  clean  a  horse ;  to  curry  favour,  a  corruption  of 
curry  fawoel,  to  clean  the  bay-horse ;  currycomb. 
(**  Curry"  ought  to  be  spelt  cory.    "Currier'*  ought  to 
have  only  one  r  (corier),  and  "courier"  ought  to  kaoe 
double  r  (courrier).    Latin  "  ciurro,''  to  run. ) 
French  corroger,  to  curry;  corrogeur;  Latin  cdrium,  a  hide. 

Curry,  a  condiment,   a  food  prepared  with  curry ;   cnzried, 
kur' rid;  curry-ing,  hwi^ry.ing ;  curry-powder. 
The  mixture  invented  by  James  Curry. 

Curse,  hirse;  cursed  (1  syl.)  or  curst,  curs'-ing.     (Bule  xix.) 
The  adjective  is  curst  (yr  cursed,  kuj^-sed;  cni^sed-ly 
(3  syl.),  cur'sed-ness  (3  syl.) 
Old  English  cwrs  (noun),  cttr^ian],  to  corse ;  curaod,  cursed. 


AXD  OF  SPELLrXG.  173 

CaniTe,  kur^sfv,  flaent ;  omsive-ly,  cimiYe-nesB.    (Rule  xvii.) 

CiUfBory,  kur^^S.ty  (adj.),  snperficia];  canoii-ly  (adv.)  R.  xi. ; 

ciUBori-neflB;  omsitOT,  kuf'M.tor,  a  chancerr  otlicer. 
Trench  ewsim;  Latin  euraoritts  (from  curao,  to  run  aboutX 
Cnit,  angry,  a  corruption  of  cun^  cross,  whence  "  crusty." 

"  Cunt"  cows  [angry  cows]  have  curt  horns  [short  horns]. 

Trench  eourroueer,  to  anger :  eourrouXj  angrj,  cross  {c'rouct  cross, 
ftnd  e*uree  eur»  corrapted  into  curti). 

Curt,  hurt,  short,  abrupt ;  curf-ly,  oort'-ness.    (Latin  curtus.) 

Curt*  A  contraction  of  currenty  meaning  the  ••  present  [month]." 
The  month  past  is  ultimo^  the  month  to  come  is  proximo. 
"  Ultimo  *  and  **  proximo  "  are  nouns.  We  say  the  btk 
uUimo  or  proximo ;  but  "  cum^nt "  is  an  ai^j.  and  mu^t 
have  the  word  "month"  expre^seil :  as  tJie  current  month. 

Cozxente  calamo  (Lat.)  kur.ren'.te  kuV.a.mo.  Off  hand  (apptied 
to  composition).    Literally  "  with  h  running  pen." 

Curtail,  kur.tail\  to  cut  short;  curtailed'  (3  syl.),  ourtail'-ing, 
cortail'-er  (French  court  taller,  to  cut  short). 

Cnrtain,  kur^.fn;  curtained,  kur^.fnd;  cur|»dn-ing,  kur't'n.intj, 

French  oourUne;  Latin  Cortina^  a  curtain. 
Curtsy,  plu.  curtsies,  kur1f.sy,  kurt'.sxz ;    curtsied,  kurt^s^d ; 
ciurfsy-ing,  curfsi-er,  one  who  makes  a  curtsy.     Alo 
spelt,  but  less  correctiy,  curtsey,  plu.  curtseys,  curtseyed 
(2  syl.),  curtsey-ing,  curtsey-er.     {See  Courtesy,) 
French  courtoisie,  courtesy,  the  nianners  of  the  court. 
Curve,  a  bend,  to  bend;  curved,  kurvd;  curv'-ing  (Rule  xix.); 
curvature,  kur^.va.tchur ;  curvated,  kur'.va.ted. 
Latin  cwrvdrt,  to  curve ;  cwrvatura,  curvdtus,  bent. 
Curvet,  kw/.vet;  cur'vet-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.) ;  cur'vet-ing. 

French  courhette:  Latin  cttrpdre,  to  bend.    In  a  '•  curvet,"  the  horse 
bends  his  body  together  and  springs  out. 

CoBhlon,  koosKn  (not  JcusKn),  a  pad  to  sit  on ;  cushioned  (2  syl.), 
cushion-ing;  cushiouret,  a  little  cushion. 
French  covMin,  a  cu&hion ;  caussinet;  German  kissen,  a  cushion. 
Custard,  kus'.trd.    A  food,  a  slap  on  the  hand  with  a  stick. 

"  Custard  "  (the  food),  derivation  uncertain,  cus  is  a  cow  and  may 

acC'  unt  for  the  first  syllable. 
** Custard"  (a  slap)  is  a.corruption  of  custid,  Latin  custia^  a  dub. 

Custody,  kits'. t^.dy,  protection,  keeping ;  custodian,  kuH.t(/.d%.any 
one  who  has  the  custody  of  something ;  custos,  kus^tos, 
as  custos  rdtiUdrum,  keeper  of  the  rolls. 
Latin  custodiaf  custody ;  custos,  a  custodian. 

Custom,  kus^.tdm;  custom-er,  one  who  frequents  a  shop;   cus- 
tomary, kus\t6m.d.ry,  usual;  cus'tomari-ly  (adv.) 
Italian  coiiuiiM,  ooHumare,  customary ;  Spanish  costimbre.  ^ 


174  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Cut,  past  cut,  paxt  fart,  oat.'  Cut,  a  wound,  ta  wound,  a  print, 
a  make-up  in  dress,  to  divide  a  pack  of  cards ;  cutt'-er, 
one  who  cuts,  a  boat,  a  vessel  with  one  mast;  catf-ing, 
dividing,  sarcastic ;  cutting-ly  (Rule  i.) 

Derivation  oncertain.    Perhaps  a  corruption  of  curi,  Latin  etirtuc, 
short ;  cwrto^  to  shorten.  There  is  the  Welsh  word  cwtan,  to  tiiattem. 

CutaneuB,  ku.tay\ne.u8.    Pertaining  to  the  skin. 

Cuticle,  hu'.tLk%  the  scarf-skin;  cuticular,  kudW M.lar, 

French  cutaiU,  cutaneous;  cuticule,  the  cuticle.    Latin  OHtis,  the 
skin ;  c&tlciiia,  the  cuticle ;  cuticuldria,  cuticular. 

CutLasB,  kilif.la8.    A  sword.    (French  coutelas;  Latin  cuUelhu.) 

Cutler,  a  maker  of  knives,  <fec» ;  cufler-y,  kSi\le,ry, 

French  coutelier,  a  cutler :  coutellerie  (3  syL),  cutlery.    Latin  cuUer, 
a  knife ;  cultelltis,  a  little  knife. 

Cutlet,  kiif.let,    (French  cdtelette  ;  Latin  cultello,  to  cut  small.) 

Cuttle-fish,  a  molusc.  (Old  Eng.  cttdele  [Jise] ;  Germ.  JsutteUJUeh,) 
(From  kuttel  (guts),  referring  to  the  bladder  under  the  throat) 

Cwt.,  that  is  C  (100)  wt.  {weight)^  pronounced  hundred-weight, 

"  C  "  is  the  initial  letter  of  the  Latin  eentvtm^  a  hundreds 
-cy  (French  suffix  -cie),  added  to  abstract  nouns. 
-cy  (Lat. suffix -c[tt8]  or -t[i«]), denoting  "office, state, condition." 
Cyanate,  cyanide,  cyanite,  cyanosite, 

Cyanate,  si'.d.natey  a  salt  (cyanic  acid  and  a  base.      If 
potash  is  the  base,  the  "  salt"  is  cyanate  of  potash). 
(-ate  denotes  a  "  salt"  from  the  union  of  a/n  acid  and  a  bas€,) 

Cyanide,  sWd.nidey  a  compound  of  cyan'ogen  and  a  base. 
Thus,  if  iron  is  the  base,  the  compound  is  "  cyanide  of 
iron."    {-ide,  Greek  eidos^  resembling  kuanos,) 

Cyanite,  sl'.a.nite,  au  azure  bine  garnet. 
(-ite,  in  Geol.,  denotes  a  stone^  or  something  resembling  a 
stone,  as  ammon-ite,  cyan-ite.) 

Cyanosite,  si.an\5.8itethhie  vitriol,  native  sulphate  of  copper. 
Greek  kudnoa-iUy  a  blue  stone-like  substance. 
Cyanogen,  si.an\o,jen,  a  gas  which  burns  with  a  deep  blue 
flame  (Gk.  kHiunos  gennao,  I  produce  a  deep-blue  [flame]). 

Cyanosis,  si.an'.S,8^,  a  disease  characterized  by  blneness  of 
the  skin.    (Greek  kudnos  niisos,  the  blue  disease.) 

Cjranometer,  sud,nom\e.ter,  an  instrument  for  measuring 
how  blue  the  sky  or  sea  is.    (Greek  mi^trdn^  a  measure.) 

Cyanotype,  8i.an\8.type,  photographs  in  Prussian  blue. 
(Greek  kudnos  tupos,  deep-blue  type). 

Latin  cydnus,  a  blue  garnet,  cydnetu,  deep  blue ;  Ghreek  kudnos^  a 
deep-blue  substance,  kuanios  (adJX 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  176 

Cyebunen,  «{&^2a.9?i^  (not  ii.hlay' .meftC),  The  plant "  sow-bread." 
(This  word  ought  to  he'*  cyclamine/'  ail^.ld.min.) 

Latin  eydaminus;  Greek  kuklamlnos  (from  hukloa^  a  circle,  the  root 
being  globular^    The  chief  food  of  the  wild  1x>arB  of  Italj. 

Cycde,  si'.k'h  an  erer-recurring  period ;  eydical,  8ik\Vl.kdl  (adj.) 
French  cycle  ;  Latin  cydus;  Ghreek  huJdos,  a  circle  [of  phenomena]. 

Cydoid,  si'.kloidy  a  geometrical  cnrve;  cydoidal,  8l.kloy\ddl; 
cycloidean,  plu.  cycloideans,  8i.kloy\de.am,  the  fourth 
order  of  fishes  (Agassiz),  inclading  salmon,  herrings,  &c. 

Greek  kuJeld-eidis,  like  a  circle.  Imagine  a  nail  in  the  circnmferenee 
of  a  wheel.  Let  the  wheel  revolve  and  move  on  in  a  stndght  line. 
The  nail  would  describe  in  tlie  air  that  doable  motion,  and  the 
figure  thus  described  would  be  a  cjcloid. 

Gydoae,  phi.  eydones,  sV.klone,  8i.klonz.    A  rotatory  storm. 
Latin  cydua;  Qreek  kukHoSt  a  circle,  and  -9ne  augmentative. 

Cydopean,  8i.kl5\p^.an  (not  8i.klo.pee\an).  Huge,  the  work  of 
the  fabled  Cyclops. 

Latin  cydopeSf  cyclopitu;  Greek  huJddps,  huMGpeios. 

Cydopodia,  plu.  cydopiBdias,  si' .klo.pee" .di.ah,  plu.  -dz,  or 
en-cydopfedia,  a  dictionary  of  general  information. 

Greek  kuklda  paideia^  a  circle  of  instruction. 
CSydopterifl,  8i.kl5p\te.ri8.    A  genus  of  fern-like  plants. 

Greek  kuldds  pUria,  circle  [shaped]  fern ;  the  leaflets  are  round. 
Cygnet^  sig'.nit  (not  cignet).    A  young  swan. 

Latin  cygnua  or  cycnus,  a  swan  ;  Greek  huknds  (-and  -et  dim.) 

Cylinder,  siV.in.der,  a  drum-shaped  article ;  cylindrical,  stlln'.- 
drukal,  shaped  like  a  cylinder ;  cylin'drical-ly. 
Latin  cylindrus,  a  roller,  &c. ;  Greek  kiUindd,  to  roU. 
Cymbal,  sim'.bdl,  a  musical  instrument.    Symbd,  a  sign  or  type. 

"  cymbal,"  Lat.  eymbdlum;  Gk.  kvmbdlon  (from  kumhoa,  hollow). 
"  Symbol,"  Lat.  aymMla:  Gk.  aumbdUn,  a  mark  or  token. 

Cynic,  plu.  cynics,  8^\ik,  sW.iks^  a  misanthrope;  cynical, 
«{n^iA;aZ,  snarling;  cyn'ical-ly,  cynlcal-ness ;  cynicism, 
tlin\iMzmy  churlishness,  the  manners,  <&c.,  of  a  cynic. 

These  words  are  formed  from  the  ancient  sect  called  '*  Cynics,"  who 
snarled  at  every  article  of  luxury  [kunihOa^  dog-like). 

Csrnosnie,  8i\n5.8hure.    The  pole-star,  an  object  of  attraction. 

Latin  cyndaura;  Greek  kundaoitra  (from  kunda  ovra,  the  dog's  tail), 
meaidng  the  star  in  the  tail  of  Ursa  Minor. 

CypresBi  sV.press,  a  tree.    Cypris,  Cyprus  (see  below) ;  cyprine, 
iip'.rin,  adj.  of  cypress.     (Properly  the  &dj.  of  Cypris.) 
Latin  eypdriaaiu;  Greek  k&pdriaada,  kiipdriaainda  (adj.) 

Cypris,  sip^ris,  one  of  the  cyprididsB,  stprid'.i.dee,  a  genus  of 
minute  biviJyes  of  great  beauty  (Greek  Kuprii^  Venus). 


176  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 


Cyprus,  8i\pru8.    An  island  in  the  Levant',  sacred  to  Kuprit. 

Cyprian,  8ip\H.iin.    A  woman  of  immodest  habits.  . 

Cypriot,  slp.i^M,    An  inhabitant  of  C3rprus. 

Cyst,  a  bag  containing  morbid  matter.    Cist,  a  stone  box  for 
books  or  other  valuables ;  a  stone  coffin. 

Cystic,  8i8\tik,  adj.  of  cyst;  cysticle,  8l8\ti.k%  a  little  cyst; 
cystidisB,  8l8.tid'.i.e,  little  bladder-like  animals;  cystidia, 
sis.tid'.i.ah  (in  Bot.)  sacs  containing  spores  (1  syl,) 
*'  Cyst/*  Greek  kustis,  a  bladder.    **  Cist,"  Iiatin  cista,  a  chest. 
Cytherean,  8Uh\e.ree^\an,  pertaining  to  Venus  or  love.      So 
called  from  the  island  Gytbera,  sacred  to  Venus. 
Latin  CytMrelus  (adj.),  CytMrea,  Venus. 
Czar,  zar,  the  emperor  of  Russia ;    Czarina,  za.ree'.nahj  the 
empress  of  Bussia.   Czarowitch,  zar^ro.vitZy  the  eldest  son 
of  the  Czar;  Czarevna,  zd.rev\nahyvnfe  of  the  Czarowitch. 
Czar  is  the  Polish  form  of  the  Bussian  kaiser  (Csesar  or  emperor). 

Da  capo,  da  kah\po  (in  Mu8ic),  from  the  beginning. 

Italian  da  capo,  [repeat]  from  the  beginning  [to  the  end]. 
Dab,  a  ti>it  fish,  a  slap,  a  small  lump;   to  slap,  to  wet,  <bc.; 
dabbed  (1  syl.),  dabb'-ing,  dabb'-er.     (Rule  i.) 

Dabble,  da6'.67,   to  play  with  water,  to  do  in  a  small  way; 
dabbled,  dah'.h'ld ;  dabbling,  daVMing;  dabbler. 
"  Dab,"  Fr.  dauber,  to  beat  with  the  fist ;  "Dabble"  dim,  of  dad. 
Dace,  a  fresh -water  fish ;  Dais,  da\i8,  a  raised  floor. 
"  Dace,"  Dutch  daas.    *'  Dais,"  French  dais,  a  canopy. 
Dactyl,  dak\tll,  three  syllables,  the  first  being  long  and  the  other 
two  short ;  dactylic,  dakf.til.lk  (adj.) 

Latin  dactylus,  dactylicus ;  Greek,  daktiUds,  a  finger  (which  consists 
of  one  long  juint  and  two  short  ones ;  daktiilikds). 

Dad  or  daddy.     A  word  for  father  used  by  the  infant  children  of 
the  peiisantry.     (Welsh  tad,  father.) 

Dado,  pill,  dadoes,  da\dOy  da\doze,  (Italian.)   A  panel  round  the 
base  of  a  room,  just  above  the  skirting  board.    (R.  xlii.) 

Dffidalian,  better  dsedalean,  de.dal.e.an.     Cunningly  contrived, 
like  the  works  of  Diedalus. 
Latin  daddUiU  ;  Greek  daildU6s,  skilfully  made. 
Daffodil,  daf.d.dil.     The  Lent  lily,  a  pseudo-narcissus. 

Latin  asphddiliis;  Greek  aspMdiflds,  the  da€fodil. 
Dagger.     A  short  sword,  a  mark  in  printing  if). 

Low  Latin  daggeriiLs,  a  da^er ;  Italian  daga;  French  dagut,  a  dirk. 
Daggle  or  draggle,  dag\g'l  or  drag'.g'l,  to  trail  in  the  wet; 
daggle-tailed  or  dmggle-tailed,  having  the  skirt  of  the 
gown  bedabbled  with  wet  and  dirt. 
Old  English  ddg,  to  dangle  or  hang  in  a  slovenly  manner. 


AND  OF  SPELLING,  111 

Daguerreotype,  da.gai'/ro.tipe,      A  process  of  taking  likenesses 
by  sunlight,  discovered  by  M.  Daguerre.    (1841.) 

Dahlia,  plu.  dahlias,  generally  pronounced  day\ltdh,  but  ddh\- 
llMh  is  more  correct.    A  genus  of  plants. 
So  named  from  Andrew  Dahl,  the  Swedish  botanist. 

Daily.    Becurring  every  day.    {Daily  and  gaily  are  exceptionB  to 
a  very  general  rule.    B.  xiii.)     See  Day. 

Dainty,  plu.  dainties,  dain\t%Zy  something  "  toothsome  " ;  dain'ti- 

ly,  dain'ti-ness,  dain'ti-er  (comp.),  dain'ti-est  (super.) 

Welsh  danteiddiol,  dainty  (from  dant,  a  tooth);   Latin  dens,  or 
French  daintier,  a  venison  pasty  (from  daine,  a  deer). 

Dairy,  plu.  dairies,  dai'/ry,  dair^Hz,  the  place  where  milk, 
butter,  and  cheese,  are  made  and  kept  in  store ;  dair3rman, 
dairymaid,  dairywoman  (with  y),  (When  man,  maid, 
woman;  hood,  like,  ship;  ish,  ing,  ism,  are  added,  the 
"  y  "  final  is  not  changed.  Rule  xi.)  Chaucer  uses  the 
word  dey  for  a  servant  who  has  charge  of  a  dairy ;  Sir 
Walter  Scott  speaks  of  "the  dey  or  farm-servant";  and 
Junius  says  dey  means  "  milk." 
**  Dairy  "  is  the  cley's  ric ;  that  is,  the  farm  woman's  room. 

Dais,  {2a^M.    That  part  of  a  banqueting  ball  which  has  a  canopy, 

the  part  for  honoured  guests,  generally  raised.     Days 

(1  syl.),  plu-  of  day.    Deys,  plu.  of  dey  (of  Algiers). 

French  data,  a  canopy ;  sous  le  dais,  in  the  midst  of  grandeur :  doffiis 
Low  Lat.  ("  a  panni  genere  dcUt  dicto  "),  chief  table  in  a  monastery. 

Daisy,  plu.  daisies,  da\zy,  da\z%z ;  dasied,  da\zed,  covered  with 

daisies.     A  corruption  of  day's-eye.     (Rule  xi.) 

Old  English  dasges-edge,  a  daisy  or  day's-eye. 

Dale,  a  valley ;  dalesman,  -woman,  one  who  lives  in  a  dale. 

Old   English   dedgel,    obscure;    dedgelnes,  a  solitude.    Low  Latin 
dahu,  a  dale  ;  German  thdl;  Norse  dal. 

Dally,  dally,  to  toy;  dallies,  ddV.Uz;  dallied,  daV.Ud;  dally- 
ing ;  dalli-er,  one  who  dallies ;  dalli-ance.     (Rule  xi.) 
German  ddhlen,  to  dally. 
Dam,  damn,  dame. 

Dam,  a  maternal  quadruped ;  a  mole  to  confine  water ;  to 
stop  the  flow  of  water ;  dammed  (1  syl.),  damm-ing  (R.  i.) 
Damn,  dam.    To  condemn.    (Latin  damndre,  to  condemn.) 
Dame,  ddim.    (French  dame ;  Latin  domina,  mistress.) 

"  Dam  "  (mother  of  a  young  beast),  Fr.  davM  :  Ital.  dama,  a  lady. 
A  mill  [dam],  Danish  daTn,  a  pond  or  dike. 
German  damm,  a  dam ;  verb  dammen,  to  dam. 

Damage,  ddm'.idge,  injury,  to  injure ;  damaged  (3  syl.),  dam'ag- 
ing  (R.  xix.);  damages,  dam'.a.jez  (-s  added  to  -ce  or  -ge 
forms  a  distinct  syl.,  R.  xxxiv.);  dam'age-able  (words 
ending  in  -ce  or  -ge  retain  the  "  e  "  before  the  suflBx  -able). 

Old  English  dem,  hurt ;  French  dommage;  Latin  damnvm,  loss. 

M 


178>  '  EMii<mS  Of  SPEECH 


Bajnaak,  dam'. ask,  cloth  with  flowers  wioiight  ka  it;  Viorb 
damiwked,  dam^asht;  d^Qifuak-iAg. 

Da^joasJ^een,  dam\&i,keen\  to  inlay  steel  witik  gold  or  silver ; 

dam'askeeQed'  (3  syl.))  da«^'a«keeQ,'-iag. 
Bamaskii^  dam\as.kihiz,    Damascus  blades. 

Dan^son,  a  corruption  of  "  damascene  "  (dam':a.seen'),    A 

plum.    (AU  from  Damascus^  in  Syria.) 
Fr.  diim(uqu.i(MT,  to  damaskeen ;  damoMer,  to  damask,  damat  (n.) 
Dame  (1  jsyl.),  fem.  of  baronet  or  knight,  now  called  "  lady." 
Thie  word  is  still  used  in  the  compound  dame's-iBchool, 
a  school  for  poor  chilc^ren  kept  by  an  elderly  woman. 
French  dame  (Madame) ;  Latin  d&mina  (from  ddmtu,  the  honse). 
Damn,  to  condemn.    Bam,  the  mother  of  a  young  quadruped. 

Dam^ied,  damd;  di^mairing,  dokta'-rimg  (not  damping  like 
the  pres.  part,  of  danif  q.y.,  stopping  the  flow  of  water.) 

Damnable,  dam'.nd.h'l  (not  d&m\d.Vl) ;  damnably. 

Damnation,  dammay'^hun;  damnatory,  dam\nd.Vry. 

Latin  danvnart,  to  condemn,  damndtio,  damndtoriut. 
French  damnable,  damnation,  damTier  (verb.) 

Damnify,  ddm'.nM.fy,  to  injure.  Indemmfy,  to  insure  against 
injury,  to  repair  an  injury. 

Damnifies,  dam'.ni.fize;  Indemnifies. 
Damnified,  dam\ni.fide ;  XnAemnified. 
Di^mntfication,  dchm'-nUfi'Caitf'ihiu.n;  IndemnlQcaticm. 
Latin  dam.'oXS'icSxe  (danvMimfa/sw,  to  cause  loss.) 

Damp,  moist,  to  make  moist;  damped,  dampt;  damp^-iog; 
damp'-er,  a  contrivance  to  abate  a  draught  or  sound,  one 
who  damps;  damp'-er  (n;iore  damp),  damp'-est  (most 
damp),  damp'-ness ;  damp^-ish,  rather  damp  {-u^  added 
to  adj.  is  dim.) ;  dampish-Iy,  dampish-ness. 

Dampen,  to  make  damp ;  dampen,ed,  damp\end  ;  daa^n- 

ing,  damp'-ning ;  dampen-er,  damp'.ner. 
German  damp/,  damp ;  damp/en,  to  damp  ;  dampfer,  &c. 

Damsel,  ddm\zel^  a  girl  (Low  Lat.  damisella,  Old  Fr«  daaoUeUe 
(ma-demoiselle),  dim.  of  darne  and  maddTM,  onginally 
damoisel  was  applied  to  the  sons  of  noblemen  ajad  kings. 
"  Pages  "  were  so  styled  (from  Latin  dSminw). 

Damson,  ddm\z'n,  a  plum.  Corruption  of"  damascene**  {ddm\ 
d8.8een).    From  Damascus,  in  Syria. 

Dance,  danced  (1  syl.),  danc'-ing,  danse'-ing;  d^i^c-er,  dmse'^er 
(Rule  xix.)    (French,  darvsery  to  dance). 

Dandelion,  dan* -d^.U-^y  a  flower.  (Fr.  dent  de  lion,  lion's  tooth). 
Its  leaves  4ro  suppose4  to  resemble  the  teeth,  of  Uo^^ 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  179 


Bftndla,    4tei^d%  to   fbndle;    dandled,   dcm'.dld;    dftndliniTf 
dan'Ming ;  dandier,  dam^dUrt  one  who  fondles. 
ItaHan  dmdola,  a  child's  doU,  4imMar$,  to  to«  MMltwteg  aboat 
Dandriff  or  DandmfiE.    Scurf  on  the  head. 

Old  Eng.  tdnede  dr^,  one  diseased  with  dirtf  or  troublesome  tetter. 
Dandy,  plu,  dEmdies,  dSn\dftz,  a  fop ;  dandy-ish,  dandy-inn. 

French  dand/y,  dandin,  a  ninny ;  dandiner,  to  "tndpse  "  about. 
Dane  or  Dansker,  a  natiye  of  Denmark.    Deign,  to  Youchiafs. 
Danish,  day^nish  (adjective  and  noan)^    Bule  zix. 

DaiMigrM.  da/ne^geld  (not  danegelt),    Danish  tribute. 

Old  Bogliflh  dane-gdd  ('^geld  **  is  Uibute,  but  '^gelt "  is  giU). 

Danger,  dain^j^,  peril ;  danger-ooa,  dam\jifr.u» ;  dan^gerons- 
ly,  dan''gexous»nes8.    (Freneh.  danger,  dangereiuc.) 

Dangle,  dan\g%  to  hang. so  as  to  swing  about;  dangled,  ddn\- 
g'ld;  dangling,  dun\gling ;  dangler,  dan'.gler. 

Dank,  dank'-ish,  rather  dank  (-ish  added  to  adj,  is  dim.,  added 
to  nouns  it  means  "  like  **) ;  dankish-ness. 
Same  word  as  dampf  with  "  k  "  diminutive. 

Dannbian,  da.nu\M.Snt  ac^ectiye  of  Danube. 

Daphne,  ddf\ne.    The  spurge  laurel.    Daphne  the  daughter  of 
Peneus  (Pe,nee\us)  was  changed  into  a  laurel. 

Dapper.    Natty  in  dress  and  manners,  smart.    (Dutch.) 

Dapple,  (Zop'.p'Z,  spotted,  to  spot;  dappled,  d^j/.p'ld;  dappling, 
da^.]BSmg  {double p),  {Qermaa  apfsl^rcm,) 

Dare.    To  yenture ;  to  defy  or  challenge. 

Dare  (to  Tenture,  to  haye  courage),  past  durst. 

Dare  (to  defy),  past  dared  (1  syl.),  past  pofrt.  dared. 

He  dare  not  is  strictly  correct,  but  he  dares  not  is  more 

usuaL     Sir  Walter  Scott  (Waverley)  says:  "A  bard  to 

sing  of  deeds  he  dare  not  imitate."    61  Old  Eng.  the  verb 

was  [I]  dear,  [thou]  dearest,  pie]  dear,    **  You  dare  not  so 

have  tempted  him,  should  be  You  durst  not  so.,, 

**  Dare  "  (to  hare  courage).    Old  English  dear,  past  donte. 
"  Dared  "  (provoked,  defied)  is  more  modem. 

Dark  (noun) ;  darken,  dark'n,  to  make  dark;  dark'ened  ('2  syl.), 

darkan-ing,  (2arii<.ntn^ ;  dark'^ness,  dark'-ly;  dark'-ish, 

cather  dark  {-ish  added  to  acy.  is  dim.)  darknling  {-ling. 

Old  Eng.  means  "  offspring  of,"  or  is  simply  a  diminutive). 

Old  Engiish  dears,  v^  deardiian],  past  dtaroode,  past  part  dearood. 

Darling,  noun  and  adjective,  dear-one,  dearly  beloved. 

Old  EngUsh  deorling,  litUe  dear-one  {-Hng,  dim.  or  "  offspring  of.") 
Dam,  to  mend;  darned,  (1  syl.),  dam'-ing,  dam'-er. 

WeLdi  dam,  a  patdi ;  v.  da/mio,  to  patch ;  damiad,  a  piecing. 


180  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Dart,  noun  and  verb  ;  darf -ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  dart'-ing,  darf-er. 

French  dard,  ▼.  da/rder;  Low  Latin  dardus,  a  dart 
Dash,  noun  and  verb;    dashed  (1  sjL),  dash'-ing,  dash'-er, 
dash'-board,  a  defence  in  carriages  against  splashes. 
Danish  dcuk,  a  tHa^ ;  ▼.  daeike,  to  slap  or  dash. 
Dastard,  das^tardy  a  coward ;  dastard-ly,  dastard-ness. 

Old  English  a-dattrigany  to  terrify. 
Date,  a  fruit,  the  tiijie  of  an  event,  to  give  the  date ;  dat-ed 
(Rule  xxxyi.),  dat-ing  (Rule  xix),  date-less  (Rule  xvii.) 
French,  date,  ▼.  dater;  Danish  datere,  to  date. 
Datum,  plu.  data,  day'.tdh  (Latin).    Things  admitted  as  facts. 
Daub,  a  coarse  painting,  to  smear;  daubed  (1  syl.),  dauV-ing, 
daub'-er;  daub'-y,  adj.    (Welsh  dwbio,  to  daub,  dwb.) 

Daughter,  daw'.tery  a  female  offspring  of  human  parents;  a 

male  offspring  is  the  Son  of  his  parents. 

Daughter-in-law,  plu.  daughtenp-in-law. 

Step-daughter,  plu.  step-daughters.    (Old  English  stepcm, 

to  bereave :  a  daughter  "  bereaved  of  one  parent.") 

Old  Eng.  dShier:  German  tocMer;  Danish  daUer;  Greek,  thugdtir. 

Daunt  (rhyme  with  aunt),  to  dismay ;  daunf -ed  (Rule  xxxvi.), 

daunt'-ing,  daunt^-less,  dauntless-ly,  dauntless-ness. 

French  dompter,  to  tame  (animals) ;  Latin  ddmitare  (from  ddmdre). 

Dauphin,  fern,  dauphiness,  daw'.finy  daw'.fin.ess.     Dauphin 

the   eldest   son   of   the   king  of   France    (1349-1830); 

"  dauphiness,"  the  wife  of  the  dauphin. 

So  called  fjrom  Dauphin4,  an  old  province  of  France,  given  to  the 
crown  by  Humbert  II.,  on  condition  that  the  eldest  son  of  the 
king  assumed  the  word  **  dauphin  "  as  a  title. 

Davy-lamp,  day\vy  lamp.    A  miner's  safety-lamp. 

Invented  by  Sir  Humphrey  Davy,  and  called  by  his  name. 

Dawdle,  daw'.d'l,  a  loiterer,  to  fritter  away  time;  dawdled, 
daw\dld;  di^wdling,  dawd'.ling ;  dawdler,  dawd.ler. 

Dawn,  day-break,  to  begin  to  grow  light;  dawned  (1  syl.), 
dawn'-ing.    (Old  Eng.  dagung,  dawn ;  dag[ian],  to  dawn.) 

Day,  plu.  days  (R.  xlv.);  daily  (not  dayly,  as  it  ought  to  be, 
R.  xiii.),  adj.  and  adv.;  day  by  day,  every  day  (here  by 
means  after,  succeeding -to);  to  day,  this  day  (Old  Eng. 
to-dceg,  this  day ;  to-afen,  this  evening) ;  daybreak,  day- 
spring,  dawn ;  to  win  the  day,  to  gain  the  victory. 

Dey.     The  title  of  the  governor  of  Algiers,  before  its  con- 
quest by  the  French. 

Old  English  dceg,  day ;  d(eg-tima,  day-time ;  dag-candelf  the  sun. 
"  Dey,"  Turkish  ddi,  a  title  similar  to  senior,  father,  &c 

Daysman.    An  umpire,  mediator.     (Job  ix.  33.) 

A  corruption  of  daxs-man,  a  man  who  sits  on  the  daU  to  Judge. 

Day>-work,  work  by  the  day.    Day^s-work,  tbe  work  of  a  day. 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  181 

Daze  (1  syl.),  to  stupefy;  dazed  (1  syl.),  daz'-ing  (Rule  xix.) 
Old  Englteh  dy«,  seen  in  dysig,  foolish  :  dyngiian\  to  be  a  fool. 

Dazzle,  daz'ji\  to  overpower  with  light;   dazzled,  ddz'.z'ld; 
dazzling,  dafding;  dazzling-ly,  dazzle-ment. 
Old  English  dyrignes,  dizziness ;  dysitflicm],  to  make  diuy. 

Be-  (Latin  prefix),  motion  down  or  hack,  hence  "  the  reverse." 

**  D£  "  (preflxt)  denotes  privation, 
Diminution,  and  negation. 
Motion  from  or  downward  states, 
Reverses  and  extenuates. 

Deacon,  fern,  deaconesa,  deef .kon-ess ;  deaoonHship,  office  of... 

Latin  dAacdnua:  Greek  diaJednos  (from  didk&nio,  to  serve.) 

Dead,  ded,  lifeless ;  dead'-ness,  dead'-ly,  dead'li-ness  (B.  xi.) ; 

deaden,  d^d^n,  to  numh,  to  ahate  force ;  deadened,  dSd\n"d  ; 

deaden-ing,  ded'.ning ;  deaden-er,  death  (g.v.) 

Old  English  dedd,  deddiian},  past  deddode,  p.p.  deddod. 

Deaf,   dSf  (R.  vi.),  without  "  hearing ; "  deaf -ly,  deaf-neas ; 

deieifen,  dSfn,  to  make  deaf;  deafened,  defnd;  deafen-ing, 

def.ning.    (Old  Eng.  deaf  (adj.),  deafe  (noun)*) 

Deal,  deelt  a  large  part,  fir  or  pine  wood ;  to  distribute  cards, 
to  traffic ;  past  and  p.p.  dealt,  delt ;  dear-ing,  deal'-er. 

To  deal  with  A.  B.,  to  treat  with  A.  B. 

To  deal  hy  A.  B.,  to  treat  A.  B.  well  or  ill. 

To  deal  to  A.  B.,  to  give  the  next  card  to  A.  B. 

A  great  deal  hetter ;  i.e.,  better  by  a  great  deak 

Deal  now  means  a  large  portion,  bat  ddkl  formerly  meant  a  portion 

or  lot  (v.  dd1\(m\  to  distribute) ;  past  ddlde,  past  part.  dMed. 
**  Deal"  (wood),  German  dieU,  a  plank  or  board. 

Dean,  deen»    Title,  The  Very  Reverend;  Address,  Mr.  Dean. 

Dean^-ery,  the  office,  revenue,  house,  or  jurisdiction  of  a 
dean  ;  mral-dean,  plu,  rural-deans.    Dene,  a  down,  q.v. 

Dean  and  chapter,  the  bishop's  council,  including  the  d  ean. 

French  doy^n. ;  Latin  decanus,  leader  of  a  file  of  soldiers  ten  deep  : 
the  head  of  the  bishop's  council,  which  originally  consisted  of  ten 
canons  and  prebendaries  (from  Greek  di(ka,  ten.) 

Dear,  beloved,  expensive.    Deer,  a  stag.     (Both  deer.) 

Dear,  dear-ness ;  dear'-ly,  fondly,  high  in  price. 

He  i>aid  dearly  for  his  folly  (not  he  paid  dear...) 

Dear  me !  a  corruption  of  dio  mio  (Ital.) 

Old  English  de&r^  beloved,  ejq>ensive  ;  also  "  a  deer." 

Dearth,  derth,  scarcity. 

French  dear^  as  "length"  from  long,  &o.  So  in  German  tfteuer, 
dear :  theure  zeit,  dearth  (dear  time). 

Death,  df^th ;  death'-less,  death'-like,  &q.    (See  Dead.) 

Old  English  doeth  or  dedlh. 


182  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Debar,  disbar;  -barred,  -hard;  -barr^-ing  (Bulel) 

Debar',  to  deprive,  to  forbid.    (The  Fr.  debarrer  is  nn-bar.) 

Disl)ar^.    To  take  from  a  barrister  his  right  to  plead. 

Debase'  (2  syl.)*  to  degrade;  debased'  (3  8yl.),deba8''-iiig  (R.  xix.), 
debas-er  (one  who  debases),  debase'-meat 

Debate'  (3  syl.).  to  argue ;  debaf -ed  (Rule  xxxvi.),  deb&f -ing, 
debating-ly,  d^at'-er  (Rule  xix.),  one  who  debates. 
French  d^at,  v.  debattre  (battre,  to  beat) ;  Spanish  debate. 

Debauch,  de.hortch\  intemperance,  to  corrupt,  to  vitiate; 
debauched'  (2  syl.).  debauGh'-ing;  debaach'-er,  one  who 
debrtuches;  debauchery,  de.&ortc/i^^.r^ ;  debauch'-ment ; 
debauchee,  deh\o.8he'\  a  man  of  intemperate  habits. 

Debenture,  de.hSn'.tchnry  an  acknowledgment  of  debt  bearing 
interest  to  the  holder;  debentured,  de.hSn'.tchurd,  per- 
taining to  goods  on  which  debentures  have  been  drawn. 
French  dibeiUwe  (from  the  Latin  d(^>eo,  to  owe  [money]). 

Debilitate,  deMV.i.tate,  to  weaken ;  debil'itat-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.); 

debilltat-ing  (R.  xix.) ;  debilitation,  de  hiV .Ltay" .shun, 

state  of  weakness ;  debility,  de.biV.i.ty,  weakness  of  health. 

French  dibilU&r.  debilitation  ;  Latin  debttitdre  (to  weaken),  debilitae, 
debilia,  weak  (de  fioMlis  not  futbiUf  or  of  sound  constitution.) 

Debit,  deb\it  (n.  and  v.),  an  entry  (or)  to  enter  a  customer's 
name  on  the  debtors'  side  of  a  ledger ;  deb'it-ed,  deb'it-ing. 
Latin  debSre,  supine  dSbUum^  to  owe.    (In  LaUn  d^  Lb  long.) 
Debonair,  d^&'.o.natr",  gentle  and  courteous ;  debonair'ly. 

French  dSbonnaire;  that  is,  de  hon  air,  of  good  air  or  mien. 
Debouch,  'de-hoo8h\  to  march  out  of  a  defile ;  debouched'  (3  syl.) ; 
debouch'-ing,  de.hoosKdng  (not  de.bootch'.ing);  debouch- 
chure,  dib\oo.8hure\  the  mouth  of  a  river. 
French  d4b(yuch4,  v.  dSbotkcher,  d^boudiment  {de  bouche,  from  the  mouth. ) 
Debris,  da.bree'.    Rubbish,  fragments  of  rocks,  <fec. 

French  dibris,  plural  noun  (from  de  bris,  out  of  the  wreck). 
Debt,  dSt,  something  due ;  debt-or  (not  -er\  dif.-Sr  (6  mute). 

Latin  dSbttum,  debitor  (from  deb^^  to  owe). 
Debut,  da.boo\    First  appearance  as  a  public  character. 
Debutant,  fem,  debutante,  deb'.oodaKn,  deb\oo.tant, 
French  d^it,  d^bviant,  d^nUante,  v.  d^buter  {de  but,  from  the  goalX 
Deca-,  deka  (Greek  prefix  meaning  ten). 

Deca-chord.    A  musical  instrument  with  ten  strings. 
Deca-gon.    A  plane  figure  with  ten  angles  (^dnto,  an  an^e.) 
Deca-gjm'ia.     Plants  with  ten  pistils  (Gk.  gunS,  females). 
Doca-hed'ron.    A  solid  figure  with  ten  sides  {?iedra,  a  base). 
Deca-litre,  -lee'tr.     A  measure  often  "litres"  (quarts). 


AND  OF  SPELLWO,  183 

Deca-logne,  -Jog^  The  commandments  (2o^i»,  [God's]  word). 

Deoa-metre,  -mee^fT,    A  measure  of  ten  "  metres  "  (yards). 

Dec-an'dHa.    Plants  with  ten  stamens  (Gk.  andres,  males). 

Beca-pdd,  plural  decapods  or  de^^ioda,  de,kap\d.dSh, 
Crustaceatls  with  ten  legs  (Gk.  podes,  feet). 

Beca-Btich,  dek\a.8tKk.    A  poem  With  ten  lines  (Gk.  itikos), 
BecaHityle,  dek^,a.8tile,  A  porch  with  ten  pillars  (Gk.  tfulos). 
Decade,  d^k\ade,  a  batch  of  ten.    l)ecayed,  de.kade\  rotten. 
Hecad-al,  d^VfM.duil  (not  d^.kay\ddl),  a^j.  of  "decacle." 
Latin  dieas,  gen.  d^eddis^  a  decade  (Greek  d^fha,  ten). 
Decadence,  de.kay^dense ;  decadenby,  de.kay\den.9y,  state  of 
decay  (-cy  denotes  "state");  decadent,  de.kay\dent, 
Fr.  dSeadence;  Lat.  decAdens,  gen.  -dentis  {de  cadifre^  to  fall  off). 
Decalconianiie,  da^.kaV.ko.mah'.nee,    The  art  of  tran5^tTing  the 
surface  of  coloured  prints,  &c.,  for  decorative  purposes. 
IVench  dicalquer^  to  reyttrse  the  trading  of  a  drawing  or  engraving. 
Decamp"*,  to  remove  from  a  camp,  to  depart  hastily ;  decamped' 
(d  syl.);  decamp'-ing;  decamp'-ment,  departure... 
Fr.  dicamper,  decampment  (de  camper,  to  break  np  an  encampment). 
Deea&t,   de.kanf,  to  draw  off  wine,  <fec.  (not  to  decdnter); 
decant'-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  decant^ -ing ;  decant'-er,  a  bottle, 
one  who  decants.    Descant,  des.kanf,  to  prate  about. 

"Decant,"  French  dwxnUr:  de  <»nttn«,  [to  draw]  ttom.  a  oahteen. 
*'  Descant,"  Latin  dKanJUkns  to  prate  abont. 

Decapitate,  de.c&p\K.tdtey  to  behead  ;  decap'it&t-ed  (R.  xxrvi.) ; 
decapltat-ing  (R.  xix.) ;  decapitation,  de' .cap.l.tay*\8hun, 
Lat.  deedpltdre  (from  de  eajntt,  gen.  capttie,  [to  take]  off  the  heid). 
Decatbonise,  de\kar^'.h5.nizet  to  deprive  of  carbon  (R.  xxxi.); 
decar'bonised  (4  syl.) ;  decar'bonis-ing  (R.  xix.) ;  decat'- 
foon!B-er,  decarboi]dsation,  de\ka'/-ho.ni.zay*'^hun. 
Latin  de  cwrho,  [to  deprive]  of  carbon. 
Deoay',  to  rot ;  decayed'  (2  syl.),  decay'-ing,  decay'-er  (R.  xiii.) 

Latin  de  cado,  to  fall  awa7  from.    (An  ill-formed  word.) 
Decease,  de.sese',  death,  to  die.     Disease,  diz.eez\  sickness; 
decease',  deceaaed'  (2  syl.),  deceas  -ing  (Rule  xix.) 
Latin  deceeeus,  departure ;  de  eedo,  sup.  eestum,  to  go  awa7  ftom. 
Deceire,   de.8eev\  to    impose   on    one;    deceived,   de.seevd' ; 
deceiv'-ing,  deceiV-er  (R.  xix.),  deceiv'-^ble  (R.  xxiii.), 
deceiv'ably,  deceiv'able^iess. 

DiBiMit,  de^eef;  deceif-fnl  (R.  viii.),  deceif  fol-ly,  deceif- 
Itdness;  deception,  de.8^'.8hun;  deceptive,  de.8^\Vlv; 
decep'tive-ly,  decep'tive-ness,  decep'tible  (not  -able); 
deceptibility,  de,  8^p\  VL  hiV.  1  ty, 

iTrench  deceptif,  deception  :  Latin  deeeptio,  dScXp&re,  supine  dteeptum, 
to  entrap  (from  de  oapio,  to  take  in>. 


184  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

December,  de.sem\ber.  The  tenth  month,  beginning  with  March. 

Lat.  decemJ)er  (from  decern^  ten ;  and  -ber.    ** Bar"  (PeTS.)>  period). 
Decemvir,  plu.  decemvirs  or  decemviri,  de.8em\vir,  de.8em\- 
vi.ri.     Ten  magistrates,  "  decemvir,"  one  of  the  ten. 

Latin  decemvir,  pin  decemviri  {decern  viri,  ten  men). 
Decency,  plu.  decencies,  de\8en.8y,  de\8en.8iz,     {See  Decent.) 

Decennary,  de.8en\na,ry  (double  n),  a  period  of  ten   years; 

decennial,  de.8en\ni.dl,  once  in  ten  years ;  decen'nial-ly. 

Latin  difcennium,  the  space  of  ten  years ;  dicenndlis. 
("Annual"  becomes  ennial  in  the  compounds,  bi-ennial,  tri-ennial, 
dec-ennial,  per-ennial,  &c.    Latin  decennisj 

Decent,  d€f.8ent,    decorous.      Descent,    d^.senf,    lineage,  &c. 

descent,  de'cently ;  de'cency,  plu.  de'cencies,  de'.8«n.«fo ; 

de'centness.  (Fr.  decent,  decence  ;  Lat.  decency  becoming). 

"Descent  "is  the  Latin  de«cendo,  to  descend  (detcando,  to  climbdown). 

Deception,  de.8ep' .8hun ;  deceptive,  de.8ep\tlv,     (See  Deceive.) 

Decern,  de.zem\  to  judge.    Discern,  di8,8em\  to  distinguish. 

Latin  deeemo,  to  decree ;  but  discemo,  to  distingoish. 
Decide,  de.8ide\  to  determine ;  decided,  deM\ ded.  (Rule  xxxvi.); 
deci'ded-ly,  decid'-ing,  decid'-er.     (Eule  xix). 
Decision,  de.8%z\8hun,  determination ;  decisive,  de,8i'Mv ; 
decisive-ly,  decisive-ness.    (Note  the  c  in  these  words). 
(Observe. — Verbs  in  -de  and  -dadd  "  sion"  not  '*  tion".) 

French  decider,  dicisif,  decision ;  Latin  di<AdSre :  sup.  detHsum,  to 
decide  (from  de  ccedo,  to  cut  away  [what  is  irrelevant]). 

Decidnons,  de.8\d\u.u8  [plants  not  evergreen],  which  shed  their 

leaves  [in  autumn],  decid'nous-ness. 

Latin  dBfAdnius,  subject  to  decay  (&om  de  cddo,  to  fall  off). 

Decimal,  des^tmaly  numbered  by  tens ;  dec'imally  (adv.) 

Decimate,  des'.tmate,  to  pick  out  every  tenth ;    dec'imat-ed 
(R.  xxxvi.;  dec'imat-ing  (R.  xix.) ;  dec'ima-tor  (R.  xxxvii.); 
decimation,  des'-Lmay'^shun,  selection  of  every  tenth. 
French  decimation,  v.  d4cimer;  Latin  didLm&re,  dgdimus,  the  tenth. 
Decipher,  dejuWjer,  to  unravel  obscure  writings ;  deci'phered 
(2    syl.);    deci'pher-ing,  deci'pher-er,    deci'pher-able, 
that  which  may  be  deciphered. 
Fr.  ddchiffrer,  to  decipher  ;  Low  Lat.  de  ciphra ;  Ital  deeiferart. 
Decision,  deMz*.8hun ;  decisive,  de^'Mv.    (See  Decide.) 

Deck  (of  a  ship),  to  adorn;  decked  (1  syl.),  deck'-ing;  deck'er, 
a  ship  having  decks,  one  who  adorns. 
Old  Eng.  decan,  to  cover  ;  Germ,  decke,  a  covering,  v.  decken,  decker. 

Declaim%  to  inveigh;  declaimed'  (2  syl.),  dedaim'^-ing, 
dedaim'-er;  declamation,  deltf .la.may'* shun ;  declam- 
atory, de.klum'.a.to.ry,  bombastic. 

French  declamation,  d4clamatoire ;  Latin  dMdmdtio,  dedamdtor, 
dedamdtorius,  decldmdre  (from  de  elamo,  to  speak  aloud). 


AND    OF  SPELL1XG,  1^5 

Declare,  dexlavi^,  to  assert;  declared'  (3  syl.),  dedar'-ing, 
declax'-er  (R.  xix.),  declar'-able  (R.  xx.),  declaredly, 
dexlai"/ .ed.ly  ;  dedaration,  dik\la.ray'\shun ;  declara- 
tive, de.clar'ry.tlv ;  declar'ative-ly ;  declarator,  de.- 
clar'ra.tor;  declar'ator-y,  declar'atori-ly  (Rule  xi.) 

French  dSdaratif,  dSelaration,  deelaratoire,  verb  declarer. 

Lat.  declarator,  declardiio,  decldrdre  (de  clardrCf  to  make  quite  clear). 

Declensioii,  deMWi'^hun,     A  grammatical  form  of  nouns,  a 

falling  off.     (An  informed  word.)     S^^  Decline. 

Decline'',  consummation,  to  lean,  to  refuse,  &c. ;  declined'  (2  syl.), 
declin'-ing  (R.  xix.),  declin'-able  (1st  Lat.  conj.) 

Declination,  d^-lLnay'^-shun,     Deviation. 

Declension,  d«.X;2^'.«^un  (of  a  noun).    A  falling  off.    (v.8.) 

Declinator,  d^k'-l%.nay''-tor.    An  astronomical  instrument. 

Decliner,  de.klinef.er.     One  who  declines  a  noun,  &c. 

French  d^elin,  declinable,  d^clinaison ;  t.  decliner,  to  decline. 
Latin  declinatio,  a  deviation,  a  declension  ;  y.  decllndre. 
(The  supine  of  "  dedlno"  is  deellnatmn,  and  it  is  quite  impossible  to 
obtain  declension  ther^om.) 

Declivity,  plu.  declivities,  de.cliv^i.ty,  de.cUv\i.tiz  (not  declev- 
ity)t  an  inclination  downwards.    An  inclination  upwards 
is  an  acclivity,  ak.ktlv'.i.ty. 
Declivitous,  de.kllv'.i.tuSf  adQ.  (not  declivatous). 
French  didiviU;  Latin  deelivitas  {de  cllvtts,  a  downward  slope). 
Decoction,  de.kSk^ .shun.    The  liquor  containing  the  virtues  of 
something  which  has  been  boiled  in  it. 
Latin  decdquo,  snpine  decoctum,  to  boil  down. 
Decompose,  de'kdm.poze.    Discompose,  di8\k6m.poze!^. 
Decompose.     To  analyse,  to  reduce  to  elements. 
Discompose.     To  disturb,  to  ruffle,  to  agitate. 
De'compose',  de'composed'  (3  syl.),  de'composing.    (R.  xix.) 
de'compos'-er,  de'compos'-able  (R.  xxiii.),  decom'posite. 
Decomposition.  de'-kom.po.zi8h''-on.    Analysis,  decay,  &c. 

French  dScomposaible,  v.  decomposer,  decomposition:  Latin  de  com 
[con]  p6nere,  to  do  the  reverse  of  putting  together. 

Decompound,  de.kom'.pound  (noun),  de\kdm.pound'  (verb.)   A  de- 

com'pound  leaf  or  flower  (Bof.),  is  a  compound-compound 

leaf  or  flower;  that  is,  each  part  of  each  leaf  is  compound. 

De'compound,'  to  make  a  compound  of  different  compounds; 

de'compoiind'-ed(R.xxxvi.),de'compound'-able.  (R.xxiii.) 

JH  Ib  for  dis  (Greek),  twice.    It  is  a  wretched  hybrid,  and  ought  to 
\m  bicompound.    (Latin  &i  [bis]  compdTio.) 

Decorate,    dShf.o.rate,    to  adorn ;    dec'orat-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.), 

dec'orat-ing  (R.  xix.),  dec'orat-or,  one  who  decorates; 

decoration,  dek' .o.ray'' .shun ;  decorative,  dek\o,ra*tlv. 

French  dieoration,  v.  dicortr;  Latin  di^orare  (from  decus^  bean^). 


186  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

DecoroQB,  de.kdr^nu  (not  d^\o.m8\  befitting,  seemly;  deoor'- 
ous-ly,  decor'ous-neBg ;  deoorani)  de.k^rom, 

Vr.  dSoorum,  propriet7 ;  Lst.  deeOrUm,  deeOnu  (from  deeuSf  beaiit7). 

Decoy',  to  allnre ;    a  lure,  a  place  for  catching  wild-fowls ; 
decoyed'  (3    eyl.),    deooy'-inK  (Rule  xiii.),  dewsoy'-er; 
deooy'-dtick,  a  duck  employed  to  lure  wild  dueka  into  a 
net  or  place  for  catching  them. 
A  coiruptioQ  of  duck-coy,  a  duck  lure ;  Gertnan  kdder,  a  Inre. 

Decrease,  de'krese  (noun),  de.krese'  (yerb).    Eule  L 

De'crease.  diminution ;  decIea8e^  to  diminish ;  decreased'  (2  syl.)* 
decreas'-ing  (B.  xix.),  decreas'ing-^ly,  decres'cent. 
Lat.  decreseo,  to  grow  less  and  less  (de  craco^to  increase ;  -w-  inoeptive). 

Decree',  an  edict,  to  deteiTnine  by  edict;  decreed',  decree'-ing; 
decreer,  de.kreef.ery  one  who  decrees :  decre'tal  (one  e\ 
a  decree,  a  book  of  decrees  (also  adj)\  decre'tive, 
de.kree'.tXv,  having  the  force  of  a  decree;  decretory, 
de.kree\to,ry,  judicial,  decided  by  a  decree. 

French  d4cret,  dicretale,  yerb  dicreter;  Latin  deergtdlii,  decrilOriiu, 
deerHum  (from  decemo,  supine  decr^um,  to  decree). 

Decrepit,  de.krep^.lt  (not  decrepHd),    Infirm  fironl  age. 

Decrepitude,  de.hrSp\l.tude,    Infirmity  from  age» 

Fr.  dScr4pit,  decrepitude ;  Lat.  decripUus  (from  diorepOt  to  craeUe 
like  burning  salt ;  de  cH(po,  to  crack,  hence  "  to  break  down  "). 

Decrepitate,  de.krep'.ttate,  to  crackle  like  burning  salt; 
decrep'itat-ed  (Rule  xzxvi.),  decrep'itat-ing  (Rule  zix.) ; 
decrepitation,  de,kr^\i.tay'' .shun,  a  crackling. 

French  d&cripitation,  t.  decripiter;  Latin  deergpltdre  (frequeBtatfre 
of  crgpo,  to  rattle  or  crack). 

Decrescent,  de.kr^^sent  (adj.)    Becoming  smaUer  and  smaller. 

(-8C-  is  inceptive.    Latin  decreacens.)    See  DeCteaSe. 

Decre'tal,  decre'tive,  decre'tory.    (See  Decree.) 

Decry',  decries'  (2  syl.),  decried'  (2  pyl.);  decri'-al,  a  daaiorous 
censure;  decri'-er  (R.  xi.),  one  who  decries;  detery'-ing 
(with  a  y,  R.  xi)    French  dicrier,  to  cry  down. 

Dedicate,  d^dr.Lkate,  to  devote ;  ded'icat-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  ded'i- 
oat-ing  (R.  xix.),  ded'ic§t-or,  ded'icatory;    dedication, 
ded' .i.kay'\8hun,  the  act  of  devoting  or  conseomting,  a 
complimentary  address  prefixed  to  a  book,  Ac 
Latin  dedicdtio,  v.  dSdicdre,  to  devote  (from  de  diedre,  td  ▼©#  to). 

Deduce,    de-ditae',  to   infer;    deduced'    (2   syl.),    deduo'-ing 
(R.  xix.),  deduc'-ible  (not  -able.    Not  of  the  1st  Latin  con- 
jugation) ;  dedu'cible-ness,  deduoe'-ment  (R.  xvit,  xviii.) 
Latin  deduc^fre,  (to  draw  down  from)  henoe,  "  to  infer." 


AND  OF  SPELLING,  187 

BsAaot',  to  Bnbtraot,  to  take  from;   dedvot^'^d  (K.   zxxvi.), 
dediict'-iiig ;     dednotiye,    de.duk\tiv ;    deduotive-ly ; 
deduction,  de^dnk' jBhun^  subtraction,  infereooe. 
French  d6dMti(m;  L«lia  dBdiKtio,  dtdSM^  tap.  iIedMc(iim(T.8.) 

Deed,  an    action    (Old  Eng.    ddd,  a   deed;    d4dla^  a  doer). 
Indeed,  in  fact ;  In  very  deed,  in  very  fact,  in  reality. 

Deem,  to  be  of  opinion ;  deemed  (1  syl.),  deem'-ing. 

Deem^ster.    A  Judge  in  the  Isle  of  Man  and  in  Jersey. 

OM  English  dSma,  a  Judge :  ▼.  4&m!iwC\,  to  deem  or  judge ;   past 
rf^iMfe  (  2  sfl.);  past  part,  dimed,  deemed,    {-ster  both  genders.) 

Deep,  far  to  the  bottom,  cunning;  (noun)  the  sea;  deep'-er 
(comp.)^  deep'-est  (««pO>  deep'4y,  deep'-ness. 

Deep'- en,  deep'%  to   make  deeper;    deep'-ened  (2  syl); 
deep'en-ing,  deep'-ning  (  2  syl). 

Old  English  dedp,  deep,  i»:ofoimd, ;  dedpnea,  doppetan,  to  sink. 
Deer,  iing,  uid  plu.^  the  stag,  (fro.    Dear,  beloved,  expensive. 

"  Deer,"  Old  English  dedr;  "Dear,"  Old  EngUsh  deiir-e,  v.  deihian]. 
f**  Deer,**  *'aheep,"  and  "noitie,**  are  both  singular  and  plural.) 

De&oe'  (2  syl.),  to  disfigure;  defaced'  (2  syl.),  defax}'-ing  (Rule 
xix.),  defacing-ly ;  def ac'-er,  one  who  defaces ;  deface'- 
ment  (Eule  xviii.  %.\  ii^jury  to  the  surface. 
IH  faett  to  destroy  the  face  or  surface.    (Latin  fogies,  the  face.) 

DefiUoation,  de\fal.kay'\8hufn  (not  <26'./t!)^Aat/"'.8/mn),  fraudulent 
deficiency;  defalcator,  de\fdLka/y'\tor. 
French  dSfalcation;  Latin  defalcalio  (de  /ate,  a  pruning  knife). 

Defame'  (2  syl.),  to  slander;   defamed'  (2  syl.),  defam'-ing, 
defim'ing-ly;  defam'-er  (Rule  xix.),  one  who  defames. 

Defamation,  dSf'-^.Tnay^'-shunj  slander;  defamatory,  de.- 

fdm\a.td.ryf  slanderously. 

{The  first  syU  of  the^e  words  in  Fr.  and  Lat.  is  dif-.) 

French  diffiamation,  diffamatcire^  verb  diffamer;  Latin  diffdmatiOf 
diffamdre  (d^[de]/ama,  to  deprive  one  of  his  fame). 

Defaulter,  de.foV.ter.    A  peculator. 

Old  French  defiiulU,  now  difaut,  defect ;  Low  Latin  d^altiMi. 
Defeasible,  de.fee'M.Vl,  alienable.    Indefeasible,  inalienable. 

Low  Latin  d^eigiMlis  (Latin  d^ficiOf  to  undo ;  de  /ado). 

Defeat,  de.feet\  to  frustrate,  to  vanquish,  a  frustration,  an 
overthrow ;  defeaf -ed  (Rule  xxxvi. ),  defeat'-ing. 
(The  -ea-  of  these  words  is  indefensible.) 
French  dSfaite  {dAfaire,  to  undo;  Latin  de /actus,  undone). 

Defecf,  a  fault;  defection,  de./^^hun,  a  revolt;  defective, 
de^f^Jiiv,  imperfect;   defec'tive-ly  (R.  xi.).  defeo'tive- 
nees,  defecf-ible;  defectibility,  de.fSk\ti.hU'\i,ty. 
Latin  di/eebns,  d^eetio^  d^ectimu  {de/acio,  to  undo). 


188  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Defence^  (2  eyl.)  a  protection,  a   vindicatioD ;   defence'-lesB, 

defenceless-nesB ;   defences,   de.fen\8^z,    (Rule  xxxiv.) 

(This  is  one  of  the  worst  anomalies  of  the  language.    The 

"  c "  ought  to  have  been  an  8,  and  has  been  preserved  in 

the  compounds.   See  Defensive.)   See  also  Condense,  note, 

French  dA/ense ;  Latin  d</en«tM,  d^endo^  supine  d^enswn,  and  alao 
df/enso  (from  de/endo,  to  driye  away). 

I>efend^  to  protect,   to  vindicate;    defend'-ed  (Rtile  xxxyI.), 

defend'-ing,    defend'-er,    defend'-able    (Kule    xxiii.), 

defend'-ant   (Rule  xxy.),    the  person  who   defends  or 

replies  to  a  charge  in   a  law-suit.     The  person  who 

makes  the  charge  is  called  the  plaintiff. 

French  d^fendre,  dAfendcMe,  d^endewr  ;  Latin  defendiHrt, 
(As  usual  the  wrong  conjunction  defendable  is  French.  J 

Defensive,  de.fSn\slVy  the  side  or  posture  of  defence;  ddfen'- 
sive-ly ;  defensiblis,  de.f^\s\.b%  what  may  be  defended: 
defensibility,  de.fin'MMV\i.ty.    (See  Defend  ) 
French  dSfeneive  ;  Latin  dtfmdo^  snpine  defrnxuim,  to  defend. 

Defer',  to  postpone,  to  submit;  deferred,  de.ferd' ;  defer'zing; 
deferr'-er,  one  "^ho  postpones,  one  who  submits  in  opinion. 

Deference,  def.e.rense,  respect  to  another ;    deferential, 

def  .e.ren" .shal,  respectful ;  deferen'tial4y. 

{In  Latin  these  two  verbs  are  not  identical :  To  "postpone  " 

is  diflferre,  to  "  submit*'  is  deferre.   We  have  bprrowed  owr 

words  from  the  Frefich  d6f6rer,  to  ** postpone**  and  to 

" submit"  and  to  the  sam£  source  we  oioe  the  ahnormal 

spelling  of  the  last  four  words.) 

French  difirer  (both  verbs),  dSfirence,  ddfSrent^  deferentiaL 
Latin  d^(^o,  to  defer ;  part,  d^irens,  gen.  d^ereniU;  diffiro,  to 
submit ;  part,  diff^ens,  gen.  diffirentis. 

Defiance,  defi'Mnse,  menace.    {See  Defy.) 

Deficient,  de.JisK.entt  not  perfect ;  deficient-ly  (adverb). 

Deficiency,  plu.  deficiencies,   de.fish\en.siz   (Rule  zliv.' 
stHte  of  imperfection,    {-cy  denotes  state^  &c.) 

Deficit,  de\fi.sit.    Deficiency  in  a  money  balance. 

French  deficient,  deficit;  Latin  d^fuAens^  genitive  d^/leienM«,  va 
d^do  {de  fado,  to  reverse  of  "  making  complete  "). 

Defile  (noun),  de\file,  a  narrow  pass;  (verb)  de.file^  (Role  ' 
to  pollute,  to  march  with  a  narrow  iiront  or  in  single  f 

Deffle',    deffled'    (3    syl.),    deffl'-ing    (both    meaning 
def  il'-er  ( H.  xix.),  one  who  pollutes ;  defile'-ment,  pollut 

♦* Defile"  (to  pollute),  Old  Eng.  g<^iil{anl 

**  DefUe  "  (to  march  in  single  fllej.  Fr.  d^filer ;  Lat.  fUum,  a  thre 

Define'  (2  syl.),  to  explain,  to  circumscribe;  defined  (3 
defin'-ing  (R.  xix.),  defin'-er,  defin'-able  (R.  x: 
def In'-ably ;  definition,  def'.tnish'\unfmesanng  explii 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  189 

Definite,  d^f'.inlt  (not  def\\,nxte\  precise,  exact;  def'i- 
nite-ly;  def'inite-nees  (Kule  zyii.)»  exactness. 

Definitive,  deJln'AMv,  positive;   definltive-ly ;    defin'i- 
tive-ness,  preciseness,  exactitude. 

French  d^/nir,  d4ftnitif,  dSftnition ;  Latin  definite,  definitely  ;  d^- 
nUiOj  d^niiivtu,  d^nire,  to  define  (from  Jlnu,  a  limit). 

Deflect^,  to  torn  aside ;  deflecf-ed  (Rule  xxxyI),  deflect'-ing. 

Deflection,  better  deflexion,  de.fl^^hun.    Aberration. 

Deflexed,  de.flexf  (Bot.)    Bent  down  in  a  continuous  curve. 

French  deJUxUm ;  Latin  d^flexus,  d^cto,  supine  d^flextvm  {de  JUctOt 
to  bend  downwards,  to  bend  away  from). 

Deform^  to  distort;  deformed'  (3  syl.), deform'-ing,  defonn'-er; 
deformation,  de' .for.may'' uthurif  disfigurement. 

Mial-formation.    Abnormal  formation,  misformed. 

Deformity,  plu,  deformities,  de.for^.mttiz.    Distortion. 

French  deformation,  verb  deformer.    Latin  diformdtio,  dgformitas; 
ditormdre,  to  disfigure  {de  forma,  the  reverse  of  beauty  or  form). 

Defrand^  to  cheat;  defraud'-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.)»  de£raud'-ing ; 
d^Eraud'-er,  one  who  defrauds. 
Latin  d^T(mddxe  (de  firaudo,  to  cheat  thoroughly ;  firatts,  fraud). 

Defray',  to  bear  the  expenses;  defrayed'  (3  syl.),  defray'ing 
(R.  xiii.),  defray'-er ;  4efray'-ment,  payment. 
Fr.  d^ayer  (defrais,  [to  cancel]  a  charge) ;  Low  Lat.  fredum,  charge. 
Defdnct,  de.funkf,  dead.   (Lat.  defuncttu,  discharged  [from  life].) 

Defy,  to  dare,  to  challenge;  defies,  de.fize;   defied'  (9  syl.), 
defi'-er  (not  defy-er),  defi'-ance,  defi'-ant,  hut  defy'-ing. 
French  d4fl,  d^fianee,  defiant ;  v.  d^evy  to  defy  or  challenge. 

Degenerate,  d€.gen\e,ratey  to  grow  worse;  degen'erated  (Rule 
xxxvi.),  degen'erat-ing ;  de^^eneration,  de,gen',e.ray".' 
shun;  degeneracy,  de.gen\e.ra.8y  {-cy  denotes  a  "state"); 
degen'erate-ly ;  degen'erate-ness,  degenerate  condition. 

French  d4u4n4ration,  v.  dig^nirer;  Latin  diggn&rdre  (from  deginer, 
unlike  his  ancestors ;  de  gens,  to  fall  away  from  one's  race). 

Degrade',  to  disgrace;  degrad'-ed  (Rule  xxxyi.),  degrad'-ing, 
degpradation,  deg\ra.day'\8hunj  dishonour,  loss  of  rank ; 
degrad'-er,  one  who  degrees  another ;  degra'ding-ly. 
Fr.  degradati4m,  ddgrader.    Lat.  de  gradus^  [to  reduce]  from  grade. 
Degree'.     A  measure  applied  to  circles,  rank,  relationship,  <&c. 
By  de^^rees.     Little  by  little,  gradually.    (French  degri,) 

Deify,  de\i.fy,  to  exalt  to  the  gods;  deifies,  de\l.JUie;  deified, 
de'.tjide;  deifi-er,  de\l.fi.er,  one  who  deifies;  deifica- 
tion, de\i.fifkay'\8hun,  exaltation  to  divine  honours. 

DeisnjL,  (ie'.um,  belief  ixi  ^  creator  but  not  in  revelation: 


190  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

deist,    de\lBt,   one    whose   (steeA.   is   deism;   deistical, 
de.isf.tkal;  deistical-ly,  deXsfJCkShly, 
Bnty,  p£u.  dftitiea,.  deXPiz.    (Biile  zi.) 

(Dei-  is  pronounced  di-,  except  m  this  $et  of  words  and  in 
the  word  ** deign"  where  it  has  the sotmd  of  "Bh ") 
French  d^^ioaUon,  ▼.  dSifter,  dManu,  dHsU,  d4itS;  Lttftin  deltas. 
Deign,  dain't  to  voachsafe.    BEUie,  a  natiye  of  Denmark. 

Deign,  deigned  (1  8jl.)»  deign'-lng.    IHs^daia,  to  oontemn. 
("  Deign  "  and  "  disdain  "  shoftUA  be  spelt  in  one  way ; 
both  are  from  the  Lat,  dignns,  Fr,  daigner.) 
French  daigner,  to  deign ;  dd-daigneTf  to  disdabi.    Latin  dignus. 
Deino^  di.nO'  (Greek  prefix  meaning  terrible  from  hugeDdss  of 
size,  marvellously  great  in  bulk). 

DeinomJB,  di.nor^.fds,  A  huge  fossil  bird.  (Gk.  omis,  a  bird.) 

DeinoHUUiroB  or  deinoHsanriaii)  plu.  deinoHsanriansy  eB^no.- 
saw".rti8  di'.no^aw'\riMn,  di*M0.8aw'\ri.anz.  A  huge 
foBsil  lizard.    (Greek  sauros^  a  lizard.) 

DeiBO-therinm,  phi,  delno-theria,  di' .no.rhee'' .riMn^  plo. 

di\no.Thee^\rtah.    A  huge  fossil  animal  with  a  trunk. 
Greek  deirwa  tMriont  a  terribly-hnge  beast. 
{These  words  are  sometimes  spelt  di-  instead  of  dei-.) 

Deject',  to  dishearten ;'   dejecf-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.),  dejec'ted-ly, 
dejee'ted-ness,  deject'-ing;  d^ection,  de.jeyf.skwn. 
Fr.  direction;  Lat.  de^iegn,  sup.  dtjeetuin  (de  jado,  to  throw  dkiwBX 

Delay',  to  defer;  delayed'  (2  etyl.)  not  delaid.    (It  ia  not  a  oom- 

pound  of  lay,  B.  xiv«,  but  the  supine  of  diff^o^  Lat.) 

delay'-ing,  delay'-er  (R.  xiil),  one  who  delays. 

French  dilai;  Latin  diffiro,  supine  dildtum,  to  defer. 

*'  Defer  "  is  from  the  root  and  "  delay  "  from  the  sup.  of  the  same  ▼erh. 

Delectable,  de.Uk\ta.VL    (See  Delight.) 

Delegate,  deV.e.gate,  a  representatiye,  to  send  a  representative ; 

*  del'egat-ed  (K.  xxxvi.),  delegat-ing  (R.  xix.),  intrusting 

a  commission  to  another ;  delegation,  del* -e. gay". shun, 

French  dAUQoiion,  v.  dMigvy&r;  Lat.  deUgatio,  v.  d&ig&re  Qi$  ijgHn^ 
to  send  away  as  ambassador  or  legate). 

Delendum,  plu.  delenda,  de.len'.ddh  (Lat),  to  be  erased.     In 
printers'  proofs  written  del  or  d. 

DeleteiionB,  dM\S.tee'' .ri.iis,  hurtful;   delete'rious-ly,  delete'- 
riouB-ness.    (The  de-y  in  Greek,  is  long. ) 
Greek  diUtirios,  diUtir,  a  destroyer ;  diledmai,  to  destroy. 
Delf.     Coarse  earthenware,  originally  made  at  Delft  (HoUtBd^ 

Deliberate,  de.lW.i*rate,  slow  to  determine,  to  weigh  in  the 
mind  the  pros  and  cons  ;  deliberate-ly,  deliberate-aeei 
delib'erat*^  (R.  xxxvi.),  delib'erat-ing  (R.  xix.),  delib'- 


A}fD  OF  SPELLING,  191 

erat-0r;  ctoUbeiatioii^  de.}Xb\e.ray^'a)mn;  deMberal-iye, 
<l0.2i6^«.m.ttv;  MiVQi!ati¥e47,  with  deliberation. 

diliberativus,  dUiUrdltfir,  w,  delG>eTtbre. 

IMobacj^  jpttt.  dtUo*eM«»  diV.i.ha^,  ^V.i.kcLsU,  A  dainty, 
weaJmess,  tenderness,  consideration  for  otbarSk 

Delicate,  diV.i.het;  del'iaate-ly,  delleftte-HMB. 
French  dilicaJt;  Latin  dOitMut,  delicate,  fine,  dainty. 
BelidoBS,  deMih'Mty  delightful   to   the   taste;    delidoiu-ly, 
deUeionfr-Jiesa.    (Fr.  d4licieuz ;  Lat.  dellciai,  delights.) 

JkUigkV,  pleasore,  to  please;  delight'-e4  (R.  xxxvi.),  delight'- 
io«;,  Oelighr-fnl  (R.  viu.).  d«lighrfal-ly,  delighrfia. 
ness;  delight'-vBomd,  full  of  delight  {^somet  Old  English 
sui&x,  "full  of");  delig^t'8one-ncifl8»  agreeableness. 

Be^ootable,  deMW.ta,Vl;  deLec'table-aeaB;  deleotability, 
de.leW.taMV\%.ty ;  de&ectfttio9«  de.UW ,tay" ^hun, 

French  dilectabU,  dSUctation,  ▼.  dSleder.    Latin  dileddbiUi,'  dike- 
tdtio,  y.  dcUcto,  to  delight ;  lacto,  to  allure,  to  charm. 

Delineate,  de.Un\S.ate,  to  draw,  to  design;  delin'eat-ed  (Rule 
xxxvi.),  deHn'eat-ing  (R.  xix.),  delin'eat-or  (R.  xxxvii.); 
delineation,  de^Vin' .i.a'* ^hurh^  a  drawing  in  Unes  or  wx}rdB. 
French  dilitUaUon;  Latin  dUiM&Uo,  dettnedtor  (de  llnaa,  aline). 
Delinquent,  de,V(n\quent.    One  who  commits  a  fault. 

Delinqnenoy,  plu.  delinqnendes,  de.lfn\qtten.siz.   Misdeeds. 

French  diUnquant  (wrong  conj.);  Latin  dilinquena,  gen.  -querUis,  to 
fail  in  one's  duty  (de  linqudre,  to  leave  behind). 

pelirimwi,  de.Ur'rLus,  wandering  in  mind  from  illness ;  deliri- 
onBely,  delizioas-ness;  delirium,  de,lir^ri.um^  temporary 
aberration  of  mind ;  delirium  tremens,  deMr^ri.um  tree\- 
ment,  insanity  accompanied  with  a  trembling  of  the 
^mbs,  generally  brought  on  by  drunkenness. 
Lat.  delirium,  dotage  {de  lira,  [to  get]  out  of  the  furrow  in  ploughing). 

Delittante  (no  such  word).    See  Dilettante. 

Deliver,  de.Uv\er,  to  set  free,  to  save,  to  hand  over,  to  disbuiden, 
to  utter ;  delivered,  de.liv\erd ;  deliv'er-ing,  deliv^er-er, 
deliv^er-able,  deliv'er-^ance,  deliv^ery. 

To  deliver  up,  to  surrender.    To  deliver  over,  to  transfer. 

French  d^Kveranoe,  v.  diliverer,  d^Unerewr;   Latin  de  liMraa^e,  to 
liberate  from  [bondage]  {liber,  freeX 

QftD  (R,  v.),  a  valley.    (Old  Eng.  ddl,  a  dale;  Welsh  twU,  a  pit) 

Delphian,  deU.fl^an,    Ddphine,  del'.fin, 

Delphian.     Pertaining  to  the  oracle  of  Belphi,  in  (Greece. 

Belphine.    A  Freneh  edition  of  the  Latin  classics  for  the 
use  of  the  '*  Grand  Dauphin  "  (son  of  Louis  XIY.) 


102  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 


BelphinidiB,  dSl.fln*.tdee.    The  dolphin  genus. 

Delphinium,  del.fln\tum.    The  larkspur  species  of  plants. 
Called  delphinium^  from  a  fancied  resemblance  of  tiie  un. 
opened  flowers  to  an  heraldic  dolphin. 
Called  larkspur  from  a  fancied  resemblance  of  the  homed 
nectary  to  a  lark's  spur. 

"  Delphian,"  Greek  Delphinios,  adj.  of  Ddphoi  (or&cle  of  Delphi). 
"  Delphine,"  Greek  delphin  or  ddphis,  a  dolphin  ;  Old  Eng.  delfin. 
**  Delphin-idss,"  -idee,  a  Greek  patronymic,  denotes  a  family  or  gioap. 
*'  Delphin-ium,"  -ium,  a  Latin  termination,  denotes  a  species. 

Deltft,  deV.tdhy  a  triangular  tract  of  land  at  the  mouth  of  certain 
rivers,  as  the  Nile,  so  called  from  the  Greek  A  {d  or  delta), 
Deltic,  deV,tlkf  a^j. ;  deltoid,  diV.toidy  somewhat  resem- 
bling  a  delta.     (Greek  delta  eidos,  delta  like.) 

Delude'  (2  syl.),  to  deceive;  delud'-ed  (3  syl.,  R.  xxxvi); 
delud'-ing  (R.  xix.);  delud'-er,  one  who  deludes; 
delud'-ahle  (B.  xxiii.),  easily  deceived,  gullible. 

Delusion,  Illusion,  de.lu'jshun,  ildu\zhun. 

Delusion  is  deception  from  want  of  knowledge. 

Illusion  is  deception  from  mprbid  imagiDation. 

Delusion  (B.  xxxiii.);    delusive,  deM\ziv;   delu'aiye-ly, 

delusive-ness ;  delu'sory,  de.luze\5.ry. 
Latin  delucUfret  to  cheat  {de  Ivdo,  to  play  on  [ope's  credulity]). 

Delve  (1  syl.),  to  dig;   delved  (1  syl.),  delv'-ing  (Bule  xix); 
delv'-er,  one  who  delves. 
Old  English  d«(f  [anj,  to  dig ;  past  deaTf^  past  part,  ddven. 

Demagnetise,  de.7nag\ne.tize^  to  undo  magnetic  influence; 
demagnetised,  de.inag' me.tlzd ;  demagnetlB-ing,  de,- 
mag'.nS.tize.ing  (B.xix);  d^magnetis-er,  de.mag',nS.tize,er. 

"Magnetise"  is  to  affect  with  magnetism,  or  to  make  magnetio; 
de-  reverses ;  and  "de-magnetise  '  Is  to  undo  the  former  processes. 

Demagogue,  d^'.a.g5g.    Demigod,  dem\i.gSd. 

Demagogue.    A  factious  mob  orator. 

Demigod.    A  man  who  has  rank  with  the  gods. 

"Demagogue,"  French  dAmagogue:  Greek  d6m-dLg6gdt^  a  popular 

leader  {ddmds,  the  people) ;  Latin  dem&gdgtis. 
"Demigod,"  French  cCfmi,  half,  and  our  native  word  "God."    The 

word  healf  or  half  is  the  native  word  for  demi,  as  hea^f-dyfieHd, 

a  semi-vowel,  healf-tryndel,  a  hemi- sphere. 

Demand^  a  request,  to  claim  or  seek  with  authority ;  demand'-ed 
(B.  xxxvi.),   demand'-ing,   demand'-er,   demands-able 
(not  -ihle);  demand'ant,  the  plaintiff  in  a  law-suit 
French  demande^  ▼.  drntander;  Latin  demandofn  {mando,  to  order). 

Demarcation,  de'.mar. hay** .shun.    A  line  of  separation. 

French  dimarcation ;  Old  English  mtaxct  a  mark,  a  boundaiy. 


AXD  OF  SPELLING.  103 

I>enieaii%  to  bebave,  to  debase ;  demeaned'  (3  syl.),  demean'- 
ing;  demeanour,  de.mean'.or,  behavionr. 

'*  Demean  "  (to  deport  oneself X   ' '  De-port "  is  Latin  de  porta,  to  carry : 

and  '*  demean  "  ii  French  de  merier,  to  lead  or  cany. 
"Demean"  (to  debase  oneself)  is  Old  English  ge-nutiu,  common. 

Demi-,  dem'-i-  (Frencb  prefix),  half.    Demy,  de-mf  [p&P^i']*  9-t^* 
Qreek  himi-f  Latin  aimi-  (from  Greek  Admints,  Latin  »imi$,  half). 

Demi-god.    A  deified  man. 
This  hybrid  word  is  partly  French  and  partly  Anglo-Saxon. 

Demi-lime.  A  term  in  ^or^    (French  d^mt^un^,  half  moon.) 

Demi-Bemiqnaver,   dihn'.i  sSm^i-qua^ver,      Half  a  semi- 

quaver,  the  shortest  musical  note. 
This  is  French  dttni;  Latin  aSmi;  Spanish  quiebro,  a  trill  1 1 
Demi-yolt  (Fr.)    One  of  the  seven  movements  in  fnanige. 

Demise,  de.mize'y  death,  to  bequeath ;  demised'  (2  syl.),  demis'- 
ing  (Bule  xix.),  demis'-able  (Rule  xxiii.) 

Latin  dimitUref  snpine  dimissumt  to  send  down  [to  the  grave],  hence 
''death";  to  send  down  [to  heirs],  hence  '*  to  bequeath." 

Democracy,  plu.  democracies,  de.mdl^.rd,8y,  de.mdk\ra.siz,  a 
republic;  democratize,  de.m5k'.ra.tize,  to  make  demo- 
cratic; democratized"  (4  syl.),  democratiz'-ing  (R.  xix.) 

Democrat,  dim'.o.kratf  a  favourer  of  democracy;  demo- 
cratic, dem\o,krdf'Mt  or  democratical,  dem\o.krdf\i.kal 
pdj.) ;  democratical-ly,  in  a  democratic  manner. 

Greek  d6mdkratia  {d£m6s  kraUfOt  to  govern  by  the  people),  dSmohra- 

tizOy  ddmokratikds. 
(The  Uut  syllable  is  -cy,  "statCy  office,  rtUe**'  not  -sy.    Similarly 

"aristocracy,'^  "autocracy,*'  and  the  hybrid  "mobocraey") 

Demobilise,  de.mo'Ml.ize,  To  "mobilise"  troops  is  to  render 
them  liable  to  be  moved  out  of  their  quarters  to  serve 
against  an  enemy.  To  "demobilise"  them  is  to  send 
them  home,  as  not  required  for  active  service. 

Demo'bilise,  demo^bilised  (4  syl.),  demo'bills-ing  (R.  xix.); 
demobilisation,  de.mo* Ml.i.zay'\8hun. 
(These  words  came  into  popular  use  in  the  Franco-Prussian 
war,  hut  have  not  yet  found  their  way  into  dictionaries.) 

Demolish,  de.m8l.ish,  to  pull  down;  demorished  (2  syl.), 
demoFish-ing,  demol'lsh-er;  demolition,  de\in5l.ish'\on. 

French  demolition,  v.  dimolir :  Latin  dem^lUio,  v.  dSmSliri  {mdlier 
is  to  heap  up,  de  molior  is  the  reverse  of  "heaping up"). 

Demon,  d^.mSn,  a  fiend ;  demonism,  de'.mi^.izm,  belief  in  the 
active  agency  of  demons ;  demonology,  de'.mo.ndV^o.gy, 
a  systematic  treatise  on  demons  (Gk.  logos,  discourse,  &g.), 
demonolatry,  dt.mo.nbV',atry,the  worship  of  demons  (Gk. 
latreia,  worship),  demoniac,  de\md\ni.ak,  one  possessed  t^ 
demoniacal,  <2«^mo.n^^cI.iba^adj.);  demoni'acal-ly;  demo- 

N 


194  ERRORS  OF  SPEECJI 

nize,  de\m8.nize^  to  make  one  like  a  demon ;  de'moniaecl 

(3  syL),  de'monlz-ing  (Rule  zix.)i  de'mon!z-er. 

French     dimon^    ddmcniaque,  dimonograjthe,  dimonologit;    Latin 
damon,  damUfnidcua;  Greek  dainuJn,  daimOnidkds,  davmOnizdmai. 

Demonstrate,    de,mon' Mrate    (not    dSm/(m.8trate\    to    prove; 

demon'strated  (Rule  xxxvi),  demon'strat-or  (not  -er.  Role 

xxxvii);  demonstrat-ive,  de.mon\8tra.t%v ;  demon'stra- 

tive-Iy,    demon'strative-ness;    demonstrable,    dejawn'- 

8tra.Vl;   demon'strable-ness,  demon'strably  (Ist  Latin 

coi^.)    Role  xix.     demonstration,  dem\on.8tray''8hun. 

French  dSmonstratif,  demonstration;  Latin  dSmonstratio,  eUiium- 
ttraMvus,  dBmonatrdtor,  dimonstrdre  {monstrOf  "  to  point  out "). 

Demoralise,  de.mor'ral.ize,  to  injnre  the  morals,  to  disorganize ; 

demor'alLsed  (4  Kyi.),  demor'alte-ing  (R.  xix.),  deimor'- 

alis-er ;  demoralisation,  de.rruy/ral.i.zay'\8hun. 

French  dSm&ralizationf  v.  ddmoralisoer  ;  Latin  de  mores, 

Dempster.     A  judge  in  the  Channel  Isles,  and  in  the  Isle  of  Man. 

Old  English  ddma,  a  judge ;   d4m[an]^  to  judge ;   [-<ter  is  not  a 
feminine  suffix,  but  is  used  in  both  genders). 

Demulcent,  de,muV.8ent.  Soothing.  (Lat.  demulcenSt  gen.  -centU,) 

Demur',  to  hesitate  from  doubt;  demurred'  (2  syl.),  demurr'-ing, 
demurr'-er  (EL  i.),  in  Law^  an  issue  raised  on  some  legal 
question  in  a  suit,  one  who  demurs;  demurr'-able ; 
demurr'-age,  a  fixed  charge  for  the  detention  of  trucks, 
&c.,  belonging  to  another  railway  company ;  an  allowance 
made  to  the  owners  of  a  ship  by  the  freighters  for  deten- 
tion in  port  beyond  time. 
French  demeure,  v.  demewer;  Latin  dSmordri  (mdra,  delay). 

Demure,  de.meur^,  coy ;  demure'-ly,  demure'-ness. 

French  dea  moeurs  {avoir  des  mceurs,  to  have  proper  morals). 

Demy,  plu.  demies,  dejml\  de,mize\    Dem'i.    Demise'  (2  syl.) 

Demy',  a  size  (in  paper)  between  "  royal "  and  "  crown", 
a  "  scholnrship  "  in  Magdalen  College,  Oxford ;  demyahip, 
de.my^^hip^  the  possession  of  a  demy  scholarship  (-«/iip, 
Old  Eng.  affix,  "  tenure  of,"  *'  state",  "jurisdiction,''  &c.) 

Demi,  dem\i  (Fr.  prefix),  half;  Lat.  8emi  ;  Gk.  himi. 

Demise,  de.mize',  <death. 

"  Demy  "  [paper],  that  is,  demirroyal  20  in.  by  16,  instead  of  24  by  1ft. 
"Demy  "  [Oxford],  is  a  demi  or  inferior  fellowship. 

Den-  (Old  Eng.  postfix)  a  valley,  a  wooded  place :  as  TeDtet-den. 

Den,  a  cage  for  wild  beasts,  &g.    (Old  Eng.  den  or  denu,  a  den.) 

'DeDAiionBMBe,de.na8h\on.dl.ize.  To  deprive  of  nationality.  The 
Poles  are  denationalised,  being  incorporated  into  Russia, 
&c.;  denationalised,  de.na8h',(m,aXdzed;  denaf  loiiaiis-ing. 

Dene  (1  syl.),  a  valley.    Dean,  »  church  dignitary. 
' '  D«ne/'  Old  Bngliah  defw.    "  Dean,"  Latin  decdmm. 


AXD  OF  SPELLING,  105 

Denial,  de,ni^.dL    {Ste  Deny.) 

Denizen,  d^A.zSii,    A  naturalised  citizen. 

Denizen  is  one  made  a  citizen  ex  donatione  regit  (hy 
royal  gift  or  charter).    A  denizen  was  a  trader  within 
the  walls  of  a  town ;   a  forein  was  a  trader  without  the 
walls  (Lat.  /oris,  abroad). 
Low  Latin  dermenus;  Old  French  donaiaon  (Latin  donum,  a  gift). 

Denominate,  de.nSm\i.nate^  to  designate;  denom'inat-ed  (R. 
xxxvi),  denom'inat-ing  (R.  xix.);  dencmi'inat-er,  one 
who  denominates ;  denom'inat-Or,  in  fractiom^  the  figure 
below  the  line,  as  \  (here  "2"  is  the  denominator  because 
it  "  designates"  into  how  many  parts  the  unit  is  divided. 

Denomination,  de.nhm'.unay".8hun,  name,  a  society  (chiefly 

applied  to  religious  sects);  denominational,  de.ndm\i.- 

nay*\8)mn,&U  sectarian ;    denonmia'tioinal-ly ;   denomi- 

na^ye,  de.nom\i.na.ttv, 

French  dSnominatenrf  a  denominator,  dinlnnina^f,  dAnonUnation  ; 
Latin  denomindtio,  denOnUndtlvibs,  dindmindtor,  that  which  gives 
the  name  [to  a  fraction],  denOmindre  (from  nomen,  a  name). 

Denote'  (2  syl.),  to  indicate ;   denof-ed  (K.  xxxvi.),  denot'-ing 

(B.    xix.),    denot-able;     denotation,    de\no.tay'\8hun ; 

denotative,  do.no'.ta.tlVj  having  the  power  to  denote. 

Fr.  dinotaticUt  r.  dfinoter;  Lat.  dendtdUo,  den&tdre  (ndia,  a  mark). 

Denouement  (French),  da^.nou.mah'n  (not  da.nou\e.m(mg),  the 
winding  up  or  final  catastrophe  of  a  drama,  &c. 

Denounce,  de.nounse',  to  inform  against ;   denounced'  (2  syl.), 
denoonc'-ing  (R.  xix.),  denounc'-er,  denounoe-ment. 
(Five  words  drop  the  final  e  before  -ment,  viz.,  acknowledg- 
ment, abridgment,  argu-ment,  lodg-ment,  judg-ment.) 

Denunciation,  de,nun\8e.a" .shun,  a  public  denouncement ; 
denunciator  (not  -ter),  one  who  denounces ;  denuncia- 
tory, de.nvmf.she.a.Vry y  containing  a  denouncement. 

French  dinoncer,  ddnondation;  Latin  denuncidtiOf  denuncidre,  to 
dmotmce  (de  nuncio,  to  inform  against). 

Dense,   dence,  thick.      Dens,  denz,  plu.    of  den;    dense'-ly, 
closely ;  dense'-ness,  den'sity.    (Rule  xix.) 
French  dense,  densvU;  Latin  densus,  denslteLs,  v.  densdre. 

Dent,  a  notch.    Dint,  force,  power. 

"  There  is  a  dent  in  the  [teapot],"  not  dint. 

**  He  did  it  by  dint  of  [kindness],  by  the  power  or  force  of. . . 

Dent  (verb),  denf-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  dent'-ing.      The  more 

usualformsof  this  verb  are  indent',  indented,  indent'-ing; 

indentation,  in\den.tay'''8hun  (has  no  simple  form). 
Denf-al,  pertaining  to  the  teeth;   denKist;    den'tistry, 

the  art  and  profession  of  a  dentist;  dentition,  d^.tith\unf 

the  '*  cutting"  of  teeth. 


1U6  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Dentate,  d^'.tate  (in  BoU\  toothed  [applied  to  leayes]; 
dentated,  dm'.ta\ted  (B.  xxxtI.)  ;  dent'ate-ly. 

Bentelle,  dahn\tell.    Lace,  lace-work. 

Penticle,  den',ti.k%  a  small  projecting  point  like  a  tooth ; 
denticnlate,  d^.tW.u-late  (in  Bot,),  finely  toothed; 
dentic'olate-ly ;  denticnlation,  d^,tWM.lay"^?mn. 

])^ntiflice,  dinfM.fri8.    Tooth-powder. 

Latin  denies  frleo,  to  rub  the  teeth. 

Dentine,  den'.tine  (not  den\teen).  The  tissue  which 
forms  the  hody  of  a  tooth,    (-in^  Lat.  "  substance.") 

Dentils,  d^^.tUz  (in  Arch.)  Little  square  projections  in 
the  bed-mouldings  of  cornices,  &c. 

French  dent,  a  tooth  ;  dental,  dentelle,  deniicuU,  dentifrice^  dentiste, 
dentition;  Lat.  dens,  gen.  dentis,  dentic&ku,  dent^^fricium,  dcntitio. 

Denude'  (2  syl),  to  strip ;  denud'-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  denud'-ing  (Rule 

xix.),denM'-er,  denudation,  d6.nu^da^''.8?iun,  divestment. 

French  dinudaiion,  y.  d4nv4er;  Latin  dinuddtio,  v.  ddnuddre,  to 
make  entirely  naked  (from  ntidus,  naked). 

Denunciation,  de,nv>n\ie,a"  shim.    (See  Denounce.) 

Deny',  to  refuse,  to  contradict ;  denies,  de.niz^;  denied,  de.nide'; 
denf-er,  denl'rable,  denf-ai,  but  deny'-ing  (Rule  xi.) 
French  dinier,  to  deny ;  4ini,  a  denial ;  Latin  denigdre^  to  refiue. 

^eodand,  de\o.dand,  A  fine  on  the  master,  when  one  of  his 
chattels  has  caused  the  death  of  a  human  creature. 

Latin  dec  dandue,  given  to  .(}od.  As  the  person  thus  killed  died 
.without  absolution,  the  money  was  given  for  "masses  for  the 
dead."    Abolibhed  in  1846. 

Deodorise,  de.o'.do.rize,  to  disinfect,  to  neutralise  bad  odours ; 
deo'dorised  (4  syl.),  deo'dorls-ing  (R.  xix.) ;  deo'doris-er, 
a  disinfectant ;  deodorisation,  de.o'.do,ri.zay'\8kun. 
Latixi  de  ddeo,  i.e.  dleo,  to  stink  (de  reverses). 

Deoxidate,  de.ox'.i.date,  to  deprive  of  oxygen ;  deoxldat-ed 
(Rule  xxxvi.),  deox'idat-ing  ^Rule  xix.),  deoxidation, 
de.ox\iJ^y*'.8hwn,  deprivation  of  oxygen. 

Deoxidise,  /dl.occf  .i.dize,  to  deprive  of  oxygen ;  deoz'idiaed 
(4  syl.),  c^eoz'idis-ing,  deoxldis-er,  that  which  deoxidises. 

Deozigemite,  de.ox.if  ,e.Tuite^  to  deprive  of  oxygen;  deox- 
ig'enat-edf'dcozigpenat^ing,  deoz;ig'enat-er,  that  which 
deprives  of  oxygen  ;  deoxigenation,  d^,ox.if.e.nay"jihun, 
(It  is  usual  to  spell  these  words  with  -xi-,  hut  €u 
"oxygen"  is  spelt  with  a  >*y,"  the  change  should  never 
have  been  made.) 

French  de  -oxydahle,  -oxydation,  -oxyder,  to  deoxidise,  -oosygtfnoHon, 
V.  -oxyg^fier;  Greek  oxiu  gend,  to  generate  sour  or  acid  [compounds]. 


AXD  OF  SPELLTXn,  lf>7 

Deparf,  to  leave ;  depart'-ed  (B.  xxxvi.),  depart^ ing,  departure, 
de.par'.tctmr,  a  going  away,  death. 

Department,  a  specitic  branch  of  a  business;    depart- 
mental, de.part.men'.talf  limited  to  a  department. 

French  dSpart,  ▼.  dipartir,  dipartement,  dipartenuntal : 
Latin  de  paaiire  or  -irif  to  separate  from  [others]. 

Depend",  to  rely  on;  depend'-ed  (Bule  xxxvi.),  depend'-ing, 
depend'-ent  (not  dependant),  dependent-ly,  depend'-ence 
(not  dependance);  depend'ency,  plu.  dependencies, 
de.p^',den'Mz;  depehd'able  (R.  xxiii).  Independence,  in'- 
depend'ency,  in'depend'ent,  in'depend'endy  (in-,  neg.) 

Dependent  on   [another];    Independent  of  [all  others]. 

Pendent /rom  [the  ceiling],  t.«.,  hanging  down  from. 

French  dipendomee,  dependant  (wrong  conj.) ;  Lat.  cUpendens,  gen. 
depandentis,  r.  depvndere  (de  pendeo,  to  huig  on  or  from). 

Depicf ,  to  paint,  to  describe ;  depicf  ed  (Rule  xxxvi),  depicfing ; 
depicfer,  one  who  depicis.    (Latin  depicttis,  painted.) 

Depilatory,  de.ptV.a.to.ry,  an  ointment  or  lotion  for  removing 
hair  [from  the  face  and  arms]. 

French  dipUatoire;  Latin  d^ldre,  to  remove  the  hair  (pfliw,  hairX 
Depletion,  ds.plee' .shun,  exhaustion ;  depletive,  dt.plee\tiv, 

Latin  deplere  (pUo,  to  fill,  de  reverses). 

Deplore'  (2  syl.),  to  lament;    deplored'  (3  syL),  deplor'-ing 
(R. xix.), deploring-ly (adv.);  deplor'-er,  r)ne who deplnr.s ; 
deplor'-able,  deplor'ably,    de-plor'ableness ;    deplora- 
biiity,  de.plor^ .a.blV'.i.ty ,  deplorable  state. 
French  d6plora3bUy  v.  ddplorer;  Latin  depWrdre  (pldro,  to  wail). 

Depolarise,  de.pd\lar.ize,  to  deprive  of  polnrity;  depolarised 
(4  syL),  depolans-ing  (R.  xix.);  depolarisation,  de.po,- 
lar,i,zay'\8hun.  To  polarise  light  is  to  split  each  undu- 
lation into  two,  each  split  undulation  is  "  polarised  light." 

Polarity,  po.lafri,ty,  the  "  state  of  being  polarised." 
French  polariscUion,  polarUet,  poUvriU;  Latin  polarU,  polar. 

Depopulate,  de.p6p\u.late,  to  lay  waste,  to  deprive  of  inhabit- 
ants; depop'ulat-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  depop'ulat-ing  (R.  xix.), 
depop'uiat-or  (R.  xxxvii.);  depop'ulation,  -Uiy'^shun. 

Frendi  dApopulaiien;  Latin  depdpiUdtio,  depdpiUdtor,  depdpHldre 
(pdpHittSj  people),  to  deprive  of  people,  de  privative. 

Deporf,  to  behave;  deporf-ed(R.  xxxvi.), deporf-ing;  deport- 
ment, behaviour.  The  verb  deport  [to  behave]  must  be 
followed  by  a  reciprocal  pronoun,  as  oneself,  himself  my- 
ielf  herself,  themselves,  yourself,  yourselves.  &c. 

French  diporter,  to  banish;  Latin  deportart,  to  carry  away  (por^o, 
to  bear  or  carry).  We  talk  of  a  man's  hearing  [way  of  conducting 
himself],  his  carriage  [figure  and  bearing],  &c. 


108  EURORS  OF  SPEECH 

Depose,  de.poz^,  to  degrade  from  office  {$  between  two  vowels 
=  z);  deposed'  (2  syl.),  depSs'-ing  (Bnlexix);  deposT-er. 

Deposit,  de.pSz\it^  somethlDg  intmsted  to  another,  a  pawn, 
to  give  something  as  a  pledge,  to  lay  by  mcmej  in  the 
bank;  deposlt-ed  (R.  zxxiri.),  depos'it-ing,  depoB'it-or 
(R.  xxxvii.);  depository,  de.poz^.i.to.ry^  place  for  deposits. 

(This  word  €U(ftd  to  be  depositaiy ;  Fr.  dSpositaire:  Lat.  depdHtarius.) 
Deposition,  de'.pojsish'.tm.    Statement  made  on  oath. 

FreDch  diposer,  dipomiion;  lAtin  depdsitio^  depdsitor,  depdHtutt 
depOngre,  supine  depdsltum  {de  p<mo,  to  lay  [scHuething]  do¥m). 

Depdt,  plu.  depots,  da.pd'j  dd.pdze*  (Fr.),  not  day'po,  nor 
dep\po,  a  place  where  stores  of  a  specific  sort  are  kept. 

Deprave'  (2  syl.),  to  corrupt;  depraved'  (2  syl.),  deprav'-ing 
(R.  xix.),  deprav'-er ;  depravity,  plu.  depravities,  de.- 
prdv'.i.tiZt  moral  turpitude;  depravedness,  de.prdvd^ness. 

Depravation,  de.pray,vay\8hun.    State  of  moral  turpitude. 

Deprivation,  de,pry.vay\8hun.    Divestment. 

French  depravation,  v.  depra/ver;  Latin  deprdvdtio,  deprdvdre  (trom 

promts,  crooked ;  de-pravo,  to  dis-tort). 
"Deprivation/*  is  Latin  deprivatio  (from  privdre,  to  take  awayX 

Deprecate,  dep'.re.kate,  to  blame,  to  curse ;  dep'recat-ed  (Rule 
xxxvi.),  dep'recat-ing  (Rule  xix.),  dep'recating-ly,  dep'- 
recat-or  (not  -er,  R.  xxxvii.);  deprecatory,  dep\re.ka.try ; 
deprecative,  dep'.re.ka.tlVj  dep'recntive-ly. 

Deprecation,  dep'.re.kay*' .shun.    A  cursing,  a  blaming. 
Depreciation,  de.pree' M.d.8hyn.    Detraction  of  value. 
French  dipricatwn.,  ddpricatif;  Latin  de  preedri,  to  pray  agaixut. 

Depreciate,  dS.pree* M.ate,  to  lessen  in  value;  depse'ciat-ed 
(K.  xxxvi.),  depre'ciat-ing  (R.  xix.),  depreciat-or  (not  -«r, 
R.  xxxvii.) ;  depreciation,  dS.pree' .8i.a''^hun,  detraction 
of  value;  depreciative,  <2e.2'7^««'.sLa.tiv;  depre'ciatiTO-ly; 
depreciatory,  de.pree" J8\.a.t6.ry, 
Rr.  depreciation,  ▼.  deprider;  Latin  deprgddre  {prMum,  the  pricpX 

Depredate,  dep' .re.date,  to  plunder ;  dep'redat-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.), 
dep'redat-ing  (Rule  xix.).  dep'redat-or  (Rule  xxxvii.); 
depredatory,  dep" .re.da\t'ry  (adj.),  plundering; 
depredation,  dep\re.day'\8hunj  spoliation. 

French  depredation;  Latin  d»-  prvedaiio,  proeddtor,  pnedaUifitu 
(from  prceda^  W^7*  booty). 

Depress',  to  lower  in  spirit  or  in  value ;  depressed'  (2  syl.),  de- 
press'-ing,  depress'ing-ly,  depress'-or  (not  -er,  R.  xxxvii.), 
depression,  de.presh'.mn,  lowness,  dejection,  concavity. 

French  divresnon;  Latin  depressio,  deprestor,  y.  deprimo,  8uiiin« 
depressum  (de  premo,  to  press  down). 


AND    OF  SPELLIXG.  199 

I>eprive%  to  take  away,  to  lose ;  deprived',  depriv^-ing  (R.xxxyiO> 
depriv'-er,  depriv'-able,  deprivatioii,  dS.pri\vay" ^hun. 
Lfttin  d6-  privSn^  to  Uke  away  from ;  frivatiA, 

Depth.     Observe  these  four  words,  Length,  breadth,   depth, 
and  height  (not  heighth,  as  it  is  often  pronounced). 
De^;  -thf  Old  Eng.  postfix,  converts  adj.  to  abstract  nouas. 

Separate,   de.p-u' .rate,  to  free  from  impurities ;    depu'rat-ed 
(R.  xxxvi.),  depu'rat-ing  (R.  xix.) ;  depoiation,  de.pn*, 
ray^'^kun;  depuiatiye,  dejm'.raMv, 
(The  accent  of  these  words  is  often  thrown  en  the  first 
syllable,  hut  the  way  given  is  the  more  correct) 
French  dipwrer,  dSptvraiion ;  Latin  depurdtio  fpurus,  pure,  dean). 

Depute' (2  syl.),  to  appoint;  depuf-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  depuf-ing 
(R.  xix),  deput'-er;  deputy,  plu,  deputies,  dep'.uMz, 
persons  deputed ;  deputaticm,  dep\u,tay'^^hun. 

French  deputation,  v.  diputer ;  Latin  depiUdre,  to  lop  off  ^pAto,  to 
prune).    A  "deputy  "  is  one  cut  offtrom  others  for  a  given  object. 

Derange,  de.rainf  (not  de.rdnj),  to  disorder;  deranged'  (2  Ryl.), 

derang'-ing  (R.  xix.),  derang'-er,  derange'ment  (only 

five  words  di-op  the  e  final  before  -ment.     Rule  xviii.  %). 

French  d&rangement,  v.  d4ranger  (ranger  to  put  in  rank,  de  reversesX 

Derqptis,  dh^^^Xis.  A  fossil  eel-like  fish  in  the  chalk  formation. 

Greek  VerhiStiaj  a  Syrian  goddess,  like  a  mermaid,  similar  to  Da^jon, 

Derelict,  d^ry.VUtt,  abandoned,  goods  forsaken  by  the  owner; 
dereliction  [of  duty],  det'ry.lik'\shun  (not  derelectian), 
neglect  [of  duty]  involving  guilt. 
Latin  dirSlictiOt  dir^ictus  (de  relinquor,  relictus,  to  leave). 

Deride'  (2  syl),  to  laugh  at ;  dei^d'-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  derld'-ing 
(R.  xix.),  derid'-er,  one  who  derides. 

Derision,  de.rizj'.un,  ridicule;  derisive,  de,ri',8ltj ;  deii'- 
give-ly,  derifiiye-ness  (Rule  xxxiii.) 

French  ddrider,  dirinan;  Latin  deridire  supine  dirisum,  to  laugh 
at ;  derisio. 

Derive'  (2  syl.),  to  acquire,  receive,  draw  from  a  source ;  de- 
rived' (2  syl.),  deriv'-ing  (R.  xix.),  deriv'-er,  derivable. 

Derivation,  dei^ry.vay*\shun,  tracing  to  the  root,  descent. 

Derivative,  dejr^',a.tiv,  a  word  formed  from  another,  not 
fundamental;  derivative-ly.     Rule(xvrL.) 

French  dirivatif,  derivation,  v.  d^river;  Latin  diriv&tio,  dirivdtimu, 
dirivdre  [de  rivo  [to  draw]  from  the  river  or  source). 

Dernier  ressort,  den^.nca  res'-sor  (French).  The  last  expedient 
or  resource.  (Not  dernier  resort,  which  is  one  word 
French  and  one  English,  and  ought  not  to  be  tolerated. 
Either  say  dernier  ressor  or  the  last  resource.) 


200  EliRORS  OF  SPEECH 


Derogate,  de/ro.gate,  to  disparage ;  der'ogat-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.), 
dero'gat-ing;  derogation,  der^ro.gay'^tlmn, 
Derogator,  de.rSg\a,tor,  a  detractor;  derog^atory,  derog'- 
atori-ly  (Bule  xi.),  derog'atori-ness  (Rule  xi). 

French  dAroQationy  dirogatoire,  v.  diroger  ;  Latin  derdgdtio^  derdgdior, 
ddrogdtlviUt  derpgaUyrius^  derdgaid/re  (frequentative',  derifgare. 
{*'  Bogare"  is  bring  in  a  bill  or  propose  a  law ;  **  de-rogare  "  is  the 
reverse,  i.e.,  to  repeal  a  law.) 

Der'rick.     A  temporary  crane  for  removing  goods  irom  a  vessel. 

So  called  from  Derrick,  the  Tyburn  hangman  (17th  centuryX 

Dervish  or  dervise,  der^.vU.    A  Mohammedan  ''  monk"  of  great 

austerity.    (Persian,  derwesch,  poor.) 

Descant,  des.kdnif,  to  comment,  to  talk  to  oneself;  deecant'-ed 

(R.  xxxvi.),  descant'-ing,  descant^-er. 

{Tfie  Jirgt  syllable  should  be  dis.   T?ie  word  is  "  dis-cant.") 
Spanish  discantar,  to  descant :  Latin  dis  eantofre^  to  sing  apart. 
Descend,  de.send'  (not  des.send\    The  word  is  compounded  of 

de  and  scando^  to  climb  down) ;   descend-ed,  defend'. ed 

(R.  xxxvi.),  descend-ing,  defend*. ing. 

Descendant.  One  proceeding  from  an  ancestor.  (This 
word  should  be  "descendent;"  but,  as  usual,  we  owe 
our  error  to  the  French.)  Descendent  (in  A8tr.\  is  the 
opposite  of  ascendant.  (Here  again  is  a  marvellous 
confusion.  It  should  be  '*  The  star  is  in  the  ascwident 
or  descendent;  '*  but  if  the  French  error  is  preferred,  then 
take  the  French  words  ascendant  and  descendant,  and 
not  one  right  and  one  wrong.) 

Descend'-ihle  (not  -able) ;  descendibility,  de.send'.%.hW\i.ty. 

Descension,  desen'.shun,  a  falling,  hence  a  quarrel  or 
falling  out  (verbs  in  -d  and  -de,  add  -sion  instead  of 
-tion,  R.  xxxiii.) ;  descensional,  de^en' ^hun.al  (adj.) 

Descent,  de,sen1f  (not  dissent),  slope,  progress  down;  but 

Dissent,  dissenf,  a  disagreement,  to  differ. 

French  dMcefndami,  verb  dMcendre^  descents :  Latin  deseemdens,  gvn. 

descendentiSf  descensio,  descendire  (de  scando,  to  climb  down). 
"Dissent"  is  Latin  dissentio,  i.e.,  dis  sentio,  to  think  differentlj. 

Describe,  desknbe'  (not  des.kribe).  (The  word  is  compounded 
of  de  and  scribo,  to  write  down,  not  des-cribo.) 
Described,  de.skribd';  describ-ing,  de.skribe.ing  (Rule  xix.); 
describ-er,  de,8kribef,er,  one  who  describes ;  describaUe, 
deskribe\a.ble  (Rule  xxiii.)  The  negative  is  indesorib* 
able,  that  which  cannot  be  described. 

Description,  deskfip\shun  (not  dis. skrip'. shun) ;   deserip- 

tive,    deskr\p\t%v    (not   dis.skHp\tlv)',    descriptiTe-ly ; 

descriptiye-ness,  de.skrip\tiv,7iess, 

French  descriptsf,  description ;  Latin  descrlh^re,  descriptio  {de  sorlbo, 
to  write  down,  to  limit  or  define). 


AXD  OF  SPELUXG,  201 

,  to  espy.    Decry,  to  cry  down. 

Descry,  des.hry'  (not  de.8kry\  nor  yet  dU.hry')',  descries, 

des.krize'  (not  dis.krize),  B.  zi.;  descried,  des.kride^  (not 

dis.kride);  descri-er  (not  descry er,  R.  xi.).  de8.cri.er. 

(Thefint  syl.  ought  to  he  dis-  cLsitU  usttally  pronounced. ) 

"JDesciy"  is  a  conniption  of  the  Norman  discrivtr,-  Latin  diteemOt 

supine  diserHum^  to  discern. 
*'  Deciy  "  is  the  French  d4  crier,  to  cry  down. 

Desecrate,  d^\e,1crdte^  to  profane  what  is  sacred,  the  opposite 
of  consecrate ;  des'ecrat-ed  (B.  xxxvi.),  des'ecrat-ing  (R. 
xix.);  des'ecrat-er,  one  who  desecrates;  desecration, 
dSs\e.hray'* .shuny  profanation.  (One  of  the  few  words 
in  -Uon  which  is  not  French.) 

(This  word  must  not  be  confounded  with  execrate,  '^to 
detest"  " to  curse") 
Latin  dlseerdre,  dlaecrdtus  (saerdre,  is  to  hallow,  de  revemes). 
Desert,  dez\ert;  desert,  de.zertf;  dessert,  detjserf. 
{Desert,  d&s\ert  (noun);  dez.erf  (verb).    Rule  L 

Desert,  dez'.ert^  a  wilderness,  a  solitude;  di.zert^  to  aban- 
don; deserf-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.),  desert'-ing,  deserf-er 
(should  be  deserter);  desertion,  dS.ze7^.shun. 

{Desert,  dejiert'.  That  which  deserves  reward  or  punishment. 

{Dessert  (with  double  s).    The  course  of  firuit  at  dinner. 

I  ''Desert"  (a  wilderness,  to  abandon);  French  dAsert,  verb  deserter, 

'  d^serteu/r,  desertion ;  Latin  desertum,  a  des'ert ;  desertor,  desertio, 

de^rtdre  (frequentative  of  «^ro,  to  knit  together,  and  (2e-  which 
reverses,  hence  to  unbind,  forsake,  abandon). 
"Desert"  (merit j,  Latin  deservire,  supine  desermtum,  contracted  to 

,  deserHum^  something  deserved. 

I  ''Dessert"  (of  fruit),  French  dessgrt,  what  is  brought  on  after  the 

table  is  cleared  (desservir,  to  clear  the  table). 

i:  Deserve,  deaerve\  to  merit;  deserved,  dczervd';  deserv-ing, 
deae/.ving  (Rule  xix.);  deserv-er,  de.zer'.ver  C's"  be- 
tween two  vowels  SB  z). 

I '  Beserfvdly,  de,zervd\ly,  more  often  de.zer'.ved.ly. 

Deser'ving-ly  (only  in  a  good  sense). 

Latin  deservio,  to  merit  for  service  {servio,  to  do  a  service). 

Deshabille,  properly  pronounced  days'-a.bee'-ya,  but  generally 
called  dis\a.beel,  undress.    (French.) 

Desiccate,  des'Ak.kate,  to  dry  up;  des'iocat-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.) 
dM^iccat-ing  (Rule  xix.);  desiccant,  des'.lk.kant,  a 
medicine  to  dry  a  running  sore ;  desiccation,  des\ik.kay*\- 
skun,  the  act  of  making  dry,  or  sta^  of  being  dry. 
Desiocatiye,  de.sW.ka.tXv  (adj.).  Drying  or  tending  to  dry. 
C'DesiccatifM"  is  one  of  the  few  words  in  -tion  rwt  French.) 
Latin  dtaicedtio,  desiceare  (sieeo,  to  dry ;  siccus,  dry). 


202  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 


Desiderate,  de.8id\e.Tate,  to  want ;  deaid'erat-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.) ; 
desid'era-ting ;  desiderative,  dc.sld^ ,e.ra.t^,  (These 
words  are  not  much  used.) 

Desideratum,  plu,  desiderata,  deM^ .ejray^ .twn,  plu.  de.- 
8id'^.ray'\tdh.  Something  needed  to  supply  a  deficiency. 

Desideration,  de^ld\e.ray"^kun.     Something  required  to 

supply  a  deficiency. 
Latin  dlHdirdtio,  desWfratlims^  dMfdifriltus,  dislderSre,  to  crave  for. 

Design,  de.zine't  a  scheme,  a  plau,  to  intend,  to  pkn,  <fec. ; 
designed,  de.zined';  design-ing,  de.zine\ing;  design-er, 
de.zlne'.er ;  design^ed-ly,  dejiine\ed.ly^  intentionally ; 
design-ahle,  de.zine' .aJb'l ;  design4eeB,  dejum^Xets  ; 
designless-ly ;  design-ment,  deju'vne^ment, 
(In  all  the  examples  given  above  the  "  g  "  t«  silent,  but  is 
pronounced  hard  in  the  following  derivatives,  and  **b"  is 
no  longer  =  z,) 

Designate,  des'sig.nate,  to  point  out,  to  name;  des'ignat-ed 
(Rule  xxxvi.) ;  des'ignat-ing,  des'ignat-or.     (R.  xxxvii.) 

Deaig^nation,  des'sig.nay^'^hun.     A  name,  <feo.  (Rule  Ix.) 

French  designer,  cUsignaiion;  Latin  diaign&tio,  disignator,  diiign[o\ 
to  mark  out  [signum,  a  sign  or  diatinguishing  mark). 

Desire,  de.zire',  to  wish  for  ("s**  between  two  vowel8=z); 
desired'  (2  syl.),  deslr'-ing  (R.  xix.),  desir'-.er,  desDr-able, 
desirably,  desirable-ness. 

Desirous,  de.zire\vs,  wishful ;  desir'oiis-ly. 

Fr.  dSsir,  disirdhle,  v.  disirer,  disireux.  Lat.  disld^re,  which  fnmishea 
the  verb  dielder&re,  to  crave  for ;  diaidMum,  desire,  craving  for. 

Desist,  de-sist',  to  leave  off  (Rule  Ix.);   deaisf-ed  (Rule  xxxvi); 
desist'-ing;  desistance,  de,zis\tance,  a  ceasing  to  act. 
(The  first  "s"  in  ''desist"  is  pronounced  between  a  and 
z;  but  in  *' resist"  it  is  decidedly  ^z.) 

French  ddaister;  Latin  desist^re,  dssiatens  (sisto,  to  contbrae). 
Desk,  a  sloping  table.    (Old  Eng.  disc,  a  table,  a  beard,  a  dish.) 

Desolate,  des'.o.late,  lonesome,  in  a  ruinous  state,  to  lay  waste ; 
des'olat-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  des'olat-ing  (R.  xix.);  desTdlat-er, 
one  who  lays  waste ;  des'olat-ly ;  desolatory,  detl'.oMWry. 

Desolation,  d^\o.lay" .shun,  a  state  of  ruin  and  gloom. 

French  diaolaiefwr,  dSaolation,  verb  dUoUr;  Latin  diOUlkks,  dtaH- 

Idtua,  desoldre  (from  sClus,  alone). 

Despair'  (not  dispair),  hopelessness,  to  be  withoat  hope; 
despaired'  (2  syl.),despaar'-ing,despair'ing4y»deBpair-er. 

Desperate,  dSs'.pe.rate,  reckless,  without  hope ;  despewte-ly, 
des'perate-ness  (Rule  xvii) 

Desperation,  des\pe.ray".8kun.    Recklessness,  hopelessness. 


AND  OF  .SPELLING.  805 


Besperado,  phi.  deiqiendoee  (Rule  xlii.),  de$\pi.ray'\doze 

(Dot  de8\pe.rdh.doze\  a  bravo.    (Spanish.) 

Latin  despAtttlo,  diapirHtvMy  deapirSr*  {dt'apUy  wifcbovt  hope). 

DeqMtcih'  (not  <2wpa£cA).    Haste,  a  special  message,  to  send  on 

special  business.     Despatches  (phi,),  written  documents 

sent  to  or  from  a  public  servant  on  business  of  state, 

(B.  liii.),  deq[)atched  (2  syL),  despatdi'-ing. 

Spanish  deapachar  verb,  dtspacha  noun ;  Latin  de  spdtior,  to  travel 
from  [one  person  or  plaoe  to  another]. 

Despicable,  dei'.pl.kd.h'l  (not  des.plk'.d.bl).    See  below. 

i'  (2  syL),  not  dispize,  to  contemn;  despised'  (2  syl.), 
despls'-ing,  despls'-er;  despis-able,  contemptible;  des- 
picable, des* .pi.ka.Vl  (not  des.piV.a.Vl),  worthless,  vile; 
despis'ing-ly,  with  disdain ;  des'picably,  contemptibly ; 
despicable-ness,  des" .pi.ha.Vtness  (not  des.pHW .aJt'ljoess). 

Latin  desplcSbilMy  despMo  {de  spieu),  to  look  down  on  one). 
Despite,  dSs.pite".    An  act  of  malice,  notwithstanding. 
(It  is  never  used  as  a  verb^  the  verb  w  "  to  spite.") 

Latin  despicio,  supine  despectum  {de  apeeio,  to  look  down  on  one). 

Despoil'  (2  syl.),  to  plunder ;   despoiled'  (2  syl.),  despoil'-ing ; 
despoil^-er,  one  who  despoils. 

Despoliation,  dS,8pd\li.a'* .shun  (not  despoiliation). 

(This  noun  is  very  little  used,  spoliation  is  used  instead.) 
Latin  despdlidre^  to  pillage ;  gpolidre,  gpoliAtio,  &c. 
Despond',  to  fail  in  hope ;  despond'-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  despond'- 
ing,  despond'ing-ly;  despond'-er,  one  who  desponds; 
despond'-ent  (not  -ant),  low  spirited ;  despond'ent-ly, 
despond'-ence,  despondency,  des.pon'.den.cy. 

X«atin  despondens,  gen.  despondentia,  despondere  (spondeo  is  "to  an- 
swer [one's  expectation],"  de  reverses,  hence  de-spondeo  is  to  dis- 
appoint one's  hope,  "  to  lose  hope." 

Despot,  d^\pot,  a  tyrant,  an  autocrat;  despotic,  d^.potWk, 
absolute;  despot'ical,  despot'io-ly,  despot'ical-ly;  des- 
potigm,  des^.po.tizm,  autocracy. 

French  despote,  deapotique,  despotism;  Greek  dispdUs,  d^spdtikds, 
verb  dtSpozd,  to  obtain  mastery. 

Dessert,  dizjsert';  desert,  de.zert';  desert,  dez'.ert. 

Dessert,  dez.zertf.     A  course  of  fruit  after  dinner. 
Desert,  de.zerf.    What  is  deserved  (good  or  ill). 
Desert,  dez'.ert,    A  solitude,  a  wilderness. 
Desert,  de.zerf.    To  abandon  (q.v.) 

* '  Dessert, "  French  dessert,  the  coarse  served  after  the  table  Is  cleared ; 

desservw,  to  clear  the  table. 
"Desert"  (what  is  deserved),  Latin  diservio,  sup.  dSservltum,  to  do 

one  a  service,  hence  '*  to  deserve  [payment]  " 
"Desert"  (a  wildemess),  French  desert;  Latin  desertum. 
"Desert"  (to  abandon),  the  saine.     (Sero  is  to  join,  as  de  reverses 

de-sero  is  to  disjoin,  and  hence  "to  forsake.") 


204  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

,  -      , -  ^  —  — 

Destiiie,  d^\tln  (not  des.tlne),  to  design  or  purpose;  destmed^ 
(2  syl:) ;  destining,  des'tln-ing  (Bule  xix.) 

Destination,  d^' .ti.nay" .ihwn.    The  ultimate  goaL 

Destiny,  plu,  destinies,  dSs*M.ny,  d&\t1.nU.    Fate,  doom. 

French  destiruUion,  destinie,  y.  destiner;  Latin  destindtio,  detUndre. 
(Greek  at&no  to  bind  fast) 

Destitute,  dSa^MMte.    Friendless,  needy,  without. 

Destitution,  d&s\ti.tu''^hun.    Utter  want,  distress. 
French  destitution,  destitud ;  Latin  destUutio,  destXtiUus,  de8tUair4 

(stdttu)  is  to  erect,  as  de  reverses  de-stdtuo  is  to  poll  dolHL     A 
*'  dtetitute"  person  is  one  *'  poUdd  down.") 

Destroy'  (not  distroy),  to  demolish ;  destroyed'  (2  syL),  dtetroy'- 
ing  (Rule  xiii.),  destroy'-er,  one  who  destroys. 

Destruction,  desitruk^shun  (not  distruction),  demolition; 
destructive,  des.truk'Mv  ;  destruc'tive-ly,  destmc'tiYe- 
ness;  destructible,  des.truk^.ti.b'l  (not  -able\  liable  to...; 
destrnctibility,  des.truk'MMV'.i.ty,  capable  of  destruction. 

French  destruciibilitd,  destructible,  destruct\f,  destruction;  Latin 
destructiOy  destruire  (struo  is  to  pue  up,  de  reverses). 

Desuetude,  des'awe.tude.    Disuse,  discontinuance. 

{It  aught  to  be  pronounced  in  four  syllables^  des'su.e.tnde.) 
Fr.  ddsuitude;  Lat.  disuStudo.    (Sueo  is  "to  be  in  use,'*  d0 reverses.) 

Desultory,  des'uldo.ry,  unconnected ;  des'ultori-ly  (R.  xi.),  des'- 
ultori-ness  (B.  xi.),  running  &om  one  subject  to  another- 

Latin  desuUorius,  (desUio,  de  sdlio,  to  leap  from  one  thing  to  another)* 
"  Desultor"  was  a  rider  who  leaped  from  one  horse  to  another,  as  a 
rider  in  a  circus.    An  InstUter  is  one  who  leaps  on  jon. 

Detach,  de.tatch\  to  separate ;  detached'  (3  syL),  detach'-ing, 
detacV-^ment,  ships  or  troops  sent  to  the  main  body. 

French  ddta/ahment,  y.  d4tcu:her ;  Italian  de  staocare,  staeoato  in 
music  is  ivhen  each  note  is  isolated. 

Detail,  de'tail  (noun),  de.taiV  (verb),  Rule  1. 

De'taiL    Minute  particulars  [of  a  narrative]. 

Detail',   to  narrate  particulars,  to  deal  out  f^eoelneal; 

detailed'  (2  syl.),  detail'^ing,  detail'-er. 
French  ditaU,  y.  ddtaiUer  {taiUer,  to  cut ;  German  <^Iei»,  to  divide). 

Detain',  to  keep  back ;  detained'  (2  syL),  detain'-ing;  detain'-er, 
one  who  detains,  a  writ  to  a  warder  to  continue  to  keep 
a  prisoner  in  prison. 

Detention,  de.t&i'jthun  (-titm  not  sion.  Rule  xxxiii) 

Detineo  (Latin),  maJces  '*  detehtum"  not  detensum,  in  the  «tq». 
French  ditevUion,  v.  ditenir ;  Latin  d^Kneo  (de  teneo^  to  hcdd  badL 
(The  pseudo  diphthong  -ai-  is  indefensible.  Probably  it  arises  from 
■ome  confused  notion  that  tain  is  a  contraction  of  taken  (ta*en.) 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  ?05 

Beteof,  to  discoyer;  detecf-ed  (Bnle  xxxvi.),  detecf-ing, 
detect'-er  (should  be  detect-or) ;  detectiye,  de.t^'.tlv ; 
detection,  deMhf^shun;  detect-ible. 

Latin  deteetoTf  dBUetio,  ditSgirt  supine  detedwn  {Ugo  is  "  to  cover," 
de reverses,  hence  de  tego  is  "  to  uncover"). 

D^ter',  to  hinder  by  fefur,  &c.;  deterred'  (2  syL),  deterr^-ing 
(Bule  L),  deterr-er,  deterr'-ent  (ac|j.)>  det^r'-me9t  (one  r> 
because  -ment  does  not  begin  with  a  yowel). 

Latin  diUrrire  (de  terreo,  to  frighten  from  [doing  a  thing]). 
(**  Peter"  <yught  to  he  speU  with  double  "  r."    It  ie  not  from  the  verb 
det&K>,  to  bruise,  biUfrom  deterreo,  tofrighienj. 

Detergent,  de.tS/,gent  (n.  and  adj.),  that  which  cleans,  cleansing: ; 
detersiye,  de.t^Mv^  having  the  power  to  cleanse ;  deter- 
don  (not  detertum),  de.t^'^hun,  the  act  of  cleansing. 

French  ditergent,  ▼.  ddterger,  ditersif;   Latin  dHergene,  gen.  deter- 
g^ie,  deterg^re,  sap.  -teirsum  (de  tergo  to  scour  out  [a  stain]). 

Deteriorate,  de.t^ri.o.rate  (not  de,tee\ri.o.rate),  to  degenerate ; 
deteriorated,  de.ti^ri,o,rat€.ed  (Rule  xxxvi,) ;  deter'io- 
rat-ing  (Bule  xix.) ;  deterioration,  de.te/re,o.ray^\8hun. 

French  ddtSrioration,  v.  d^tiriorer ;  Latin  deUHiu  (adv.)  worse. 
Not  a  derivative  of  ''de  terreo,**  but  of  di  USro,  to  wear  awaj. 

Determine,  de.th^.mln,  to  decide ;  deter'mined  (3  syl.),  deter'- 
min<-ing  (Bule  xix.),  deter'min-er,  deter'min-able. 

Determinate,  deMr^ »mln,ate  (verb  and  adj.),  to  limit,  limited ; 
deter'minate4  (Bule  ]^xvi.),  deter'minat-ing  (Bule  xix.), 
deter'minat-or  (Bule  xxxvii.);  determinatiye,  de.t^\- 
n0n.a,Viv ;  deter'minatiye-ly,  specifically. 

Determination,  de.te/ .mi.nay'^shun.    A  fixed  resolution. 

French  dStermvnaiif^  ditermination,  v.  determiner;   Latin  diter- 
minaiiio,  ditermindre  {termXnus,  a  bound&iy). 

Detersiye,  de.tifMv,  &c,    [See  Detergent.) 

Detest',  to  hate ;  detest'-ed  (B.  xxxvi.),  detest" -ing,  detest'-er, 
deteiiTj-able  (not  -ible,  Ist  Lat.  conj.),  detestably,  detest'- 
able-ness;  detestation,  de^tfis.tay/'shun,  abhorrence. 

Tnnda^^ditestahle,  detestation,  v.  ditester  :  Latin  detestdhUis,  detettd- 
tio,  detestdri  {de  testor,  to  bear  witness  against  one). 

Dethrone'  (2  syL),  to  drive  from  a  throne  ,*  dethroned'  (3  syl.), 
dethron'-ing  (Bule  xix.),  dethron'-er,  dethrone'-ment. 
Latin  de  fhromiUf  [to  remove]  from  a  throne. 

Detcmate,  de\to.nate,  to  explode;    de'tonatf-ed  (Bule  xxxvi.), 
de^tonftt-ing  (Bule  xix.) ;  detonation,  de\to,nay".8hun, 
(Very  often  pronounced  dSt-;  but  the  "e**  is  long.) 
French  d6tonaiion,T.  ditoner;  Latin  de-t&ndre,  to  thunder  mightily. 
Detour  (Fr.),  da,toor^.    A  roundabout  or  circuitous  way. 


206  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Detract,  de.trdkf  (not  de.tr&W),  to  depreciate ;  detraot'-ed  (Bole 
xxxvi.),  detracf-ing,  detraet'-or  (not  -er,  Bnle  xxxvii.), 
detract'ing-ly ;  detract'-iTO,  d€.trak\tiVy  depreciative ; 
detractioii,  de.trak^shun,  depreciation. 

French  y.  dStracter,  dStraetion  :  Latin  detractor,  detraetio,  d»4rahire, 
supine  de-tracUtm,  to  draw  off,  hence,  to  lessen.  There  is  »  Low 
Latin  verb  de  trocto,.  meaning  *^to  tear  limb  from  Umb  with  hoisoib'* 

Detriment,  dSLri,ment,  injury;  detrimental,  def.ri.men'\tal, 

French  ddtriment :  Latin  ditrimentam  (detiro,  snp.  tritum,  to  brniae.) 

Detritus  (should  be  detri'tus,  but  generally  called  d^,tfLtus), 
debris ;  detrition,  deXrisU.un,  the  act  of  wearing  away. 
(  We  perversely  disregard  Latin  quantiUetj  Bale  lyii.) 
French  ditritUm,  d^trihu;  Latin  de-  Ufm,  snp.  trltum,  to  wear  down. 

Detrude'  (2  syL),  to  thrust  down ;  detrud'-ed  (B.  xxxvi.),  de- 
trud'-ing ;  detrusion,  de.tru\zhun  {-sion  not  -tion,B>  zxxiii.) 

('*  De-trude"  is  to  thrust  down;  '* intrude,"  to  thrust  oruseff  iait.) 
Latin  dt  imdiref  supine  trtLawn^  to  Uirust  down  or  away. 

Detruncate,  de.trun\kate,  to  lop  off  the  limbs ;  detnm'cat-ed 
(Bale  xxxvi.),  detrun'cat-ing  (Bule  xix.) ;  detmncation, 
de.trun^kay^'.shun,  mutilation.  ■ 

(** Detmncation'*  is  one  of  the  few  words  in  **-tion **  not  Fr.) 
Latin  ddrune&tiOy  deirunc&re,  sup.  detrttnedtum,  to  lop  off. 

Deuce,  duse^  two  of  cards  or  dice,  the  devil ;  deuced,  du'jedt 
devilish,  very ;  deuced-ly,  du\sed.lyy  devilishly,  very. 

**  Deuce"  (two),  French  deux  ;  Latin  duo,  two. 
"Deuce"  (the  devil),  "quosdam  daemones  quos  'dusios'  Oalli  nun- 
ctLpant"  (St.  Aug.  zv.  23) ;  Danish  dwaSy  tiie  deuce. 

Deutero-,  du\tS,ro-  (Greek  prefix  meaning  "second"). 

Deutero-gamy,  du\te.rog'\a.my.    A  second  marriage  on  the 
death  of  the  first  husband  or  wife.   (Gk.  gdmoSy  marriage.) 

Deutero-nomy,<2u'.fe.r5?i".o.my.  The  second  giving  of  thelaw 
by  Moses,  the  5th  book  of  the  Bible.   (Gk.noTOO«,thelaw.) 

Deut  -  (contraction  of  deutero- ,  see  above).  In  Chen^  it  indicates 
two  equivalents  of  oxjgen  to  one  of  the  metal  named:  as 

Deutozide,  dtu.tdx\ide  [of  copper,  &c.],  two  eqpiivalents  of 
oxygen  to  one  of  copper  (deuto  oxide). 

Devastate,  de'.vas.tate,  to  lay  waste ;  de'vastat-ed  (Bule  xxxvi), 
de'vastat-ing,    de'vastat-or    (not    -er,    Bule    xxxvii.); 
devastation,  de*vas.tay" .slmn,  a  state  of  ruin,  havoa 
(  The  first  syl.  is  often  pronounced  dev- ,  but  the  "  e  **  w  long.) 

French  divastation,  v.  dSvaster  ;  Latin  divastcUio,  dSmtJMn,  dHa*- 
tare  (de  vasto,  to  lay  thoroughly  waste). 

Develop,  de.v^.op,  to  disclose.     EnveFop,  to  inclose. 

(  The  noun  envelope  [for  letters]  has  a  final  -  e  ;**  "detelop'' 
has  no  noun.    Bear  in  mind  the  two  verbs.) 


AND   OF  SPELLlXa,  507 


JkiweLofpeAtde,v^.Spt;  deverop-ing,  devel'op-ment  (R.iii.  b), 

Vr.  dSvelovpemeatf  y.  divelopper ;  Ital.  vUuppOy  a  bundle^  or  intri- 
cacy ;  ait  reverses,  hence  de-vetop  is  to  nndo  a  bundle  or  intricacy. 

Deviate,   de\vi.atej  to  vary,  to  tnm  firom    the    right   way; 
deM§t-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  de'viat-ing  (R  xix.)  de'viat-er; 
deviation,  de'.vi.af'.ahuriy  a  difference ;  devious,  d^.vi.us  ; 
de'vions-ly,  de'vions-neBs. 
French  dMaiiUmt  ▼.  divier;  Latin  dMu»  [da  via,  oat  of  the  way). 

Device'  (3  ayi.)  A  contrivance,  a  motto,  a  symbol.  {See  Devise.) 

Devil,  dJSif.il^  Satan;  dev'il-ish,  maliciously  wicked,  very; 
dev'ilif^-ly,  maliciously,  exceedingly;  dev^ilish-ness ; 
devil-ism,  d^\iUizm,  devilish  conduct ;  dev'il-ment, 
dev'il^-ry,  mischief  and  malice  fit  for  a  devil. 

Dev'il,  to  grill  with  cayenne  pepper;    dev^iled  (3  syl.), 
dev'il^-ing.     (Old  Eng.  deoul,  dedfol  or  dedjij  dedjllc.) 

Devions,  de'.vi.us,    (See  Deviate.) 

Devise,  de-vize*,  to  scheme;  device,  de.vice^  a  scheme  (R.  li.); 
devised'{3  syl.),  devis'-ing, devis'-er,  devis'-able  (R.x xiii.) ;  ' 
devisee,  d^.vuzee%  the  person  to  whom  "  real  estate  "  in 
devised ;  devisor,  de.vi.zoj^,  the  person  who  bequeaths  or 
leaves  by  will.  Divisor,  dLvi^zSr,  the  figure  by  which  a 
sum  is  divided. 
Fr.  devise,  a  motto.    ItaL  ditisa,  a  coat  of  arms ;  divisare,  to  devise. 

Devoid'  (3  syL),  empty,  destitute.    (Lat.  de  viduiis,  wholly  void.) 

Devolve'  (3  syl.),  to  become  the  duty  of,  to  pass  over  from  one 
to  another;  devolved' (2  syl.),  devolv'-ing  (Rule  xix.), 
devolv'-ment ;  devolution,  de\vo.Vuf\8hun. 
{**  Devolve''  is  followed  by  on:  "  The  duty  devolves  on  vie." ) 

Trench  devolution,  the  falling  of  property  to  relations  in  default  of 
proper  heirs.    Latin  devolve,  to  roll  down ;  devdlutue,  devolved. 

Devonian. d«,t;o'.m.an.  The  Old  Red  Sandstone  formation;  so 
caltG4  from  Devonshire,  where  it  is  largely  developed. 

Devonite,  dev'M.nlte.    A  mineral  found  at  Bai^staple  in 
Devonshire  ("-ite"  in  Geo.  means  a  "stone"  or  "fossil"). 

Old  English  D^ene,  a  Devonshire  man ;    DefencL-scir,  Devonshire. 
Latin  Dumrumii,  BritlBh  DyvnonU,  the  glen  people. 

Devote'  (3  syl.),  to  consecrate;  devof-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  devof-ing 
(R.xix.);  devotion,  de.ro'.s/iwTi;  devo'tion-ist,devo'tion-al, 
devo'tional-ly;  devo'lional-ist,  a  devotee ;  devested  (3 
1^),  strongly  attached ;  devo'ted-ly,  devo'ted-ness. 

Devotee,  d^\o.tee\    One  abandoned  to  religious  exercises. 

Devout,'  pious ;  devonf-ly,  devout'-ness. 

Frendi  dSvot,  divotion.     Latin  divdtio,  devdtus,  dgvdtdre  whence 
"  devote  :**  div&vSre,  supine  devOtwn,  whence  devont. 


208  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 


Devour',  to  eat  up ;  devoured'  (2  syL),  devour'-inig:,  devour'ing- 
ly,  devour'-er.    Devoirs,  d'voirs  (French),  respects. 
("I  pay  my  devoirs  to  you**  U  a  jocose  civility,) 
French  ddvorer;  Latin  denord/re  {v6ro:  v&raXt  TomdonB). 

Dew,  a  deposition  of  the  moisture  of  the  air.  Due,  owing  (q.  v.) ; 
dewed  (1  syl.),  dew'-ing,  dew'-y  (acli.),  dew-less,  dew- 
drop,  dew'i-ness  (with  t,  B.  xi).    Germ,  thau;  Dan.  dug. 

Dexter  (in  Her.)  The  right  side  of  a  shield  or  coat  of  arms  (to  a 
person  standing  behind  it,  not  to  one  in  front  of  it). 

Dexterity,  dex,tefri.ty ,  expertness;  dexterous,  dea^,te.rus  (not 

deaf,trui) ;  dex'terous-]y,  dex'terous-ness. 

It  meaps  "right-handed"  (Latin  dexter,  the  rigi^t  band);  '*lefi- 
handed  is  awkvowrd  {moke,  the  left  hand),  nniisUr  (Laiin),  and 
gauche  =  gosh  (French),  the  left  hiand. 

Dextrine,  dex\trin,    British  gum  made  from  starch. 

Latin  dexter,  the  right  hand  ("-ine,"  in  Ctiem.  denotes  "a  aimple 
substance").  Dextrine  is  so  called,  becaiise  it  turns  the  plane  in 
polarised  light  to  the  right  hand. 

Dey,  the  native  title  of  the  governor  of  Algiers.    Day  [time]. 
"  Dey,"  Turkish  AM,  seignior  ;  "  Day,"  Old  English  dag. 

Di-  (contraction  of  the  Greek  prefix  dis-,  "asunder";  and  8ome> 
times  of  dia-,  "through").  The  ordinary  meaning  of  di- 
in  composition  is  "two,"  "twice,"  "double,"  especially 
when  it  forms  a  distinct  syllable :  as 

Di-an'drian,     ^aving  two  stamens. 

Di-ceph'alous.     Having  two  heads. 

Di-d3«'tylous.     Having  two  fingers  or  toes. 

Di-gynlan.     Having  two  styles  or  pistils. 

Di-hed'ral.    Having  two  surfaces. 

Di-lac'erate.     To  tear  in  two. 

Di-pet'alous.     Having  two  petals. 

Di-sper'mous.     Having  two  seeds. 

Di-theist.    A  believer  in  two  gods,  one  good  kdA  one  eviL 

IT  In  a  few  cases  it  bears  the  force  of  di*-,  " asunder":  as 

Di-gress'.     To  walk  asunder  or  wide  of  the  path. 

Di-var'icate.     To  stretch  the  legs  asunder. 

Di-verf  •     To  turn  the  mind  asunder  or  aside. 

IT  The  original  idea  of  "  asunder "  or  separation,  gives  the 
meaning  above  {two),  and  also  the  negative  font  of  the 
prefix,  one  example  of  which  is 

Di-vest'.    To  unclothe. 

1[  In  a  few  examples  di-  represents  the  Greek  preposition  dui, 
"  through,"  "  throughout,"  "  thorough":  as 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  200 


])l-«coii8tiGB.     That  part  of  acoustics  which  treats  of  sound 
pcuiing  through  different  mediums, 

Bi-elec'trics.     Substances  which  allow  electricity  to  pass 
through  them,  and  not  over  their  surface. 

Di-optrioB.    That  part  of  optics  which  treats  of  the  refrac- 
tion of  light  in  passing  through  glass. 

Bi-rect    Bight  throughout, 

IT  In  Chemistry  Bi-  denotes  a  double  equivalent  of  the  hose,  and 
Bi-  a  double  equivalent  of  the  gas :  as  "  Di-sulphate  of 
silver,"  s  two  equivalents  of  the  base  (silver)  to  one  of 
Bulphu'ric  acid ;  but  "  Bi-sulphate  of  silver  '*  would  be 
two  equivalents  of  sulphuric  acid  to  one  of  the  base 
(silver).    See  DiB-. 

IT  DIb-.  The  force  of  dis-  is  almost  always  privative.  Before 
"  U*  dis-  becomes  dif-. 

lUa-  (€hreek  preposition,  meaning  through).  In  composition  it 
means  "  through,"  "  throughout,"  "  thorough." 

Diabetes,  di'ui-bee''teez,    A  disease  in  which  saccharine  urine 

flows  too  freely. 
Latin  diaJbites;  Greek  dia  h€iin6,  to  go  through  one. 
IMaboliCt   di\a,b8V\ik;    diabolical,   di\aMV\ukal,    devilish; 

diaborical-ly ;  diabolism,  di\db'\o.lizm. 

French  diaholicpu;  Latin  diaJb6licu8;  Greek  diaX)iSlih6s  (diaholds, 
tibe  devil,  from  dia  baUd,  to  fling-out  at  you,  i.e.,  to  slander). 

Diachylon,  di.dk^.i,ldn  (not  diaehilum).  An  adhesive  plaster 
made  of  oil  and  the  oxide  of  lead. 

French  diachylon;  Greek  dia  chiUos,  through  i.e.  by  means  of  a 
juice.    It  was  originally  made  of  the  juices  of  herbs. 

Diaconal,   di,dkf,o,nalf  pertaining  to   the    office    of  deacon ; 
diaconate,  di.dk\o,nate,  the  office  of  deacon  (q,  v.) 
French  diaeonal^  diaconat;  Latin  dia^c6nu8,  a  deacon. 
Diadem.  di',a.dem,  a  royal  crown ;  di'ademed  (3  syL) 

French  diadime;  Latin  diadima;  Greek  d^d,  to  bind. 
DiflBreoB,  plu,  diiereses,  di.e\rS,si8,  di.B\r^,seez.    Separation  of 
two  contiguous  vowels.    The  mark  (••)  is  placed  over  the 
latter  vowel :  as  atrial  (not  arial). 
Latin  diasriais;  Greek  di-air^sis  (di-aire6,  to  divide.) 

DfagnoeiB,  plu.  diagnoses,  di.ag.no'.sis,  dl.ag.nd^.seez.  The  art 
of  distinguishing  one  disease  from  another.  Many  use 
the  word  for  "  symptom,"  which  is  an  error ;  thus  "  What 
are  the  *  diagnoses'  of  the  case?"  is  nonsense.  A  medical 
man  may  say  '*  My  diagnosis  informs  me  the  disease  is 
not  so  and  so;"  and  also  that  "  The  diagnostic  symptoms 
of  the  case  are  those  of  [measles]." 

Diagnostic,  d%.ag.n6s\tlk,  distinguishing  [applied  to  symp- 


210  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

toms  of  diseases] ;  diagnoetioB,  dLagMsWiha^  tbe  acknce 
of  disease-symptoms. 

Diagnosticate,  d%,ag.n68' .tLTzaU,  to  determine  a  disease  by 
its  symptoms ;  diagnos'ticat-ed  (B.  xxxvi.),  diagnoa'ti- 
cat-ing.     The  verb  diagnoee,  dWckg.nasey  di'agziosed  (3 
syl.),  di'agn58-ing,  is  sometimes  used. 
Greek  diagTiAaiSf  discriminating ;  y.  dia-gigndskd,  to  Hiariwgni^ii 

Diagonal,  diMg'.o.ndlf  a  straight  line  drawn  through  a  figure 
with  not  less  than  four  sides.    The  line  must  run  from 
any  angle  to  the  opposite  one.    Dlag'onal-ly. 
(The  "o"  w  omega  in  Qreek  and  long  in  Latin,) 
French  diagonal;  Latin  diagOnios;  Greek  dia  gdnia,  an  angle. 

Diagram,  di\a,grdm,    A  plan  or  figure  shown  by  lines. 

Diagraph,  di\a.graf,  an  instrument  used  in  perspeetive 

drawing;  diagraphio,  di.a.graflk. 

Fren(di  diagramme;  Latin  diagramma;   Greek  dia  gramma,  tbat 
which  is  marked  cat  by  lines,  t.  dUi-graphd. 

Dial,  di/dl.    An  instrument  for  measuring  time. 

Dialing,  dWalAng.  The  art  of  constructing  diali. 
Latin  diaUa,  pertaining  to  day  (dU»^  a  day). 
Dialect,  dWaMltty  provincial  speech;  dialectic,  di,a,W^.txkt 
provincial,  subtle.  Dialectics,  duaX^tikSf  the  science 
of  arguing  on  ideal  subjects  where  word-fencing  is  more 
important  than  physical  facts.  Dialectician,  duiMk\' 
tlsk^anj  a  skilled  arguer ;  dialec'tical ;  dialec'tical-ly. 

French  diakete,  diaJ-ecHnen,  didlectique;  Latin  didlecHea.  didleetkui, 
diaUctoi;  Greek  dia-UktikS,  dkirU!kUia»,  dia-Ufktd*  (dia  Ug6). 

Dialogue,  di\a.log ;  plu.  dialogues,  di\a.logs,  generally  applied 

to  the  conversations  of  a  drama. 

(The  Fr,  termination  -ue  is  useless  and  out  of  character.) 

Fr.  dialogue;  Lat.  diaUfgtu;  Gk.  dia-ldgoM,  dlsconrse  between  [persons]. 

Diameter,  di.am\e.t^rt  a  straight  line  running  through  the  centre 

of  a  circle,  and  bounded  each  end  by  the  circumference ; 

diametrical,  di\a,m4lf^.ri.kdl;  diamet^rical.>ly» 

Latin  diameter,  diamitro  [oppoOta],  directly  [opposite] ;  Gnek  dith 
mStrda  (a  measure  through  [a  circle]). 

Diamond,  di\a.mund  (not  di^-mun), 

French  diamant;  Latin  Odamas;  Greek  a-damas,  miooaanitrable. 
The  diamond  cannot  be  cut  or  overcome  by  other  materiajs,       ^^ 

Diana,  Di.dn\ah  (not  Dua\nah).    A  Boman  goddess.  ] 

Diandria,  duan\dri,a  (in  Botamy).    Haring  two  stamenSk 

The  **  stamens"  belong  to  male  plants  (Greek  anir/ Miale). 
The  "  pistil,"  or  seed-bearing  organ,  belongs  to  femnli-plsnts. 
Diandrian  (ac^.)    Pertaining  to  plants  with  two  stai^flns. 

French  diandrie;  Greek  di  [dis]  andrea,  two  men. 
(The  Greek  anir  means  man  as  opposed  to  toomon.) 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  %\\ 

L,  di^,ti,pay'\zSn  (in  Muiie),  aa  ootave,  the  whole  com- 
pass  of  a  musical  instrument ;  an  instrument  for  tuning 
organ  pipes.  (In  Philosophy)  the  universe,  which  Py- 
thagoras conceived  to  be  a  complete  musical  octave 
beginning  from  Deity  and  ending  with  man.  The  eight 
notes  are  Deity,  the  planets,  and  'man ;  man  touches 
earth  and  Deity,  and  as  the  planets  intervene,  they  in- 
fluence  his  lot.    (Greek  dia  pdta,  through  all  things.) 

Diaper,  di^M.p^,  a  figured  linen  cloth;  diapered,  di'.a.perd, 
FTench  diaprS,  diM>er  work ;  (jilinge]  d'Ypres,  in  FlAnden). 

Diaphanous,  di.S.f  ,a.nus.    Translucent  but  not  transparent. 

Greek  dia  %havnAy  [light]  shows  through. 

Diaphragm,  di'.a.frdm.    The  midriff. 

French  diapturagme;  Greek  diaphragmaf  a  partition  wall  (dia 
j)hras9d,  to  enclose  throughout). 

Diarrhcsa,  d^.ar.ree^.ahy  a  violent  flux ;  diarrhoetio,  di' .arjree*'.* 
fiky  purgative.  Diuret'io,  a  medicine  to  increase  the 
discharge  of  urine. 

liatili  diofrrhoea;  Greek  ddar-roia  (from  dia  rMo\  the  "r"  is  doubled 
to  compensate  for  the  aspirate  whioh  cannot  be  expressed  is 
Greek,  Stdppoia  (not  didfi^oia). 
Diary,  plu.  diaries,  di\a.ry,  di\a.riz.    A  journal. 

L*tin  didrifwn,  a  register  of  daily  events  {diest  a  dayX 

Diastase,  di',a8.td8e  (not  di.a8.tdze').  A  substance  which  con- 
verts starch  into  dextrine  and  grape  sugar. 

French  diastase  (Greek  dia  hift&mi,  I  stand  apart,  or  separate,  as 
yeast  from  new  beer). 

Diaftole,  d%,S$\to.le  (not  di\a.8tole^).  The  lengthening  of  a 
syllable  naturally  short,  the  dilatation  of  the  heart,  <fec. 

French  dioMole;  Latin  diastdle;  Greek  diastdU,  dilatation  (gtdld,  to 
take  in  sail,  hence  to  contract.  In  this  example  dia  reverses,  and 
diorsUUd  is  to  open  or  dilate  the  heart  after  contraction). 

Diathermal,  di\a.Ther^\mal,  transmitting  radiant  heat,  as  glass 
transmits  light ;  diathermanous,  di\a.TheT^\md,nu8,  adj. 
Greek  dia  thermS,  [allowing  the  passage  of]  heat  through. 

Diatom,  plu.  diatoms,  di'.d.tom,  di\<t.tdmz  (not  di.dt\omt  di.af.- 
omz,  it  has  nothing  to  do  with  the  word  "atom").  A 
sub-order  of  algae ;  a  diatom  is  a  single  specimen. 

DJatomaceaB,  di'-dt-S.may^^-te-e,  The  order  whioh  contains 
^e  above  sub-order. 

Greek  dia  Ufmds,  a  cutting  through  (not  di^aUfmos,  a  double  atom). 
Xhese  algse  are  called  di'atoms,  because  they  increase  by  division. 

TWatlWlIf*!  di.a.tdn\ik  (in  Music).    By  tones.  , 

We  diatonic  scale  is  the  ordinary  musical  scale,  the  chro- 
matic scale  proceeds  by  half-tones.  The  *' diatonic 
scale"  does  not,  strictly  spealdng,  proceed    by  tones 


212  ERRORS  OF  SPEECS 

throughout,  for  the  intervals  between  E  and  F,  B  and  C 

are  only  half  of  those  between  C  and  D,  F  and  G,  A  and 

B,  but  they  are  all  called  tones  in  ordinary  speech. 

Greek  didtdnihda  {dia  tdnds,  [proceeding]  by  tones). 

Diatribe,   di'.a.tribey  a  tedious    disputation,    an    acrimonious 

harfingue;  diatribist,  di.a.tri\bi8t,  one  who... 

(In  Gk.  and  Lat.  the  second  "i"  w  short.    French  error.) 

French  diatri^  ;  Latin  diatribe;  Oreek  dia  trfMy  a  wearing  away  [of 
time  or  patience],  (dia  triM)  to  wear  thoroughly  away. 

Dibble,  dlb\b%  an  instrument  used  by  gardeners  for  making 
holes  iu  the  earth ;  dibl)led  (2  syl.),  dib'Uing,  dibni)ler. 
Welsh  tip,  a  point ;  Dntch  tip;  German  zipfd. 

Dice,  plu^  of  die  {di\  a  small  cube  used  in  play ;  dic-infp,  ^e- 
ing,  pla^ying  at  djce. 
French  dd,  corruption  of  "ta*;**  Latin  tdhUf  a  die  or  solid  cube. 
Dicotyledon,  di\cot-y.lee''.don,  plu.  dicotyledons  or  dicotylMSna. 
Plants  with  two  seed  lobes  for  their  embryo,  "  ezSgens." 

Dicotyledonous,  di\cot-y.lee''do-nu8  (adj.) 
G:k.  di  [dis]  hOUdSddn,  two  sockets,  or  lobes  {see  Aoo^ddOn). 
Dictate,  dik'.tate  (noun),  dik,tate^  (verb).     Bule  1« 

Dictate,  dW.taie.    A  bidding,  telling  another  what  to  write. 

Dictate'.  To  order  imperiously,  to  tell  another  what  to  write ; 
dictaf-ed  (Rule  xxxvi),  dictat'-ing  (Rule  xix.) 

Dictation,  dik,tay'ahun.    The  act  of  dictating. 

Dictat'-or,  fern,  dicta'trix;  dictator-ship,  the  office  of 
dictator  (-ship,  O.  E.  postfix,  "tenure  of  office  or  state") ; 
dictatoried,  dik\ta.tdf^^ri.dlf  imperious;  dictator^lal-ly. 

Diction,  dlk'shun.    Way  of  expressing  oneself. 

Dictionary,  plu.  diotionariea,  dik'.8hunjSr.rif  plu.  d/lk'.shun.- 
er.riz,     A  lexicon. 

Dictum,  plu.  dicta,  dXk\tum,  dW.tdK  A  positive  or  dog. 
matic  assertion. 

Ipse  dixit,  ip\8e  dix\U.    Dogmatic  assertion.    Used  in  all 

persons  as  a  noun  (Latin). 

French  dictatorial,  diction,  dictum;  Latin  dictator,  dictdirioD,  didd- 
toritLS,  dictio,  gen.  dictidnis,  dicti&ndrium,  v.  dikdre,  supine  die- 
tdtum  (frequentative  of  dico,  to  say),  dictum. 

Did,  past  tense  of  Do.      Old  Eng.  present  tense  ic  dd,  past  ie 

dyde,  past  part,  geddn.    Modem  Eng.  I'do,  I  did,  dont. 

As  an  auxiliary  it  is  chiefly  used  in  asking  questidns,  in 

which  case  it  stands  before  the  noun  or  pronoun,  mdj^ 

•  [you]  speak?    In  common  speech  it  is  used  to  ad^^Bi- 

phasis  or  force,  as  "I  do  very  much  wish  it,*'  *1  did 

indeed  love  him."  In  poetry  it  is  used  without  any  special 

purpose  beyond  helping  out  the  metre  or  rhyme. 


AXn   OF  SPELLING.  213 

Didactic,  dLdSkWik^  designed  to  teach ;    didactical,  di.daW.- 
ti.kdl;  didac'tical-ly,  in  a  didactic  manner. 
Fr.  didactiqw;  G^  dtdaJaikda,  fit  for  teaching  (didcukd,  to  teach). 
Didactylons,  duddk^.ttliis,  having  two  toes ;  didaotyl,  di.ddk\til, 
an  animal  with  two  toes. 
Greek  di  [dis]  daJetHlds,  two  flngera  or  toes. 
Biddphys,  di^iV.fU,  a  generic  name  for  such  animals  as  have 
two  womhs,  like  the  opossum  family ;  didelphidiB,  di.dil\- 
fl.dey  same  as  didelphys;   didelphoid,  dudiV.foid,  ani- 
mals with  an  ahdorriinal  pouch  less  perfect  than  tliat  of 
the  true  opossum.  (Gk.  eidoSf  resembling  the  didelphys.) 
Gk«ek  di  [dis]  di^tu,  doable  womb. 
Die,  a  stamp,  to  expire ;  dye,  tincture,  to  tincture  (both  di). 
Die  (to  expire),  dies,  dize  ;  died  (1  syL),  dy'-ing ;  dl-er,  one 
likely  to  die  soon  (Rule  xix.) ;   dead,  dSd,  lifeless,  q.v. ; 
death,  dethy  q.v.    Die  of  disease  (not /rom  nor  with). 
Die,  jplu,  dice  (1  syL)    A  cube  with  six  faces  marked  with 
spots  from  one  to  six. 

The  die  is  cast.     The  last  chance  is  ventured. 

Die  (a  stamp),  ptu.  dies,  dize  (1  syl.) 

Dye,  tincture,  {verb)  to  tincture;  dyes,  dize;  dyed  (1  syl.), 
dy'-ingf  (Rule  xix.),  dy'-er,  one  who  dies. 
(It  is  a  pity  that  the  original  vowels  have  been  changed 
in  the  verb  "  die"  thereby  causing  confusion  between  words 
toholly  different;  the  anomalous  spelling  of  die,  dead, 
death;  and  the  necessity  of  breaking  Rule  xix.  in  ayeing 
to  distinguish  it  from  dying.) 

**  JAe **  (to  expire).  Old  Eng.  dedd[ian\,  past  deddode,  past  part,  deddod: 

deddf  defuQct ;  dedth,  death. 
"Die"  (a  cube  with  six  faces),  French  dS  =  day;  Latin  talus,  a  die, 

strictly,  with  four  faces  only.    Our  spellilig  of  this  word  is  foolish 

and  indefensible. 
"Dye"  (tincture),  Old  Eng.  dedg,  v.  dedg[ian],  past  dedgode,  past 

part,  dedgod. 

Dieloctric  di' ui.m'\tfik.    Dialectic,  di\a.Wt'\t%k. 

Dielectric  is  a  body  that  admits  the  force  of  electricity  to 
act  through  it.    (Greek  di  [dia]  with  the  word  electric). 

Dialectic  is  the  adj.  of  dialect,  provincial. 

Dielectrics,  df.e.Uk'\triks.    The  plural  of  dielectric. 

Dialectics,  di\a.lik^.t%k8.  The  art  of  word-fencing,  or  ar- 
guing with  words  rather  than  with  solid  proofs ;  it  has 
no  scope  in  experimental  philosophy,  but  its  true  pro- 
vince is  in  a  priori  or  speculative  reasoning. 

''Dielectric."    Electric  adj.  from  the  Greek  SUctrdn,  amber,  the  root 
of  our  word  "electricity,"  q.v.,-  di  [Greek  dia]  through 

"Dialectics"  is  from  the  verb  diaUgo,  which  gives  our  word  dialogue, 
and  means  to  converse.    In  Platonic  philosophy  it  means  the 
highest  kind  of  speculative  reasoning ;  Aristotle  uses  the  word  to 
signify  that  reasoning  which  leads  to  probabUiiy  bat  falia  &liioi\ 
€i  proqf. 


214  JBRROnS  OF  SPEECH 


Diet,  dV,et,    Food,  to  feed  by  regimen.    A  German  pariiament. 

Diet  (verb),  di'et-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.);  di'et-ing,  di'et-er; 
dietary,  di'.S.terry^  rules  of  diet,  allowance  of  food; 
dietetic  or  dieteticid,  dLedStXh^  di.e.tHf .iJk&l  (a4j.)> 
X)ertaining  to  diet ;  dietgtlcal-ly  (adv.) 

Dietetics,  rales  of  diet,  that  branch  of  medical  science 
-which  treats  of  diet.  (All  sciences  £rom  the  Greek  -ika 
[except  five]  terminate  in  English  in  -ic9.  The  five  ex- 
captions  are  "  logic,"  "  magic,"  **  music,"  "  physic,"  and 
"  rhetoric,"  which  come  to  us  through  the  French.  R.  Ixi.) 

"Diet"  (food),  Freneh  di^fe,  diSUtique;  Latin  diosta,  dicetarUu, 
diceteiica,  diceUticiu ;  Greek  diaiia  (diaitadmai,  to  lire). 

"Diet"  (a  parliament),  French  ditte  (from  Latin  dies  indieta  [repre- 
sentatives which  meet  on]  appointed  days). 

Dif-  the  prefix  dis-  before  the  letter  "  f." 

Differ,  diff^^  to  disagree.    Defer,  de^fer^,  to  i)08tpone. 

Differ,  dif fezed  (3  syl.).  differ.ing,  diTfer-ence,  differ- 
ent, dif ferent-»ly ;  differentiid,  dif\f^'hi.''^hdl  (a^j. 
and  noun),  a  quantity  too  small  to  be  represented  by 
figures,  but  which  nevertheless  constitutes  a  difference ; 
adj.  measuring  minute  differences;  differential-ly. 
(The  French  form  "  differentiel "  U  better.  We  torite 
correctly  differ-ence  and  differ- ent.) 
Observe  the  difference  in  the  verb  "Defer',"  which 
makes  deferred'  (2  syL),  deferr'-ing  (Eule  i.)    See  Defer. 

Differ  from  or  with  t 

One  person  differs  "  with  "  another  in  opinion,  bat 
One  thing  differs  "  from  "  another  in  quality,  ^c. 

Different  to  or  from  ? 

Both  forms  are  used :  "  This  rose  is  very  different '  firom 
that;"  or,  "very  different  [unlike]  *  to*  that." 

Difference  of  or  between  t 

Differences  "of"  the  same  articles,  as  '* differences  of 
opinion,"  "differences  of  sovereignty,"  <fec.;  but  differ- 
ences "  between "  different  articles,  as,  **  There  is  no 
difference  between  Jew  and  Gentile."  (Romans  x.  13.) 

Differentiate,  d^f  Jer.Sn'* ^heMCy  to  find  the  difference  or 

the  *•  differential";  dif feren'tiat-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  differ- 

en'tiat-ing  (R.  xix.);  differentiation,  d%f*'fer.en'-ihe.a"- 

shun,  determination  of  difference  or  "  differential." 

French  diffirence^  different,  diffirentiel,  diff^rentier,  to  difi^|reBti«fce ; 
Latin  diffirens,  genitive  differentia,  diffirentia,  verb  d^erre,  lapine 
dilatwn  (ova  "  delay  "}. 

Diflficult,  d\f.f\.kult,  not  easy  to  be  done;  difflcnlt-ly  (adv.); 

difficulty,  plu,  difficulties,  dif.ftkUUiz  (Rule  xUv.) 

French  diJIIictUU;  Latin  diffUMUaa,  diffieulter  (adverb),  «W/{cUi«  {dif 
/UctlU,  not  easy). 


AND  OF  SPELLTNff,  J15 

Biffidenoe,    6Bif,fi.denfe   (Ettle   xzvi.),   want   of  eonftdenoe; 

diffident,  distrastfhl  of  oneself;  diffiddnt-ly. 

Lfttin  diffldtnUa,  difldenM,  gen.  -entii  {difldHa]  fidtnt,  not  trusting). 

DSfflniti're,  dlif,fin\i.t^  (donble/),  or  definitlTe  {see  Define). 

In  Latin  there  are  the  two  forms  d^nUlvui,  &&,  from  '*  defvnAo** 
and  dAJfimUivuB,  ate.,  ttom  "  diffinio.^ 

IMfikiaotion,  dif.frSk'.skun  (not  di.fray^hun),  the  taming  aside 

of  the  rays  of  light ;  difbrao'ted  (3  syl.) 

Fr.  diffmction;  Lat.  di/  [6!bi]frango,  sup.  fraetum,  to  break  asunder. 

DiffiiBe  (noun),  dif.fuce',  (Terb)  dif.fuze^,    (Rale  li.) 

Biffose,  dif.fuce'f  not  compact ;  difihue-ness,  dif.fuee'.russ, 
"DiSuse,  dif.fuztf,  to  spread,  to  circulate,  to  send  in  adl 
directions;  diffosed,  dif,fuzd';  difFds-ing  (Rule  xix.), 
diifds-er,  diffilB-ible  (not  -able) ;  diffosiMlity,  difju'.zt- 
hW.tty,  capability  of  being  difihsed ;  diffusion,  d%f.fu\' 
zkun,  a  spreading ;  difltuedly,  dlf^\ged.ly,  in  a  difiUse 
manner;  diffusedness,  d\f.fu'.zed.ne$9 ;  oiffiuilre,  dXf.- 
fa'Mv;  di£Eti'8iTe«ly,  diffa'sive*nesa. 

l^ench  diiTtw,  di^ffvitihU,  diffusion;  Latin  diffltauB,  diffUH^i  diffmor, 
diffwid^t^  sui^e  d^ffSJm,m,  to  spread  far  and  wide. 

Big,  past  dng  [or  digged,  1  syl.],  past  part,  dug ;  digg'-ing  (B.  i), 

digg^-er,  one  who  uses  the  spade. 

Danish  dige^  to  make  a  ditoh  or  dike. 

Digest  (noun),  dWjSst,  (verb)  di.jgsf.    (Rule  L) 

Bi'gest,  a  compilation  of  civil  laws  methodically  arranged. 

DigeBt^  to  dissolve  food  in  the  stomach,  to  think  well  on 

a  subject  and  arrange  it  in  the  mind ;  digest^ -ed  (R.  xxxvi.), 

digest'-ing,  digest'-er;  digestion,  di.jis'.tchun;  digest'- 

ible  (not  -able);  digestibility,  dujis'.ti.bW'd.ty ;  diges'- 

tive,  di.jh'.tlv. 

French  digeste,  digesteur,  digestif,  digestion;  Latin  digesta,  Justin- 
ian's code  of  laws,  digestio,  digihrire,  supine  digestum. 

Dight,  to  adorn  (only  used  in  poetry).     Old  English  diht[an]. 

Digit,  dxy.lt,  any  single  figure,  a  twelfth  part  of  the  diameter  of 

the  sun  or  moon ;  digital,  dif.%.t&l. 

French  digital;  Latin  d/lgUus,  the  finger ;  dtgltdlie. 

Digitalis,  d^f.i.tay'\lis.    The  fox-glove. 

"t)i:gYt&Iis,"  Latin,  the  finger-flower  (from  digitus,  a  finger). 
'*  Fox-glove,"  Old  EngUsh/oxes-glofa. 

Dignify*   d\g'.ni.fy,  to   exalt   in  honour  or  rank ;    dignifies, 

dig\ni.fize;  dignified,  <%',m./ui<!  (R.xi.);  dig'nify-ing. 

iMgnity,  plu.  dignities,  rank,  loftiness  of  mien.     (R.  xliv.) 

Dignitary,  plu.  dignitaries,  dlg'.ni.t^n^z,  a  clergyman  who 

holds  some  clerical  "dignity,"  such   as  prelate,  dean, 

archdeacon,  prebendary,  canon,  &c. 

French  dignitaire,  a  dignitary,   dignit4;    Low  Latin  dignitoHus; 
Latin  di!r>ius  faeio,  to  make  worthy,  to  dignify. 


216  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 


DigreBs,  digress^  to  deviate;  digressed'  (2  sjl.).  digress'-ing, 
digress'-er;  digression,  di.gre8h\un ;  digression-al,  di.- 
greiK.un.al;  digress-ive,  dugrea'aiv;  digressive-ly. 

French  digressif,  digression,-  Latin  digression  digredior,  supine 
digressum  (di  [disj  gradior,  to  walk  aside ;  gmdus,  a  stepX 

Digynia,  di.gin'.i,ah  {-gin  hard  as  in  "  begin  "),  plants  with  two 

pistils  or  styles;  digynian,  di.gln\i.an  (g  hard),  having 

two  pistils.     Plants  with  pistils  are  called  "female," 

plants  with  stamens  are  called  "  male." 

Greek  di  guni,  double  female  (or  pistil).  Plants  with  two  stamens 
are  diandrla :  i-e.,  di  andres,  double  males  (or  stamens). 

Dike  (1  syl.),  a  mound,  a  ditch;  a  large  mineral  vein. 

Old  English  die, 

Dilacerate,  di.lds\e.ratet  to  tear;  dilac'erat-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.), 

dilac^'erat-ing  (B.  xix.);  dilaceration,  di.las\e.ray'\shun. 
French  ditaotfro^um,  verb  dUacirer;  Latin  dUAdrdtio,  dUdeirdre. 
Dilapidate,   di.lap\i-date  (not  delapidat€\  to    fall   to  rain; 

dilapldat-ed  (Rule  xxxvi),  dilapldat-ing  (Rule  xix.); 

dilapldat-or  (not  -«r,  Rule  xxxviL),  one  who  lays  waste ; 

dilapidation,  di.lap\i.day'' ahun,  decay,  ipjnry.    Charge 

for  '*  dilapidations  "  charge  to  cover  necessary  repairs. 

French  dilapidation^  v.  ditapider,-  Latin  dilAptddtio;  v.  dUdpfd&re 
{lapldo  is  to  stone,  or  heap  up  stones;  di-lapido  is  to  remove 
stones,  "di"  in  this  example  has  the  force  df  de  (it  reverses). 

Dilate,  di.late'  (not  delate),  to  enlarge ;  dilat'-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.), 
dilat'-ing  (Rule  xix.);  dilat'-er,  one  who  dilates; 
dilat'-or  (applied  to  certain  muscles  of  the  nose);  dilat- 
able, di.late\a.Vl  (Ist  Latin  coi^jugation);  dilatability, 
di.laUf  ,a,biU\i.ty  ;  dilatation,  di\la.tay''-8hun, 

French  dilaiability,  dilatable,  dilatation^  verb  dilater;  Latin  dUdiiOt 
dUdidre  (Idttu,  broad ;  Greek  pldtus). 

Dilatory,   diV,a.t5.ry,  fuU    of  delay;    dil'atori-ly   (Rule  xi.), 

dU'atori-ness. 

French  diUUoire;  Latin  dlldtOrins  {dif-fero^  to  defer,  sup.  di-l&twm. 

Dilemma,  di.lem'.mah  (not  deUmma),    A  perplexity. 

On  the  horns  of  a  dilemma.    Between  two  perplexities. 

French  dilemviM;  Latin  diUmma,  an  argument  that  leada  to  two 
opposite  conclusions :  as  "a  Bosotian  said,  all  Boeotians  are  Uaca.** 
If  all  Bceotians  are  liars,  the  Bceetian  told  a  lie  when  he  said  all 
Boeotians  are  liars.    Qu«ry,  Are  they  liars  or  not? 

Dilettante,  plu.  dilettanti  (Italian),  d\V ,et,tan' .te,  an  amateur  of 
the  fine  arts  but  not  a  proficient,  a  dabbler  in  literature 
or  the  arts;  dilettantedsm,  dU* .et.tan'.te.izmy  aflbetation 
of  art-loving,  without  any  real  knowledge  of  the  subject. 

Diligence,  diV.iJence  (R. xxvi), industry;  diligent,  dil'igent-Iy. 

French  diligent:  Latin  dWlgens,  gen.  dlligentiSy  dWimniia,  v.  diligot 
to  love  dearly.    Diligence  is  working  with  good  wUL 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  21' 


DilL   The  seed  of  an  aromatic  plant.  (O.  Eng.  diU,  dill  or  anise.) 

"Dill**  is  the  Aiufthum  QratxfoUns;  "Anise*'  is  the  Anbic  anisun. 
"  ABethnm/'  Greek  aiUthon  {an6  ihein,  to  grow  rapidly). 

Dilate"'  (2  syl.),  to  reduce  the  strength  of  a  liquid  by  adding 

•  something  else ;  diluf -ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  diluf-ing  (R.  xix.)  ; 

diluf -er,  that  which  dilutes,  one  who  dilutes ;   diluent, 

di\lu,ent  (not  dU\u.ent\  that  which  dilutes ;  diluents, 

water  drinks  to  dilute  the  animal  fluids ;  dilu'tion. 

French  dihuTt  dilution;  Latin  dUBLSrB,  tup.  dVMum,  dUuiio. 

Diluyial,  dl.lu\v\Ml^  pertaining  to  the  Deluge;  diluvialist, 
d%.lu\vl.dl.ist^  one  who  ascribes  to  Noah's  flood  such  geo- 
logical phenomena  as  the  boulder-clay,  ossiferous  gravels, 
and  so  on ;  diluvium,  di.lu\vl.um,  earth,  sand,  <fec.,  de- 
posited by  the  action  of  running  water. 

Diluvian,  d%M\vl,&n,  pertaining  to  the  Deluge;    ante- 
diluvian, prior  to  "  Noah's  Flood." 

French  dUuvien  (an  error),  diluvion;  Latin  dU&viwn,  r.  diNMOre. 
Dim,  obscure,  to  obscure ;  dimm'-er  {comp.)^  dimm'-eet  (super.) ; 
dimm'-ish,  rather  dim  {-ish  added  to  adj.  is  diminutive, 
added  to  nouns  it  means  "like");    dimmed  (1  syl.), 
dimm'-ing  (Rule  i.) ;  dim-ly,  dim-ness. 

Old  Eng.  dim;  dirrUie,  dimmish :  dimm€,  dimly ;  dirwnet. 

Bimensidn,  dX.m^\8hun.    The  measure  or  extent  of  a  surface. 
French  dimenrion;  Latin  dlmensio  {dlmiiior,  to  measure). 

Bfiniiiiflh,  dtmln'Mh^  to  make  smaller;  dimin'^ished  (3  syl.), 
dimin'ish'ing,  dimin'iah-er,  dimin'ishing-ly. 

Diminuendo,  plu.  diminuendoB  (R.  xlii.),  di.mXn,u.en\doze 
(in  Munc)j  softer  and  softer.    (Italian.) 

Diminution,   dim^i.nu'^shun,  decrease;    diminutiYe,   dt- 
fnin\u.tiv;  dimin'utiye-'ly,  dimin'utlve-ness. 

French  diminutif,  diminution ;  Latin  dlmlnMio,  dlminutivum,  verb 
dlm/bnuo  {-Aah  added  to  verbs  means  "  to  make  "). 

Dimiasory,  dim' M^Bb.ry  (not  [letters]  demisory  or  demissory). 

French  dimtMoir«  (Jiettres  dimisaoriales);  Latin  dimisaoritu  (verb  di 
[die]  mitto,  supine  dimissum,  to  send  away). 

Dimity,  plu,  dimities,  dim\i.tyf  dim'.i.tiz,  a  cloth   originally 

woven  with  two  threads.     Similarly  samite,  a  coiTuption 

of  xamitef  cloth  woven  with  six  threads. 

Oxeek  di  [dis]  mitos,  two  threads ;  hex  mitos,  six  threads. 

DimorphiEm,  di.mcy/.fizmy  the  property  of  assuming  two  distinct 
crystalline  forms ;  dimorphous,  dumor^./us;  dimorfic 
French  dimorphs;  Greek  di  [dis]  morphS,  two-fold  form. 

IMmple,  dimf.p'l  (noun  and  verb) ;  dimpled,  dim\p'ld;  dimpling, 
dim\pling;  dim'ply. 


218  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH' 

Din,  a  confused  contmnous  noise,  to  pester  with  repeated  noise 

or  demands ;  dinned  (1  syl.),  dinn-ing  (Rule  i.)*  dinn-er. 

(See  below  Dine.) 

Old  English  dyn{ian\^  to  din ;  dpM,  a  din ;  dinvng,  a  dinning,  a 
tinkling.    Latin  UwnXo,  to  inratUe,  to  tinkle. 

Dine  (1  syl.),  dmed  (1  syl.),  dinging  (Rule  xix.),  dinner  (this 
ifl  a  blunder  in  spelling,  the  word  ought  to  be  diners  as 
in  French),  dinner-^lesa,  &c. 
Old  English  d^nan  to  dine ;  Freneh  dmer,  reach  and  noun. 
Ding,  to  knock;  dinged  (1  syl.),  ding'-ing  (not  din-ging). 
Ding-dong.     The  sound  of  bells.     (An  imitative  word). 
Old  Eng.  den<v[^>  past  deamcg,  past  part,  donegen,  to  knock  or  ding. 
Dingle,  dln'.g%  a  glen ;  dingle-dangle,  hanging  slovenly. 

**  Dingle,"  a  glen  amidst  hills.    Old  Eng.  dynig,  hilly  (with  dim.) 
''  Dingle,"  to  hang  loosely.    Danish  dimgUy  to  dangle  <^  bob  about. 

Dingy,  dln'Je,  soiled ;  din'gi-neas,  din'gi-ly  (Rule  xi.) 

Dinomis.    (jSf^^  Deinomis.) 

Dinotherium.     (See  Deinotherinm.) 

Dint,  effort,  force.    By  dint  of  (industry),  by  the  power  of... 

Dent.    An  indentation. 

"  Dint,"  Old  Eng.  dytU,  a  stroke  or  blow. 

"  Dent/'  Lat.  dens,  gen.  derUis.    To  dent/  "dentium  more  inoicIAne." 

Diocese,  di\o.8i8  (not  diocess),  the  circuit  over  which  a  bishop 
has  jurisdiction ;  diocesan,  di.88\e.iSn  (not  dt.o.seef^dn)t 
a  bishop,  one  who  holds  a  diocese,  ac^.  belonging  to  a 
diocese,  as  diocesan  inspector, 

French  di4)ee8et  dioc^aain;  Latin  dioee^sdnuSf  diaeSais;  Greek  dioi' 

kiais.  administration,  v.  dioikifd,  to  administer. 
(Misled,  as  tisuaX,  by  the  Freneh,  our  words  are  ill-speU  cmd  iU-pnh 

nouTiced.    They  shotUd  be  dioecese,  dioece'san.) 

Dicecia,  di.e^si.dh,  a  class  of  plants,  like  the  willow,  having  male 
flowers  on  one  plant  and  female  on  another;   dicBoian 
or  dioecious  (adj.),  due^siMji^  di.i\9i.tu. 
French  diceeie;  Greek  di  [dis]  aUoos,  two  houses. 
Dioncea,  di.o.nee\ah.    Yenus's  fly-trap. 

Yenus  was  called  Dioneea,  and  the  flower  ia  called  after  iMr  fkom  its 
grace  and  elegance. 

Dioptrics,  di.op\tHkSt  that,  part  of  optics  which  shows  how  light 
is  refracted  in  passing  through  glass,  air,  water,  &c 
(Rule  Ixi.),  dioptric  (adj.) 

French  dioptrifu>e,  noun  and  adj. ;  Greek  dUtptrdn,  sometUag  tnuuh 
parent  {di  [diaj  optdmai,  to  see  through). 

Diorama,  dV.o.rdh^'mdh,    Panorama,  pdn*.o,rdh.mdh. 

A  "  diorama  "  is  a  series  of  pictures  '*  seen  throngh  "  tt 
aperture.  A  panorama  is  one  large  pictui«  stret^ed  on 
a  cylinder,  the  axis  of  which  is  the  point  of  view. 


AND   OF  SPELLING.  2t9 

{Both  these  wwds^  borrowed  from  the  Freneh^  are  mU- 
9pelL    They  should  be  Dihorama  and  Panhorama.) 

"  Panonma,"  Greek  pcm  horOma,  a  riew  of  all  [at  a  glance]. 

"  Diorama,"  Oredc  di  (cUa]  Aordma;  a  view  throsgh  [an  apertve]. 

DioOBoraa,  di'J68Jt6r^'re.aK     The  yam,  (feo. 

So  named  from  DloaoSrldds,  tke  Greek  botanist. 

Biotifl,  di^,ti8.    A  shrub,  the  sea-cotton  weed. 

Dip,  a  plunge  in  water,  the  incline  ot  a  stratum,  a  oandle  made 
by  dipping  a  wick  in  tailow,  to  plunge  into  water,  to 
indin«  downwards,  &c.;  dipped  (1  syL)  or  dipt,  dipp'ing 
(Bule  i.)i  dipp'-er. 
Old  Bngiish  dipf{m,\,  past  dipptd^^  past  part,  dipped. 

Dipbtheiia,  dlf,Thee^.ri.dh  (not  dip.theria),  a  throat  disease; 
diphtheritio,  dif\rhe.rW\lk,  adj. 

Qredc  d4phthira,  leather.  The  disease  is  characterised  by  the  forma- 
tion of  a  leathery  membrane  in  the  throaL 

Diphthong,  dif, thong  (not  dip.thong\  two  vowels  pronoanced 
together  with  a  different  sound  to  either  of  them  sepa- 
rately, as  aaiLce,  where  -au-  has  a  sound  different  to  either 
"  a "  or  "  u."  K  two  vowels  ate  pronounced  together, 
without  producing  a  new  sound,  it  is  an  improper  diph- 
thong, as  «a  in  bea4i,  where  "  a  "  serves  only  to  lengthen 
the  **e,"  and  ie  in  believe,  where  the  sound  of  e  only 
remains;  diphthongal,  ({f/.r/i^'.^a{;  diphthongal-ly. 

French  diphthongue ;  Latin  diphthongtu;  Greek  diphthoggos  (di 
[die!  phthdggda,  doable  sound  ;  pktKigg&mai,  to  utter  a  sound). 

Diploe,   dip\lo.S,     The  network  of  bone-tissue  between  the 
tables  of  the  skull ;  the  cellular  substance  of  leaves. 
French  dfploe:  Latin  dipleU,  a  doublet ;  Greek  dipldds,  two-fold. 

Biplaiiia,  plu.  diplomat,  dtpld.mah,  Ac,  (not  deplo'ma)*  A  cer- 
tified writing  conferring  a  privilege. 

Diplomatic,  dl.pl5,maf.%k ;  dlplomat'ical,  diplomat'ical-ly. 

Diplomacy,  dLpWm\a.8y,  the   art  and  practice  of  state- 
craft; diplomatist,  dl,pldm\a.ti8tj  one  employed  in.... 

DiplomatlGS,  d^plSm'.a.tik8.    The  art  of  deciphering  ancient 

documents,  and  determining  their  age  and  authenticity. 

French  diplomatique,  diplome,  diplomatie;  Latin  dipldma:  Greek 
dipldma.  Every  sort  of  ancient  charter,  donation,  bull,  &c.,  was 
calJksd  a  diploma,  being  inscribed  by  the  Romans  on  two  tables  uf 
copper  folded  together;  in  early  English  history,  a  diploma  is  often 
called  <'a  pair  of  letters"  (diplMs,  double,  dupUoate). 

Dipper,  dipping,  dipped.    {See  Dip.) 

Dipfotodon,  plu,  diprotodoBB,  di.prd'.tti,dSn.     A  gigantic  fossil 
animal  allied  to  the  kangaroo,  with  more  than  one  pair 
of  incisor  teeth. 
Gr^ek  di  (dit]  pr6U»Mo»8,  duplex  incisors  or  "first  teeth." 


220  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Dipteran,  plu,  dipterans  or  diptera,   dXp'.te.ran,  dlp\ti.ranz, 
d\p\tS.rdh,  insects,  like  the  blow-flow,  with  only  two  wings ; 
dipteral,  dip\te.ral;  dipterous,  dlp'.t^.riis  (a^j.) 
Frtnch  diptbrt;  Greek  di  rdis]  jpMhm,  two  wings. 

Dire  (1  syl.),  dreadful,  dismal.  Dyer,  dt/'.^r,  one  who  dyes; 
dier,  di\er,  one  at  the  point  of  dea^. 

Dire,  direst,  di'.rest  (most  dire).    The  comparatiye  form 
[direr]  is  not  in  use. 

Dire'fol  (2  syl.),  dire'fiil-ly,  dire'fnl-ness. 

Old  Eng.  da/r,  injury,  ▼.  dericm,  to  destroy,  hence  Shakespeare's 
"  dearest  foe*'  =  deadliest  foe ;  Latin  dvruSf  dire  {jybrtB,  the  furies). 

Direct^  adj.  straight,  plain,  express,  verb  to  command,  regulate, 
show  the  way ;  direct'-er  (more  direct),  direcf-^st  (most 
direct) ;  direct-ed  (Eule  xxxvi),  direct -ing. 

Direct'ly,  immediately,  openly, in  a  straight  course;  dixecf- 
ness;  direction,  di,reW.8hun;  directiye,  di.r^Wiio. 

Ditector,  fern,  directress,  manager ;  direct'or-ship. 

Directorate,  diseW.to.ratey  the  office  or  body  of  directors ; 
directory,  di.r^.to.ry, 

French  direct,  direction^  diredmre:  Latin  d't/rtdnUy  direcUo,  director 
(redu8,  right). 

Dirge,  durj  (contraction  of  the  Latin  d^Hge  (3  syl.),  the  first 
word  of  a  Latin  funeral  hymn),  a  funeral  hymn. 

Dirk,  durk.    A  dagger.    (Scotch  durk,  a  dagger.) 

Dirt;    diirty,  not  clean,  to  defile;    dirties,  dur^.tiz ;    dirtied, 
duT^,tM;  dirty-ing  (Rule  xi.),  dir'ti-ness,  dirtl-er  (more 
dirty,  one  who  dirties),  dirti-est  (most  dirty). 
Old  Eng.  ge-dritian},  faeces ;  German  dreck  (by  transposition  derek). 

Dis-  (Greek  and  Latin  prefix,  meaning  "  asunder").  The  most 
usual  signifieation  in  English  is  not  or  the  reverse  qf,  but 
not  unfrequently  it  denotes  apart^  sometimes  it  means 
two,  and  in  a  few  examples  it  is  simply  emphatic 

Dis-  and  T^n* ;  DU-  denotes  separation  of  what  has  been  united ; 
Un-  that  union  has  never  existed.  Dis-  ought  to  be 
joined  only  to  Lat.  or  Gk.  words,  un-  only  to  native  words. 

Disable,  nnable,  v/n.aWl  (a4j.)  not  able,  dis,aWl  (yerb),  to  ren- 
der  unable;  disabled,  di8.aWld;  dis'abling. 

Disability,  dls\aMV\i.ty,  incapacity;  disabilities,  ^Sii^.€L' 

mV.Ltlz,  legal  disqualifications ;  disa1)le-]neiit» 
Latin  dis  h&bilis^  not  habile,  not  able. 
Disabuse,  (noun)  di8\a.buce\  (verb)  di8\a,buze\    (Kule  fi.)  , 

Disabuse  (verb),  to  undeceive;  dis'abused'  (3  syL),  dJlT** 

bus'-ing  (Rule  xix.) 
French  diaabtuer/  Latin  dis  ah-ustu,  to  rid  of  abos*. 


AND  OF  SPELUXG.  221 


IKsacknowledge,  di8\&k.nSV' .ledge  (not  dW.ak.kndu/' .ledge\  to 
disown ;  disacknowledged  (4  sjL),  diBacknowledg-ing. 

Umtcknowledged  (-i  syl.),  not  owned,  not  ans  wered. 

Old  English  cnawincg,  knowledge,  with  the  Latiii  dit,  oc  [ftd].  Un- 
is  the  better  prefix  for  this  word. 

BinkdYantage,  di8\ad.van^\tagey  the  reverse  of  advantage,  to 

injure  in  interest;  disadvantageoTis,  d^\ad.v(ln,tay*' .jiU ; 

di8'advanta''geoii8-ly,  dis'advanta'geoTLB-nesB. 

Vrench  avantage,  with  dU.  Latin  ad  vewio,  to  come  to.  "Adrui- 
tage"  meant  originally  *'the  portion  of  goods  which  come  to  a 
cMid  from  the  will  of  his  father,  or  from  the  law's  award. " 

Dia'aflGBcf,  to  alienate  affection;  dis'affect'-ing; 

TJn'affecf -ing,  having  no  power  to  move  the  passions. 
Bisaffecf-edt  estranged  in  affection ; 
Un'^affecf-ed,  of  simple  unartificial  manners. 
Big'affeo^ted-ly,  in  an  ill-disposed  manner  ; 
Un'^affec'ted'^ly,  without  artifice  in  speech  and  manners. 
DIs'affec'ted-ness,  being  ill-affected  and  discontented ; 
Un'affec^ted-ness,  being  without  affectation. 
Bisaffection,  d^' .af.j^'* jikan^  want  of  goodwill. 
Ftaioh  d/UaSf^ion,;  L^tin  du  c^[ad]/ec<iM,  ill  acted  on. 
BisB^pree,  dii^,a.gre^,  to  differ;  dis'agreed^  dis'agree'-ing,  dis'- 
agree^'-ment,  dis'agree'-able  (not  dUagredble  as  many 
write  the  word),  dis'agree'ahly,  disa'gree'ahle-ness. 

Un'agree^able,  un^agree^ahly,  unagree'ahle-ness,  indicate 

less  aversion.  DU-agreeable  means  positively  distasteful; 

un-agreeable  not  positively  pleasing. 

Frendi  disagr^cMe ;  Latin  dis  a  [ad]  grattu,  not  plnasing  to  ns. 
fThe  French  spelling  qf  "  disagreeable^'  mtLst  be  car^fuUy  avoided.) 

DiflaUow,  dW.al,l6w  {-low  to  rhyme  with  now),  dishallowed' 
(3  syl.),  dis'allow  -ing,  dis'aUow'-able ;  dis'allow'-ance, 
refusal  to  allow  or  permit. 
1H$  and  Fr.  aXlouer;  Lai  die  oU  [ad]  locate,  to  refuse  to  place  to  [your  share]. 

IMaumeiz,  dW.an.neae'  (not  dis\a,nex'),  to  separate ;  di^'anuexed' 
(8  syl.),  separated; 

'  TTnannexed,  not  joined  together ; 
Bis'annex'-ing,  severing  what  is  annexed. 
Latin  dis  an  [ad]  nexus,  the  reverse  of  tying  to  (neeto,  to  tye). 

IKnnnnl)  disl'.an.nuV,  to  abolish  or  annul ;  dis'annulled'  (3  syl.), 
dis'anniill'-ing  (Rule  i.),  dis^'annul'-ment  (one  I,  because 
^ment  does  not  begin  with  a  vowel). 

ITn'annulled'  (3  syl.)    Not  repealed. 

(Disannul  ought  to  he  abolished,  the  prefix  "  dis  "  is  quite 
'  useless,  and  ** annul"  is  the  better  word.) 
French  annttUer;  Latin  dis  an  [ad]  nvM'um,  [to  bring]  to  nothing. 


222  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Disappear,  di9\ap.peer'  (not  di8'ui.p€ef^),  to  vanish,  to  cease  to 
appear;   dis'appeared^  (8  syL),  dis^appear'-iiig,  dis'ap- 
pear'-ance  (ought  to  be  dUappear-ence,  K.  xxiv.) 
JHs  and  French  appcurenee;  Latin  dis  ap  [ad]  paring  part.  jMwetw, 
to  discontinue  to  appear  to  [tight]. 

DiBappoint,  dis^ap.poinf  (not  dW.a.poinf),  to  fail  expectation ; 
di8'api>oint'-^  (Hule  xxxvi.),  balked  la  expectation; 

TJn'api>oint'-ed,  not  elected  or  appointed. 

Bis'appoint'-ing,  dia^appoint^ment. 

BiaapiK>inted  of  a  thing  not  obtained. 

Disappointed  in  a  thing  obtained. 

French  dSsappainter,  ddsappointement  (4  sjl.);  Latin  di»  ap  [ad] 
pondus.  not  to  add  to  the  main  sum.  ** Appoint"  ia  the  "odd 
money  "  of  a  bill,  or  the  balance  of  an  account.  To  dt^-oppoint  ia 
to  cut  off  the  odd  monej  ar  to  fail  in  pa^g  the  balance. 

Disapprove,    dis^ap.proov    (not    di8\a.prdve^) ;    dis^aj^noved' 

(3  syl.),  dis'approv'-ing  (Rule  xix.),  dis'appiov'liig^-ly, 

dis^approY^-al;  disapprobatioii,  dWMp.pro.bay'^^kim, 

French  dMapprouvar,  diaapprobation ;  Latin  di$  ap  [ad]  proMre,  to 
fail  to  prove  to  [one],  or  to  satisfy  one's  judgment. 

Disarm^,  to  divest  of  weapons  of  offence;   disarmed'  (3  syl.), 

divested  of  arms ; 
Unarmed,  not  having  any  weapon  of  offbnce. 
Bisarm'-ing;  disarmament,  disbar"'. mcument, 
French  dAsarmer,  dSsarmement ;  IJatin  di$  ofrvMky  deprlvad  of  arms. 
Disarrange,  dU\ar.rdnge'  (not  dW M.r&nge'),  to  put  oat  of  order; 

dis^arranged'  (3  syl.),  put  out  of  order ; 
TJn'arranged'  (3  sy).),  not  yet  put  into  order. 
Disarrangement,  disbar .rimf  .ment*    (Only  five  words  drop 

the  final  e  before  -ment,     Kule  xviii.) 

French  dAranger,  derangement;  Latin  dia  or  [ad]  reffo,  ta  dlMort 
what  is  regulated,    {-n-  is  not  fundamental.) 

Disarray,  disbar. ray ^  to  put  out  of  order,  to  divest  of  raiment ; 
dis'arrayed'  (8  syl.),  dis'array'-ing,  dis'array'-er  (R.  xiii.) 
Un^arrayed^  (3  syl.)    Not  dressed,  not  put  in  array. 
Low  liatin  di»  orrayo,  to  put  out  of  military  arxaj. 
Disassociate  or  dissociate,  dis\(i8.8o*.9%.atet  dU-so^MMts^  to  dis- 
unite;  dis'asso'ciat-ed  or  disso'ci§4;-6d  (Bole  xxx^)^ 
separated  from  companions ; 
Un^aaso'dat-ed,  not  joined  to  a  society. 
Bis^asso'ciat-ing  or  disso^'dat-ing  (Hule  xix.) 
Fr.  ddsassocier;  Lat.  di»  as  [ad]  socidre,  to  cease  being  a  oompaidoB  eff  €■*. 
Disaster,  di8.d8\ter,  a  mischance,  an  accident ;   disastroua,  dU.- 
as^trous  (not  dU.as^te.rus),  calamitous;   di8a8'troii»4y, 
disas'trous-ness. 
iFrench  dSaaatre;   Mid.  Lat.  dis  aairoms,  not  fortonata  (nrfiw,  a 
star) ;  Greek  dHa  aatron,  ill  starred  (d&»-  alwaya  denofeea  afdl^r  tha 
•ubverdon  of  good;. 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  223 

I)!igairQ>w,  dM^.a,vW,  to  disolaini ;  dis'^avowed'  (3  gyl.),  dis'avow'- 
ing,  dis'avow'-Al,  dis'^avow'-er,  disavow'-ment  {-vdw  to 
rhyme  with  now),    TJn'avowed^  (3  syL),  not  owned. 

French  ditavowtxr;  Latin  di»  a  [ad]  vtfvso,  to  rtfnae  to  tow  to  [one]. 

IMsbaad',  to  dismiss  from  inilitaTy  service ;  disband'-ed  (Rule 
xxxvi.),  disband'-ing,  disbaiid'-meni 

French  iibander^  d^andemmU  (8  wjL);  Latin  dia  handvm,  [to  send] 
away  from  tho  banner. 

BiBbar',  djebar',  miUir' ;  -barred,  -bard ;  -ban<-ing,  &q,  (R.  i.) 

Diflp-bar,  to  deinriye  a  barrister  of  his  right  to  plead; 

De-bar,  to  forbid; 

Unbar,  to  draw  back  a  bar,  as  to  *'  unbar  the  door.** 

« 

Tlia  "bar"  to  which  barristers  are  called  is  the  rail  which  divides 
the  coonsel  from  the  "  laity.** 

{Tii-  ia  a  native  prefix,  denoting  privatifyn^  oppotitUm^  or  dtterHbToMon. 

Bisbelieve,  dW.he.levef  (R.  xxviii.),  not  to  believe  a  statement ; 
disbelieved  (3  syl.),  disn[)elieY'-ing  (R.  xix.),  not  believing 
a  statement;  nn'lieliev'-ing,  not  believing  in  Revelation. 

Bisbeliev'-er,  one  who  distrusts  a  statement; 

UnbelieY^-er,  one  who  does  not  believe  in  Revelation. 

Disbelief,  dis\be.leef,  distrust  in  a  statement ; 

Unbelief,  scepticism,  having  no  faith  in  Revelation. 

UnbeHev'-able  (not  dishelievahU),  unworthy  to  be  believed. 

Old  Eng.  unrgeledfa,  nn-  or  dis-  belief :  two  very  pretty  words  might 
be  restored,  viz.,  ungeledfavm,  unbelieving,  and  ungelaffsumnes. 

Bjabowel  or  disembowel,  dU.bdw\el,  dis'.emhSw'.el  {biiw  to 
rhyme  with  now)^  to  take  out  the  entrails ;  dis*  or  disem- 
-bowelled  {-bow\eld)y  -bowelling  (R.  iii.  el),  -boweller. 

JHs  and  French  hoel;  Latin  botelliu,  a  gat 

Di81md^  to  deprive  of  buds :  disbudd'-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.),  dis- 
bndd'-ing  (Rule  i.)    Unbudd'-ed,  not  budded. 

JH§-  and  the  French  h<nUon,  a  bud. 

Disbiirden,  disburthen,  imburden,  tmburthen,  dis*  or  un- 
,biv/.den,  -bw/.then^  to  remove  a  load ; 

Disburdened  or  disburthened,  dU-  -bur^,dend,  -bur^.thend, 
relieved  of  a  load; 

Unbur^dened  or  nnbnrthened,  without  a  load. 
Disbnr'den-ing,  disbnrthen-ing,  nnbur^den-ing  or  nnbnr"- 
fhen^zig,  removing  a  load. 

JH»-  or  VM-  with  Old  Eng.  lyrden  or  bwihen  (byrd,  heavy,  hyr[an\ 
or  h6i\fin\y  to  bear).  Our  words  should  have  been  spelt  byrden,  or 
harden  to  preserve  the  darivation  more  correctly. 


224  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

DisbnTBO.  disJmrce^^  to  lay  out  money ;  disbTused''  (3  syL),  dis- 
buTs'-ing  (Rale  zix.),  disbnne'-meiit  (Rule  xviii.),  the  act 
of  paying  out  money;  disbniBe'-mentB,  money  paid  out; 
disburs'-er,  one  who  pays  out  money. 

French  dSbourse.  diboursemenU  (8  lyL),  t.  d^bowrser  ((owrse,  %  pnnt, 
the  [money]  exchange). 

Disc,  disky  the  face  of  the  sun  or  moon,  the  face  of  a  shield  or 
any  round  flat  body.  Disk  (in  Botany\  a  ring  or  scale 
between  the  bases  of  the  stamens  and  orary. 

Discous,  dis'.kiis  (a4j.)>  broad,  flat;  dbciform,  dU^j^fwrm 
(not  dU\ki.form\  in  the  form  of  a  flat  round  liody; 
discoid,  dW.koid  [pith],  in  Botany  that  which  is  divided 
into  cavities  by  discs. 

French  dA^ut;  Latin  discus,  disciformdUt :  Ore«k  dUtif$,  a  quoit, 
a  round  flat  stone  or  piece  of  metal. 

Discard,  dU.kard\  to  reject;  discard^-ed  (Rule  xxxvi),  dia- 
card'-ing;  discard'-er,  one  who  discards. 

Spanish  de<carfar,  to  discard,  or  reject  cards;  duearU,  the  caids 
rejected  or  thrown  out  of  one's  hand. 

Discern,  diz.zem%  to  see,  to  discriminate ;  discerned,  dizjBemd^; 
discem'.ing,  discem'ing-ly ;  discem-er,  dizjiem'.er; 
discem'-ment,  discem'-ible  (not  •'able),  discexnlUe- 
ness;  discemlbly,  diz,zem\i.hhy. 

Discernment  and  discretion  are  both  from  the  same  root- 
verb  (Latin  discemo),  but  now 

Discernment  means  insight,  and  discretion,  prudence. 

French  discemement  (3  syl ),  verb  diseemefr;  Latin  diaeemSre.  wofiat 
discrgtum  (di8  cemo,  to  sUt  and  separate,  hence  to  distinguish). 

Discharge'  (d  syl.),  to  dismiss ;  discharged'  (2  syl.),  disc^iaig^- 
ing  (Rule  xix.);  discharg'-er,  one  who  discharges. 

Discharged'  (said  of  firearms),  shot  ofif ; 

Uncharged'  (said  of  firearms),  not  "  loaded." 

French  dicharger,  to  unload  (c/uirger,  to  load) ;  Low  Latin  Mredrf^ 
to  freight  a  ship.    To  "discharge  "  means  to  unioad. 

Disciple,  di8.8i\p'l  (not  de^Wp'l),  a  pupil,  a  follower ;  diaol'ple* 
ship  {'Ship,  Old  English,  "office,"  «•  state  of  being...**). 

Disciplinarian,  dis'.sl.pli.nai'/'ri.an,  one  strict  to  enforce 
discipline;  disciplinary,  dWai.pU.nerry. 

Discipline,  dU'^tpUn,  Rubjection  to  rules  and  mastera,  to 
train  to  obedience;  dis'ciplined  (3  syl.),  dis'dlplln^iiig 
(Rule  xix.) ;  dis'cipUn-er,  one  who  trains. 

Disciplinable,  disM.pU'.na.b'l;  discipli'nable-] 


French  disciple,  disciplindble,  disciplinaire,  discipline,  ▼.  cKwipiiNcr; 
Latin  disdpllna,  disciplindhilis,  disctpiiltts,  a  scholar  (etfpAlo  [in 
composition  cipulo]  is  to  pour  liquor  from  one  vessel  into  another, 
and  a  disi-ciple  is  one  into  whom  instruction  is  poured). 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  225 

Difldaim,  dis.klame',  to  disavow ;  disdaiined'  (2  syl.),  disclaimer 
ing,  diBclaim^-er,  disclaim' -ant.  Unclaimed,  not  claimed. 

Declaim',  to  spont,  to  recite ;  declaimed  (2  syl.))  &c. 

"Disclaim,"  Latin  dU  elamdre,  to  refuse  to  call  for  Tone]. 

"  DecUim,"  French  diclanur;  Latin  dicldmdre,  to  make  set  speeches. 

DifldoBe,  to  rereal;  tmclose,  to  open  what  is  closed;  dis-  or 

vn-  dosed'  (2  sjl.),  dos'-ing  (H.  xix.),  disclos-er,  one 

who  reveals  or  tells  some  secret ;  disdosure,  dU.cW.zkvfr. 

JHs  and  Old  Eng.  dusa ;  Latin  clavMrum,  a  prison.    To  dU-dose  is 
"to  dischaigt  from  oonfinement"  or  secrecy. 

Biflcdour,  di8.kitt,er,  to  stain ;  discoloured,  dis.kuV.erd,  injured 

in  its  colour;   uncoloured.  un.kuV.erdt  not  coloured; 

discoloration,  di9\kid.er.a*\ihun. 

(**  Discolour "  would  he  better  without  the  "  u,"  which  it 

dropped  in  "  discoloration.") 

Vrench  dieoloration,  ddcolorer;  Latin  dieSlor,  dicSlordtiOf  y.  dieSUh 
rdre  (cdloro,  to  colour). 

Difloomfit,  di8.kiim,fU,  to  defeat.    Discomfort  (see  below). 

Discom'fit-ed  (Bnle  xxxvi.),  discom'fit-ing,  routing; 
discomfiture,  dis.kiim'.fX.tchur,  defeat  in  battle. 

Frmch  dicoTnjUure ;  Latin  confectiu,  finished  (fion  fddo,  completely 
done),  dis-  in  a  bad  sense. 

Diacomfort,  dis.kum\fortj  absence  of  comfort,  to  make  uneasy; 
discom'fort-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.),  discom'fort-ing ;  disoom- 
jbrtore,  dis.kUm'.for.tchur,  want  of  comfort. 

Difloom'forted,  made  uneasy ; 

TJnoom'forted,  not  consoled. 

TJnoomfortable,  un.kum\for.ta.b\  not  easy ;  uncomfortable- 
ness;  uncom'fortably,  uneasily. 

French  dicovfort^  v.  dicoTiforier ;  Latin  dis  c(yn<fortdri,  the  reverse  of 
being  strong  or  comforted  (fortis,  strong). 

DiBOommode.     {See  Incommode.) 

DiBOompose,  di8'.kSm.poze\  to  unsettle ;  De'compose',  to  reduce 
a  con»pound  body  to  its  elements  or  ingredient; 
dis'composed'  (3  syl.),  dis'compos'-ing,  dis'compos'-er; 
discomposure,  dW .kbm.po" .shur,  agitation. 

Vn'oomposed'  (3  syl.)    Chiefly  applied  to  literary  work. 

French  decomposer,  to  discompose  and  decompose;   Latin  de  eom- 
ponire,  to  de-compose,  dis  componire,  to  discompose. 

Diflooncert,  dis'.kon.sert',  to  disturb,  to  put  out  of  countenance ; 
dis'concert'-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.),  dis'concerf -ing. 

TJn'concerf  ed,  not  concerted. 

French  diconeerter;  Latin  con-certdre  is  "to  strive  together,**  hence 
"to  be  in  harmony,"  dis-concertdre  is  "to  strive  contrary  ways/ 
h«noe  "  to  be  out  of  harmony,"  "  to  be  disturbed,"  &.c. 

P 


226  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Difloonneet,  di8'.kSn.n^f,  to  separate;  dis^connecf-ed  (4  ^L), 

separated;  im'connect'-ed,  having  bo  connection;  dis'- 

ocnmected-ly,  unconnected-ly,  dkconnect'-ing;,  difcon- 

nect-er;  disconnection,  di8\k8n.nekf\8hun ;  diaoonnec- 

tive,  di»\kbn.neW Mv  ;  discmmeotiYe-ly. 

JHs'  And  Freiich  etmneaeiont  connectif;  Latin  dis  ooimeeto,  to  nabind 
what  is  bound  together  {necto,  to  bind). 

BiBCOiiBolate,  di8.kdn\8o.late,  sorrowful;   discon'solate^y,  dis- 
con'solate-ness;  disconsolation,  dUMn'jto.lay^'^lmn. 
The  rest  of  these  words  are  compouided'with  in-  or  vn-. 

Inconsolable,  in\kdh.8o'\la.h'l ;  inognaolltble-neflB,  inoon- 
solably,  in\kon,8o'\la.bly,  *     ^ 

Un'consoled'  (3  syl.)»  not  consoled,  imcoD85r-ing  (R.  xix.) 
French  inoonsolahle,  inoonsoli;  Latin  dis-  wns^dttut,  Ac, 

Discontent,  dis' .kon.tmt' ,  want  of  content ;  dis'contenf-ed,  dia'- 
contenf  ed-ly,  dis^content^ed-ness,  dis'cantenf-mei&t 

Mal'contenf,  one  politically  discontented  or  inclined  for 
sedition ;  maJcontent'-ed,  maloontenf  ed-Iy,  msdcontent'- 
ed-ness,  malcontent'-ment. 

Non'oontent,  jplu.  non'contents.     Lords  who  negative  a 

"  bill."    Those  who  approve  of  it  are  called  **  Contents." 

French  verb  miconteriter,  mdconterUement,  mdcontent;  Latin  rnali 
contentus,  &c.,  dis  contewtua,  &o. 

Difloontinne,  di8\c(in.nn\u,  to  cease;   discontin'ned  (4  syl.), 
•    discontin'n-ing  rRnle  xix.),  discontin'n-ance;  discon- 
tinuation,  dis' ,kon.tln' M.a'\8}mn ;    discontiniiity,   dW.^ 
kdn.ttnW.i.ty ;  discontinuous,  di8\kon.tin'\uM8, 

French  discontinu,  discontinuation,  verb  discontintber^  diaconUmMi, 
discontinuance  ;  Latin  dis  contXnudre,  &o. 

Dia'cord,  want  of  harmony;   discor'dance,  discor'dazrt; 

discor'dancy,  plu.  discordancies,   dis.kdi^ddnMs  (Bnle 
xliv.);  discor'dant-ly. 

French  discord,  discordance,  discordant;  Latfn  discordanSt  gOBHIr* 
discordantis,  discordia  (dis  corda,  hearts  asunder). 

Discount,  (noun)  dis'.kountt  (verb)  dis.kount'  (Rule  L) 

Dis'count,  abatement  for  ready  money.  • 

Discount^  to  mnke  an  abatement  for  ready  mon^;  di8« 

count'-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.),  discount^ 4ng,  diseoimi'-er. 
Uncounted,  not  counted. 

French  dicompte,  verb  (f^compfer =da.k5n.ta7 ;  Latin  cU«  MMipttdH^ 
not  to  be  reclioned  [in  tbe  account]. 

Discountenance,  dU.kownf.te.nance,  to  discourage;  dfaooim'- 
tenanced  (4:  syl.),  discoun'tenanc-ing  (Rule  xix.); 
discoun'tenanc-er,  one  who  discountenances. 

French  faveur,  the  countenance ;  d^aveur,  the  exact  •qofvalmt  of 
di*-  tounUinanu.     French  eonienanoe  (2  tyL);  Latin 


AND   OF  SPELLING  J  2C7 

oonUioing.  cowUnewtia.  The  word  "ooantenaace"  means  tlkB 
" contents **:  hence  the  "outline'*  or  "xontonr,"  und  br  still  far- 
ther licence  "  the  superficial  aspeet.**    fOur  word  it  Ht  formed.  J 

BiflOOiiiage,  dU.kufrage,  to  (iissnade,  to  dishearten ;  diBConr'- 
ug&di  (8  syl.),  diseonr'ag-ing  (Rule  xix.),  dkooui^aging-ly, 
dkooiir'ag'«r,  diBCOor'age-ment  (Rule  xviii.) 

Kcendi  dicowiugemeni^  rerb  dioowragw;  Latin  cHs  cor  «0O,  to  act  on 
tiie  heart  the  wrong  waj. 

Steonne,  dUMfti^^.  cf)nyer8ation,  to  oonverBe;  difloonned' 
(2  syL),  4lmNnHi'-ing  (Rule  xix.),  dlsoourt'-er ;  disconT- 
give,  diMMrj^.    IMsour'siTe  meann  "  desultory." 

Vmeh  diseowrs ;  Latin  discursus  (disevrro,  supine  discursumf  to  run 
over.  A  ducow»e  is  a  "  running  over  "  [some  subject].  A  di9C%i$- 
tiov.  is  a  shaking  about  [of  some  subject]. 

Biaoonrteous  or  UnoQurteoiifl,  -kor.ti'tu  (not  -kw/.tchua),  impo- 
lite; discour'teous-neas  or  nncourteoTu-ness,  disomr^te- 
oii8-ly  or  imcoiir'teous-ly,  rudely ;  discourtesy,  plu,  dis- 
oourtesies,  dis.kor^.te^iz  (never  un-)  (not  dU.kur^ .te^y) 
(Rule  xliv.),  want  of  courtesy. 
French  diacourtois^  disoourtoisie,    (See  CrOUrt.) 

Biseofver,  du,kuv'.er  (not  di8.k6v'.er).    Uncov'er. 

Discover,  to  find  out  what  was  unknown ; 

Uncover,  to  remove  a  covering  from  some  object. 

Bis-,  or  un-  covered,   -kuv\erd,  -cov'er-ing,   -cov'er-er, 
discover-able ;  discovery,  dis.kuv'J.ry. 

French  ddcouvrir,  to  discover  and  uncover,  d^couvreur.  Low  Latin 
eofira;  Latin  cdphlmia,  a  coffer.    To  cover  is  "  put  into  a  coffer." 

Discredit,  dis.krid'M,  disgrace,  not  to  credit  or  believe;  dis- 
credlt-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.),  discred'it-ing,  discredit-able, 
(Rule  xxiii.),  discreditably. 

Incred^-ible,  not  credible ;  incredible-ness,  incredibly ; 
incredibility,  in.kred^.iMV\i.ty,  state  of  disbelief. 

Incred'ulous,  not  believing;  incred'ulous-ness,  incred'n- 
lous-ly;  incredulity,  in\kre.du".VLty, 

French  diseridit,  v.  ^iscrSditer,  incredibility,  ineridule,  ineriduliti; 
Latin  dis  credere,  incredVnlia,  incredibilitcu,  iiuyrtditv^^  discredited, 
ineridiUitas,  incrSdulus. 

Discreet,  prudent.    Discrete,  disjoined.    Both  dU.kreetf, 

Disoieet'-ly,  discreef-ness ;  discretion,  dis.krish'.un  (not 
dis.kree' ^hun) ;  disoretion-ary,  du.kre8h".unMjry, 

French  diseret,  diecrUion,  discr^tioniuiire  ;  Latin  diKritua^  discritio, 
V.  dis-cemOf  supine  discritum,  to  discern  [right  from  wrong]. 

DiftOtepancy,  plu.  discrepancies,  dis.kr^p\an.8iz.    (Rule  xliv.) 
Disagreement  in  a  statement. 
Latin  diteripanUa  {die  critpdrtt  to  creak  or  jar  sadly) 


228  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

INscrete^  (2  syl.),  disjoined;   diacretiye,  dis.kreeWiio;   discre'- 
tive-ly.    {See  Discreet.) 
French  discrett  discreet  and  di8cretiy^ ;  Latin  discfi^us^  serered. 

Discretion,  dis.kresh^un ;  discretion-ary.     {See  Biscreet) 

Discriminate,  di8.k7fm,'.in.atey  to  mark  the  difference  of  objects; 
discrim'inat-ed  (H.  xxxvi.),  discrim'inat-ing  (R.  xix.)« 
discrim'inating-ly,  discrim'inat-or  (not  -er,  R.  xxxvii.); 
discriminatory,  di8.krim\\n.a.tb.ry ;  dlBbiiminatiyey  dis.- 
krim\%n,a,tiv ;  discrimination,  dMJsiiim^J(m>.a'\8hun, 
(**  Discrimination  '*  one  of  the  words  in  -tion,  not  Fr.) 

Latin  discrlmen,  genitive  diaeriminU,  dUcrlmindtio,  diaerimXndtui, 
verb  discrlmindre;  Greek  dis  krimct,  judgment  between  [things]. 

Discrown',  to  depose  a  sovereign  or  deprire  him  of  his  crown; 
discrowned'  (2  syl.),  discrown'-ing. 

Un'crowned'  (2  syl.),  not  crowned. 

To  "crown"  is  to  invest  a  person  with  a  crown  m  .i^  symbol  of 
royalty.    To  "  discrown  "  is  to  remove  from  him  that  symboL 

Discnrsive,  dis.kur'.sXv,  desultory;  discor'siye-ly,  discnr'siTe- 

ness;  discursory,  di8.kur\80,ryj  arguroental. 

French  diamrsif;  Lttin  diacurro^  snpine  diacursum  (dii  eurro,  to 
run  hither  and. thither). 

Discos,  dis^kus,  a  ^uoit.    Discons,  dis'.kHs,  broad,  flat. 

Discuss,  di8,ku8\    To  talk  argumentatively  on  a  subject. 

"Discus,"  Latin ;  Greek  diskds,  a  round  flat  plate  of  metal,  &a 
**  Discous,"  see  Disc.    *'  Discuss/'  see  next  article. 

Discuss,  di8,ku8\  to  ventilate  a  subject.    {See  Discns.) 

Discussed'  (2  syl.),  dipcuss'-ing,  discuss'-er. 

Discussion,  dis.kOsh^uny  a  debate;  discussive,  dis^iHt^ai^ ; 
discutient,  di8.kil\8hl.ent,  having  the  power  to  disperse 
morbid  matter. 

French  discusJtif,  disciission,  verb  discuter ;  Latin  discus^,  difcvtsor, 
verb  discnitiOy  supine  discussum,  {dis  qualiOy  to  shake  thoroughlyX 

Disdain'  (2  syl.),  contempt,  to  scorn;  disdained'  (2  syl.),  dis- 
dain'-ing,  disdain'ingly,  disdain'er,  disdain'-ftii  (Rnlo 
viii.),  disdain'ful-ly,  dis^Edn'fnl-iiess.    {See  Deign.) 

French  dAdaigner,  d4ddin;   Italian   disdegno,  disdegnart;  Latin 
dis  digndre,  to  deem  unworthy  {dignus,  worthy). 

^Disease,  di8.eze\  illness.    Disseize,  di8.8eet\  to  onst. 

Disease  is  more  applicable  to  man ;  distemper  to  famteB. 

Disease'  (2  syl.),  plu.  diseas'es  (3  syl.,  Rule  liii.) 

Diseased'  (2  syl.)    Afflicted  with  disease. 

Uneasy,  un.ee'.zy^  not  easy,  uncomfortable;  mieasi-ly, 
nneasi-ness  (Rule  xi.) 

Old  English  edth^  easy;  unedth,  uneasy;  vnedthnea,  Tmnatitnons r 
urUthelic,  uneasily.    French  malaise.    Latin  die  or  maU  o<i^««]> 


AND  OF  SPELLING,  229 

Biflembark  or  debark,  dis'.em.harkf,  de.bark%  to  land  from  a 
a  ship ;  disem-  or  de-  barked,  -barkt,  -bark-ing ;  disem- 
barkation or  debarkation,  dU.em-  or  de-  bar. kay'' .shun  ; 
disem-  or  de-  barkment,  dU^em-  or  de-  bark'.ment. 

"Bark**  (French  barque.  Low  Latin  ba/rea^  a  little  ship).  Em  or  en 
converts  nouns  into  verbs,  hence  tmJbark,  to  ship  or  put  on  board 
(French  emJbarqucr).    DU  reverses,  hence  dia-tmhark,  to  nnship. 

French  dibarqiu,  dibarquement,  r.  d^barquer,  formed  on  another 
principle.    L9W  Latin  de  barca,  [to  take]  out  of  a  bhip. 

Dtflembarrasa,  dis.em.bar'ras,  to  free  from  perplexity;  disem- 
bar'raased  (4  syl.)>  disembar'rass-ing,  disembar'rassment. 

Unembarrassed,  un'.em.bar^ratU  not  troubled   with  per- 
plexities  or  pecuniary  difficulties. 

Trmch  dAbarrae^  r.  dibarrasser;  Low  Latin  barra,  a  barrier,  Bm 
or  en  converts  nouns  into  verbs,  hence  emba>raia  to  hamper  with 
barriers.    JDis  reverses,  h«nce  dia  eaibarroM^  to  remove  the  barriers. 

Disembellish,  dU.em,belV.i8h,  to  strip  off  decoration <« ;  disem- 
bell'ished  (4  syL),  disembell'ishing,  disembeirish-er. 

"Bell,"  a  beauty  (Latin  bellus,  pretty).  Bm  or  en  converts  nouns  into 
verbs,  and  Uh  added  to  verbs  means  "to  make.*'  hence  embelliith, 
to  make  beautiful.  DU  reverses,  hence  dis-emhelLuh^  to  strip  off 
that  which  makes  beautifuL 

Disembody,  di8\emMd",y,  to  froe  from  the  body ;  disembodies, 
dU\emMd'\%z ;  disembodied,  dU\em.bod"Ad  (Rule  xL), 
diaembOdi-m6nt  (Kule  xi.),  but  disembod'y-in^  (with  y). 

Old  English  bodig,  the  body.  Bm  or  en  converts  nouns  to  verbs, 
hence  embody,  "to  give  a  body,  or  put  on  a  body."  Dis  reverses, 
hence  die-emhody^  to  put  off  a  body,  to  take  the  body  away. 

BiBembogae,  di8\em.bug'\  to  pour  out  through  the  mouth  [as  a 
river,  into  the  sea] ;  disembogues,  di/.em.6/7ps";  disem- 
bogued, di8\em,bogd";  disembogu-ing,  dis^emMg^ing 
(R.  xix.);  disembogue-ment,  dis\em.bdg^\ment  (R.  xviii.) 

"Bogue"  (French  bouche,  Spanish  boca),  the  mouth  Em  or  en  con- 
verts nouns  into  vprb«»,  hence  em-bogue,  to  put  into  the  mouth 
(French  emJbotLcher,  Spanish  embuchar).  Die  reverses,  hence  dis- 
embogiie,  to  put  out  of  the  mouth,  to  disgorge  (JNorman-French 
d^eemboucher,  Spanish  deaemimchar). 

IHaembowel,  di8'.em.bow^l  {-bSw-  to  rhyme  with  now),  to  take 
out  the  entrails ;  disembow'elled  (4  syL),  disembow'ell-ing 
(R.  iii  el)  ;  disembdw'ell-er,  disembow'el-ment  (one  I). 
These  words  are  also  used  without  tiie  prefix  di8- :  as 

Embowel,  em.bfhd'.eU  to  take  out  the  entrails ;  embdw'elled 
(3  syl.),  embSw'ell-ing  (R.  iii.  el),  emb5well-er,  em- 
bdw'el-ment  (one  I). 

** Bowel**  (Frenc*  boel ;  Latin  botellue,  the  gut).  Em  or  m  converts 
nouns  into  verbs,  hence  em-bowel,  to  gut,  t.«.,  take  out  the  en 
teaila.    In  this  example  die  is  pleonastic. 


230  ERnom  OF  SPEECH 

Disenchant,  dU.en.chant  (not  dU,enxhdnt\\jofteB  from  enchant- 
ment; disenoh(^nt'-ed  (E.  xxxvi.),  disendiant'-iiigy  diB- 
enchlUif -er  (should  be  -or),  disencduLnt'-men^ 

FrMich  dSsenchantet,  dSienchantement ;  Lstin  dis  iwiaivUtrer'4>iM«Uar 
mentum,  -incanidtor  (canio,  to  sing  often  the  same  tone). 

IHsenoninber,  dU.enJkum\hiSr,  to  remove  an  encnmbiunce ;  diA- 
encum'bered  (4  sy].)>  disencmnnser-er,  disencnim'ber-ing; 
disencnm'brance  (not  dUencumhera'nfie). 

Bisencombered,  haying  an  encnmbrance  taken  off; 

Unencumbered,  un' .en.kum'.berd,  without  encumbrance. 

JHs  and  French  eneombre,  r.  enwmJbrvr;  Latin  fn  cvni5^re,  to  lie  or 
lean  npon ;  die  reverses. 

Disengage,  dis' .en.gage\  to  free  from  work  or  entanglement; 

disengaged'  (3  syl.);    disengag-ing,   dis^en^gdge'-ing ; 

disengag-er,   dis.en.gdgg'.er ;    disengage-onent,    disen- 

gagedness,  di8*.en.gdge'.ed.nes8y  state  of  being  at  leisure. 

Dis'engaged'  (3  syl.),  set  free  from  an  engagement; 

Un'engaged'  (3  syl.),  without  any  engagement. 

Disengaging,  setting  free  something  entangled ; 

tfnengaging,  not  adax>ted  to  engnge  the  heait  of  anyone. 

Freneh  ddgdgi,  digagement,  verb  digager;  Low  Latin  vadiwmf  a 
pawn ;  German  %wige^  a  pair  of  scales ;  wdgen^  to  weigh ;  xaxoinf 
wei!<hed  out  for  senmce,  hence  wages ;  gooUs  for  which  monej  is 
weighed  out,  hence  a  pawn.  En  converts  nouns  into  verbs,  hence 
engage  to  pawn  :  therefore,  "not  to  be  free  or  unoccupied. "  JHt 
reverses,  hence  dis-engnged,  taken  out  of  pawn,  free,  at  Jeisiwe. 

Disennoble,  dis' .en,nd.h%  to  deprive  of  nobility;  dis'ennoni>led 
(4  syl.),  dis'enno'bling.    Un^ennobled,  not  ennobled. 

"Noble,"  a  nobleman.  E%  converts  nouns  into  verbs,  henoe  m»- 
noble,  to  make  noble.  IH8  reverse^  hence  dia-tmnobief  to  deinire 
one  of  that  which  gives  nobility. 

Disenroll,  dis^en.roll,  to  frase  from  a  roll;  dis'enrolled:'  (3  syl.), 
dis'enroll'-ing,  disenroll'ment,  gi^nerallv  disenxolment. 
Un'enroUed'  (8  syl.),  not  enrolled.  UnroU,  to  open 
something  rolled ;  nnrolled'  (2  syL),  unroll'ing  (R.  viii) 

" Roll,"  a  list  of  names.  En  converts  nouns  into  verbii^  hence  emroll, 
to  put  aname  on  a  roll.  JHs  reverses,  h-  nee  di»-enroU,  to  take 
a  name  off  a  roll.    ("  Roll,"  lAtin  rdtula,  a  reeL) 

Disentail,  dis'.en.taiV,  to  free  land  from  entail;  dis'entailed' 
(3  syl.),  dis'entail'-ing,  dis'entail'-ment,  dis'entaU'er. 

French  entailler,  to  cut  off,  h^nce  to  limit :  Law  Latin  feudwn  tatti- 
dtwn,  a  fee  curtailed  or  limited  [to  a  particular  heir).  JHi  rerenee, 
hence  dis-entailf  to  abolish  the  limitation  of  entailment 

Disentangle,  dW .en.tan' .g'l.  to  unravel ;  dis'entan'gled  (4  ^L), 
dis'entaa'gling,  dis'entan'gler,  disentan'gle*meBi. 

tTnentangled,  un\enMin",g'ld,  not  entangled; 


AND  OF  SPELLTNO.  2Sl 


Dioeatanc^Led,  ^i8'.eH.tan'\g*ld,  yrifh  the  tangle  removed. 

"IJvigle,"  ft  jumble^.  En  conyerts  nouns  into  vorbe.  henoe  entangU, 
to  make  a  jumble.  JH»  reverses,  henoe  dia-tntangUt  to  get  rid 
of  the  jumble. 

INaenthial,  dis* .en.thravsl',  to  free  from  thraMom  (Bule  viii); 
disenthralled'  (3  syl.),  dis'enthrall'-ing  (Rale  i), 
dis'enthral'-ment  (only  one  2). 

TJnenthralled,  un'.en.thraw'ld^  not  in  thraldom; 

Sisenthrfdled  (3  syl.),  set  free  from  thraldom. 

Thral,  Old  English,  "a  slave."  En  converts  nouns  into  verbs,  hence 
enthral,  to  make  one  a  slave.  Dis  reverses,  hence  dis-mihralf  to 
set  free  one  who  has  been  made  a  slave. 

JNaanthrone,  dis'.en.throne"  or  dethrone,  de.thronefy  to  depose 
a  sovereign :  dis'enthroned"  (3  syl.)  or  dethroned'  (2  syl.), 
di8'enthrOn"-lng  or  dethron'-ing  (Rule  xix.),  dis'en- 
throne"-ment  or  dethrone'-ment. 

"Throne,"  the  seat  of  royalty.  En  converts  nouns  into  verbs,  henoe 
vtdhrone,  to  place  on  the  seat  of  sovereignty.  Dis  reverses,  hence 
di»-€nihrone,  tu  remove  from  the  seat  of  royalty. 

"Dethrone"  is  formed  on  another  principle:  dt  ihroiM, 
Lto  remove]  from  the  throiiC. 

Sifleiititl^,  dis'.en.tWiX  to  deprive  of  title  or  daim ;  disentitled, 
dis'.en.U'.tld ;  dis'enti'tling. 

Untitled,  without  title ;  Disentitled,  deprived  of  title. 

"Title**  (Old  English  tUvX\  a  denotation  of  rank.  En  oonverts 
nouns  into  verbs,  hen<-e  entitle^  to  confer  a  title.  JH»  reverses, 
hence  dis-eniiiU,  to  remove  the  name  denoting  rank. 


,  di8\en.toom'  (b  mute),  to  remove  from  a  tomb; 
disentombed, rf?y.cn.<oomd';  disentomb-ing,di«'.«n.foom'.- 
ing ;  disentomb-ment,  dU\en.toom\ment. 

Untombed  (2  syl.),  without  a  tomb,  not  committed  to  a  grave; 

BiBentombed  (3  syl.),  taken  ^ut  of  one's  grave. 

**Tpmb"  ^French  iombeau,  Greek  tvmhos),  a  grave.  En  converts 
nouns  into  verbs,  hence  entomb,  to  put  inio  a  grave.  Vis  reverses, 
hence  dis-entomb,  to  take  out  of  a  grave. 

DisesfeaUish,  dU\e8dah" .lUh,  to  break  up;  dis'estab'lished  (4 
syl.).  dis'estublish-ing,  dis'estab'lish-ment. 

ITnestabllshed  (4  syl.),  not  establisheil ; 

Diseetablished,  deprived  of  that  which  gave  establishment. 

^''Stfti  le,"  a  thing  flxt  (Latin  sto,  to  stand  or  fix).  En  converts  nouns 
Into  verbs,  and  -i»/i  added  to  verbs  means  "to  make,"  hence  m 
[en]  stablinh.  to  make  firm.  Di»  reverses,  hence  dU-tstdbli^,  to 
unfix  what  was  firm. 

Dis'Mieem',  to  disregard ;  dis'eeteemed'  (3  syl.),  dis'esteem'-ing; 
disestimation,  d's.es' .ti.may" .sihun, 
lAtin  dis  attitndre;  French  misestimer  (Latin  male  ceitimare). 


232  ERRORS   OF  SPEECH 

Bisfavonr,   dis.fay'.v^r^  disapprobation,  to    disapprove;    dia- 
fa^'vonred  (3  syl.))  disfa^onr-ing,  disfa'vour-er. 
Other  negative  compounds  are  made  with  un- :  as — 

XTnfaVouT-able,  nnfaVouiable-iiess,  imfa'vourably. 

Unfavoured,  un.fay\verdf  not  favoured; 

Disfavoured,  spited,  discountennnced. 
French  d^faveur,  difavordble ;  Latin  dia  fdvoVf  removftl  of  goodwill. 

Disfigure,  dis.fig'.er  (not  dis.fig'.geur),  to  deface;  disfig'ured 
(3  syL),  disfig'ur-ing  (Rule  xix.),  disfig'ur-er,  disfig'nre- 
ment  (only  live  words  drop  the  **  e "  finnl  before  -merU, 
Bule  xviii.);  disfiguration,  di8.f\g'.u.ray"^hun, 

TJnfigured,  not  figure* I,  plain;  disfigured,  defaced/ 
FreDch  d^fifpirer:  Latin  dis  figHrdre,  to  mar  the  form ;  JigiMUiOf  Ac 

Disforest,  disjor^rest  or  disafforest,  dis'.af.foi^rest,  to  take  from 
a  forest  its  royal  piivile*;es;  dis-  or  disaf-  for^ested 
(Rule  xxxvi.),  dis-  or  disaf-  for'est-ing. 

Old  French  forest,  Ffench  for6t.  Af  converts  the  nonn  into  a  verb, 
hence  afforest,  to  convert  into  a  forest  with  certain  privileges.  DU 
reverses,  hence  disafforest,  to  remove  the  privileges  of  the  forest. 

Disforest  is  to  reduce  a  forest  from  being  a  forest. 

Disfranchise,  dis.frun'.chize,  to  tHke  away  the  franchise;  dis- 
ftan'chised  (3  syl.),  disfran'chis-ing  (Rule  xix.),  digfiran'- 
chise-ment,  dis.fran' .shiz.mMt  (Bule  xviiL) 

Unfranchised,  not  franchised ; 

Disfranchised,  deprived  of  its  franchise. 

JHs  and  French  franchise;  Low  Latin  fromthetia,  %  fhuichiBe ;  diU 
franchisdtus,  disfranchised. 

Disgorge'  (2  syl.),  to  ueld  up;  disgorged'  (3  syl.);  diggofg-iiig; 
dis.gorge'dng  (Rule  xix.);  disgorge'-ment. 

Ungorged'  (2  syl.),  not  sated  or  gorged ; 

Disgorged'  (2  syl.)»  vomited  out  or  ejected  from  the  stomach. 

French  dSgorgement,  verb  dAgorger,  to  dischai^e  ftrom  the  thRMt 
{gorge,  the  throat :  Latin  gurgiiUial  the  windpipe). 

Disgrace'  (2  syl.),  dishonour,  to  be  out  of  favour;  disgraced' 

(2    syl.);    disgrac-ing,   dis.grase' ing  (Rule   xix.);    ^U»- 

grace'-ful  (Rule  viii«),  disgrace'ful-ly,  disgraoe'fal-neM. 

Ungraced'  (2  syl.),  not  embellished; 

Disgraced,  reduced  to  shame. 

Ungraceful,  without  grace ;  disgraceful,  shamefril. 

Ungraoefnl-ly,  inelegantly ;  disgracefnl-ly,  shamefbDj. 

Ungraoeful-ness,  inelegance ;  disgraoefnl-ness,shameAilnee8. 

Ungracious,  un,gray' .shusy  siurly ;  ungracious-ly. 

(Un-  denotes  simply  the  absence,  dis-  denotes  aetyal  pri- 
vation of  something  before  possessed.) 
French  di8gra4ie,  verb  dii^gracier,  disgra^ieux,  ongracioui ;  Latta  dis 
gratia,  favour,  grace,  honour. 


AND  OF  SPELLING,  n:\ 


Biggiiise,  dis.gize!',  a  false  appearance,  to  have  a  false  appear- 
ance; disg^nised,  dis.gized;  disgnised-ly,  dis.gized^.ly 
or  dis.gized. ed.ly ;  disgaiB-iag,  dis.gize'-ing  (Rale  xix.); 
disgnise-ment,  dis.gize'jnent  (Rule  viii.) 

Old  French  deaguiier^  &c. ;  French  diguiser,  diguisemeni. 

(Old  English  ioi<a,  manner,  guise  ;  Welsh  gwis^  mode,  gvyitg,  dress.) 

IDHagat^,  aversion,  to  excite  aversion ;  disgiiBt'-ed  (Rule  xxxvi), 
disgnsf-ing,   disgnsfing-ly,    disgiiBf-ful    (Rule    viii), 
di^usf fol-ly,  disgusff ul-nesB. 
Italian  diaguMartf  disgtuto;  lAtin  dU  gust&rt  {ffiutvu^  taste). 

Biah,  pJu,  dishes,  dish.Sz  (Rule  liii.),  notm  and  verb;  dished 
(1  syl.),  dish'-ing.     To  dish  up  [dinner],  to  put  food  on 
the  dishes  ready  for  [dinner]. 
Old  English  disG,  a  plate  or  dish ;  Latin  disetu;  Greek  duiko9, 

BiahahOle.    {See  Deshabille.) 

Bighearten,   dU.harf^en,  to  dispirit;    dishearfened  (8  syl.); 
dishearten-ing,  dU.hartf.ning, 
JHb  and  Old  English  heorUt  the  heart 

Biaheyel,  d%^h^\el,  more  correctly  decheVel,  to  let  the  hair 
loose;  dishev'elled,  more  correctly  dechev'eled  (8  syl.;, 
dishevell-ing,  more  correctly  dechevel-ing. 
(Ihe  spelling  of  **  dishevel''  U  disgraceful.) 

French  chevev,^  the  hair :  (heveluret  the  hair  dressed ;  de  ehevel,  to 
"derange  the  dress  of  the  hair"  (Latin  capiUus);  but  duhevtl 
must  be  either  de-shevel  or  dis-Jievelf  both  nonsense. 

Biahonest,  dis.Sn'.est,  not  honest;  dishonest-ly,  dis,on',est.ly ; 
dishonesty,  dis.hn\est.ty. 

(Only  three  simple  words  begin  with  h-mute :  (1)  heir  = 
air,  (2)  honest  =  on'. est  and  honour  =  on\er,  (3)  hour  =3 
our  (Rule  xlviii.);  all  taken  from  the  French.) 

Old  French  Tumneste,  French  honnSte,  dishonnite ;  Latin  hOnestug, 
inhcmestus.  (We  have  avoided  the  French  donblo  n,  but  have 
followed  the  French  in  dropping  the  h.) 

Biahononr,  dXz.Sn'.er,  disgrace,  to  disgrace;  dishonoured,  diz.- 
iht\erd;  dishonouring,  ^^^.(5n^«r.^n^ ;  dishonour-er,  dtz.- 
dn'.er.er;  diBtonovaaible^  diz.5n'.er.a.b'l;  dishonourable- 
ness, dii6.8n\er,a,b'l.ne88 ;  dishonourably,  diz.dn\erM.bly. 

ITxihonoared,  un.5n\erdf  not  honoured,  disregarded; 

Biahonoured,  positively  disgraced  or  discredited. 

French  dAshcmneur  1 1  but  dSsfuynorahle  (one  n1,  verb  didumorer; 
Ltetin  I^noTf  dehOnestua,  verb  dehdnestdre,  to  discredit 

Biaindine,  dis'.inMine'^  not  willing;   dis'inclined"  (3  syl.), 
dis'inclIn'Mng  (Rule  xix.);    disinclination,   dis'.inM.- 
nay'^shun,  dislike,  unwillingness. 
Latin  dU  indindref  dia  inclindtio  (cllno,  Greek  JUinC,  to  bend). 


284  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

IMflinooTpoTate,  di8\in.k(y/'.posate,  to  deprive  of  corporate 
rights ;  dis'lncor^'porat-ed  (Hule  xixvi.),  dis^incor^'porat- 
iog  (Rule  xix.) ;  disincorporation,  d%s\in.hoT^]^,r^'j^" ^hun, 

TJn'incor"porated,  not  oorporated  j 

Bis'lncor^'porated,  deprived  of  corporate  rights. 

French  disincorporer,  dSsincorporation ;  Latin  dia  incorpardtio,  -in- 
oorpordre  {earptis,  a  body  [corporate]). 

Difl'infect"',  to  deodorise,  to  purify ;  dis'lnfect^'-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.), 
dis^infect^'-ing ;  dis'infect'^-er,  a  person  or  substance 
that  disinfects ;  dis'ii^ecV'-ant,  a  substance  which  disin- 
fects; disinfection,  dis^in.fek^'^hwn, 

TJn'infect"e4t  not  contaminated ; 
Dis'infect'''ed,  cured  of  its  contamination. 
XJninfectioTis,ttn'.in./^".s/iw«,  not  communicating  [disease]; 
Bisinfectious,  di8\in,fek'\8hu8,  neutralising  infection. 
French  ddsinfecter,  disinfection;  Latin  dia  infectus,  -infeeior  (it^fieio). 

Disingenuous,  di/.in.jenf'.u.us  (not  dis* Jin.jee'\rd.UH),  not  frank; 
dis'ingen''nous-ly,  dis'ingen'^uons-ness ;  disingennity, 
di8\in.je.nu'\i.tyt  want  of  candour. 

Latin  dis  ing^vXtas,  -ingifnuust,  verb  ingenor,  to  be  of  good  extrac- 
tion or  well- bom.    IHs  reverses.     "  Disingenuous  "  is  "  iO-bred.** 

Disinherit,  dis^in.hfir^Wlty  to  deprive  of  hereditary  rights;  dis'- 
inher'it-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.),  dis'inherlt-ing,  dis^in^er'it-er 
(ought  to  be  'Or)\  disinherison,  dis\in.her^'ri.sdn,  the  act 
of  disinheriting;  dis'inher'itance. 
(The  French  and  Latin  pnvitive  in  this  example  ia  ex.) 

French  exMridation,  disinherison;  verb  exhirider;  Latin  eaduari- 
ddre,  to  disinherit ;  exhcereddtor,  exhcereddfio,  disinheriiion. 

Disintegrate,  dis.in'.tegrdte,  to  pulverise ;  disin'tegrat-ed  (Rale 
xxxvi.),  disin'tegrat-ing  (Rule  xix.);  disinteg^tion, 
dis. in'. te.gr  ay'*. shun;  disintegrable,  dis.in\te.grci.Vl ; 
disin'tegrabie-ness. 

Latin  dis  intigrdre,  -integrdtio  (intilger,  entire  and  whola). 

Dis'inter",  to  exhume;  dis'interred"  (3  syL),  dis'interr'^-iiig 
(Rule  i.),  dis'interr"-er,  dis'interr'^^ment. 

Unhiterred,  not  buried ;  Disinterred,  exhumed. 
"  Di>inter"  should  have  d&ahle  "r"  {Latin  terr[a]). 

'*Ter,"  for  terra^  the  earth.  In  or  en  converts  nouns  into  verbc, 
hence  inter' ,  to  put  into  the  earth  Dis  reverses,  hence  dis  itnAtr', 
to  take  out  of  the  earth. 

Italian  interrare,  to  bury ;  French  diterrer,  to  exhume. 

Disinterested,  dis' .in.ter.eslf' .ed,  without  selfish  motive;  dislii- 
teres'ted-ly,  disinterest ed-ness. 

Un'interest'ed,  not  concerned  [in  the  matter]. 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  235 

Ua^interest^-ing,  dull,  tmable  to  excite  the  mind. 

Ihi'mtereef  iBg-ly,  in  a  cLull  lifeless  manner. 

Trench  disi%UTt*»6^  dtaiDtereated  aad  wnintemted :  Latin  inUrttt, 
it  concerns  [me] ;  dU  interest,  it  does  not  concern  [me] ;  hence 
"nnselflsh/*  and  also  "  unexciting.** 

Diqom',  to  seyer;  disjoined'  (2  syl.),  disjoining. 

Disjoined'  (2  syL),  severed.    Unjoined',  not  united. 

Trenoh  d4Joindr€  and  di^oindre;  Latin  di^nngo,  supine  duowutum. 

BugoiBf,  to  put  out  of  joint ;  disjoint-ing,  disjoint'-ed  (Bole 
xxzyi.),  disjoint^ ed-ly,  disjoint'ed-ness. 

Disjointed,  put  out  of  joint.    Unjointed,  not  jointed 

Dfejuncf ;  disjunction,  di8.juny.9hun,  disunion,  severance; 
disjnnctive,  dU.junkWiv;  disjunc'tiye-ly. 
"Disjoin"  and  "disjoint"  are  from  the  same  root-verb, 
A  **  joint**  is  a  contrivance  to  join  together  two  parts, 

French  ditffoifU,  dit^onet\f,  disjanction,  di^jonctwe  (in  Grammar). 
LaUn  di^nctuSf  di^uTidio,  di^Tictivtu.  . 

Disk  0ja.  Bot,)    In  a  daisy  the  disk  is  the  yellow  eye,  and  the 
white  petals  are  called  the  "  rays." 

Disc.    The  face  of  the  sun  or  moon. 
Both  French  disque ;  Latin  discus  :  Greek  dishos,  a  ronnd  plate. 

Dislike'  (2  syl.),  avei  sion,  to  feel  aversion  to :  disliked'  (2  syl.), 
disHk'-ing  (Hule  xix.) 

Unlike',  not  like,  dissimilar;    nnlike'-ly,  not  probable; 
nnlikeli-ness,  improbability;  unlike' -ness,  want  of  re- 
semblance; nnlikeli-hood  {-hood  Old  Eng.  suf.,  "state"). 
W»-  or  wnr  and  Old  English  gtVic,  like ;  liced,  lik4>ned. 
Difllocate,  disWo.kdte,  to  put  out  of  joint;  dislocat-ed  (Kule 
xxxvl),  dislooat-ing ;  dislocation,  dis'.lo.kay^'.shun. 

Dislocated,  put  out  of  joint ; 
Unlocated,  not  having  a  j&xt  place  assigned. 
Unlocated  Land  (Americanj^  land  not  yet  appropriated. 
Fr.  disloctUian,  v.  disloquer;  Lat  dis  locdre,  to  put  out  of  place. 

Dislodge'  (2  syl.),  to  remove  from  its  place ;  dislodged'  (2  syl.), 
dislodgp-ing  (R.  xix.j,  dislodg'-er;  dislodg'-ment  (one  of 
the  five  words  which  drop  the  e  before  -ment,  R.  xviii.,  %), 
Fr.  diloger,  dilogement;  Lat.  dis  locdre,  to  displace  (locus,  a  placeX 
Disloiral,  dis.loy\aU  or  onloy'al,  not  loyaL 

Disloy'al  denotes  an  active  demonstration  of  disloyalty ; 
Dnloy'al  denotes  simply  the  fact  of  not  being  loyal. 
Disloy'al-ly;  disloyal-ty,  dis.loy'.alty. 

French  ddloyal  (loi,  a  law) ;  Latin  Ugdlis  {lex,  a  law). 

L(yyal  means  "  obedient  to  law ;"  disloyal,  disobedient  to  law. 


236  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Diamantle,  di8.man\t%  to  strip  [a  house,  (fee,  of  its  furniture] ; 
dismantled,  dis.man^fld ;  dismantling,  di8.mant\ling. 

Bisman'tled,  deprived  of  mantle  or  furniture ; 
Unman'tled,  without  a  mantle. 

French  cUmanteler  (military  term) :  Latin  dis  mantele,  a  mantle. 
SismaBt^  to  hreak  down  or  carry  away  the  masts  of  a  ship; 
dismast' -ed  (Rule  xxxvi.),  dismast'-ing. 
Old  Fr.  dimasier;  Fr.  dSmdter;  Ital.  masto;  Germ.  mast. 

Bismay,  diz.may^  terror,  to  be  in  terror:    dismayed'  (2  syl.), 
dlsmay'-ing  (B.  xiii.)  Un'dismayed  (3  syl.) ,  not  dismayed. 
Spanish  desmayar,  to  be  in  dismay ;  desmayo,  dismay. 

Dismem'ber,  to  mutilate ;  dismem'bered  {-i  syl. ),  dismemnier-iiig, 
dismem'ber-ment,  mutilation,  severance  of  limbs. 
French  dSmembreTt  d^memhrement ;  Latin  dis  membrum,  a  Umb. 

I)i8mi8S^  to  send  away ;   dismissed'  (2  syl.),  dismiss'-ing,  dis- 

miW-al;  dismission,  dia.mlsW.un;  dismissive, di8.i»utf''.iv; 

dim'issory,  granting  leave  to  depart. 

Latin  dimUsio,  dimissoritbs,  y.  dimittiret  supine  dimistwm  (<li[dis] 
mitto,  to  send  away). 

Dismount^,  to  alight  froin  a  horse,  to  take  articles  from  their 
"mountings";  dismoiint'-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  dismoonf-ing. 

Unmoun'ted,  not  mounted;  dismounted,  deprived  of... 
French  d^monter;  Latin  dis  mons,  gen.  montis,  from  the  monntaiD. 
Disobey,  dls'.o.bay'f  to  act  in  opposition  to  orders  given;   dis- 
obeyed' (3  syl.),  disobey-ing  (Rule  iiii.); 

Unobeyed,  not  having  done  what  is  ordered. 

Disobedience,  di8\o.bee''^di.ence  (not  -ance).    Non-observ- 
ance of  a  command. 

Disobedient,  di8\oA)ee''.di.ent;  dis'obe'dient-ly. 

French  diaoMissance  and  disobSissant  (wrong  conj.),  ddsobHr;  Latia 
dis  dhediensy  gen.  dhedientis,  dbedientia,  v.  dhcdlre. 

DisobUge,  di8\oMige\  to  offend  by  incivility ;  dis'obliged' (3  syL), 
dis'obllg'-ing  (R.  xix.),  dis'obli'ging-ly. 

Disobli'ged,  sliglited  by  incivility ;  Unobli'ged,  not  obliged. 

Disobli'ging,  discourtaous ;  ITnobliging,  not  obliging. 
French  disobliger;  Latin  dis  ohligdre  (ob  IXgo,  to  tie  or  bind  to  ob«)l 

Disorder,  diz.or^.dert  want  of  order,  to  put  out  of  order;  dis- 
or'dered  (8  syl.),  disor'der-ing,  disor'der-ly,  disar^derii- 
ness,  untidiness.    Unor'dered,  not  asked  for  or  ozdeied. 
French  d4sordre  :  Latin  dis  ordo^  order,  y.  ordindr^ 
Disorganise,   dis(.of'.gdn.ize,  to    derange    what  is  organised ; 
disor'ganised  (4  syl.),  disor'ganis-ing  (Rule  xix.) ;  disor- 
ganisation, dis.of  .gdn.i.zay'\8hun;  dis'organ]!B-er(B.zxxL) 
Unor'ganised  (4  syl.),  not  methodised; 


AND  OF  SPELUNG.  237 

Diaor'ganised  (4  syl.),  thrown  out  of  methodical  arrangement. 

Or'ganised  {;•^  syl.),  having  organic  structure ; 

Inor'ganiged  (4  syl.),  not  having  organic  structure. 

French  disorganiser,  disorganisation,  disorganisateur ;  Latin  or- 
gdnum ;  Greek  orgdnon,  an  oi^an  adapted  to  some  work  or  func- 
tion hence  " oi^iinised "  also  means  methodised,  and  ''disorgan- 
ised "  thrown  out  of  methodical  arrangement. 

Disown,  diz.own'y  to  ignore ;  disowned'  (2  syl.),  disown'-ing. 

Unowned'  (2  syl.),  bayiug  no  recognized  owner; 

Disowned'  (2  syl.),  disclaimed. 

Unow^d,  un  owd,  not  owed,  not  due. 

Old  English  dgan,  to  own ;  undgan,  to  disown. 

Disparage.  dU.par^rage,  to  depreciate ;  dispar'aged  (3  syl.), 
cUspar'ag'ing  (Rule  xix.),  dispar'aging-ly,  di8pa]<ag-er, 
dispar'age-ment  (Rule  xviii.) 

Latin  dispardre  (dis  par,  nneqnal) ;  French  parage,  lineage :  [dis] 
parage,  of  unequal  line  ige.  To  "  disparage  meant  originally  '  to 
consider  another  of  meaner  rank,"  hence  "of  meaner  value,  and 
hence  *'  to  depreciate." 

Disparity,  plu.  disparities,  dis.par^ri.tiz  (not  disparaty), 

Latin  dispdrttitas,  adj.  dispdrtlia  (par,  gen.  pdria,  equal). 

Dispassionate,    dU.pd8h\un.atej   without   emotion,    impartial; 

dispassionate-Iy. 

ITnpassionnate,  not  of  a  passionate  temper. 

Latin  dia  jMiSiio,  without  passion. 

Dispatch'.    {See  Despatch.) 

Dispel',  10  dispers*^;  dispelled'  (2  syl.),  dispell'-ing. 

(It  would  he  better  if  the  double  1  had  been  preserved.) 
Latin  dispello  (dis  pello,  to  drive  away). 

Dispense'  (2  syl.)  not  dispence,  to  administer,  to  do  without; 
dispensed',  dispens'-ing  (Rule  xix.),  dispens'-er. 
("  Dispense  "  is  one  of  the  six  words  ending  in  -ense,  be- 
tween two  and  three  hundred  end  in  -ence,  Rule  xxvi.) 

XTndispeQsed,  un'.dis.penst^,  not  dispensed. 

Dispense  to,  administer  to ; 

Dispense  with,  to  part  with  or  do  without. 

Dispensable,  di8.pen\sa.b%  that  may  be  dispensed  with ; 

In'dispen'sable,  that  cannot  be  dispensed  with; 

Indispensably,  absolutely,  positively. 

Dispen'sary,  plu.  dispensaries,  di8.p^\8a.riz  (Rule  zliv.), 
a  place  where  medicine  is  dispensed ; 

Dispensatory,  dis.p^n'^sa.to.ry,  a  dictionary  of  medical  pre- 
scription s,&c.;  atij.having  the  power  to  grant  dispensation. 

Dispensation,  dis.p^^ay" .shun^  exemption,  a  system  of 


$38  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

roles  (as  the  Mosaic  di8pem<Uion\  God's  mode  of  dealing 
with  his  creatures ; 

Dispensative,  di8.pSn,8a.tiv  ;  dispen^'sative-ly. 
Fr.  dispenser f  dispetisaire,  dispensation:  Lat.  dispensare,  ditpmtAUo. 
BispermoTis,  dU.p^.mus  (in  Botany),  having  two  seeds. 
Greek  dissds  «perma,  twofold  seed. 

Disperse'  (2  syl.),  to  scatter;   dispersed'  (2  syL),  dispers'-ing 
(Rule  xix.),  dispers'er,  dispeis'able  (Kule  xxiii.); 
dispersion,  dis.per^ .shun ;  dispersive,  dia.per'.siiv, 
Undispersed,  un'.dis.persf,  not  dispersed. 

French  disperser,  dispersion:  L%tin  dispergire,  snpine  diapenum, 
dispersio,  dispersus  {spargo,  to  acatterX 

Dispirit,  disspir^rity  to  dishearten;  dispir'it-ed  (Eule  xxxvi.), 
dispir'it-ing,  dispir'ited-ly.    TTn'dispir'ited,  not... 

Dispirited,  disheartened.    Unspirited,  tame,  without  spirit. 
Latin  dis  splritus  (splro,  to  breathe). 
Displace'  (2  syl.),  to  remove  from  its  place ;  displaced'^  (2  syL), 
displac'-ing  (Rule  xix.),  displace' -ment  (Rule  zviii.,  IT), 
displace'- able  {-ce  and  -ge  retain  the  e  final  before  the 
postfix  -able.  Rule  xx.)    Un'disidaced'',  not  displaced. 
French  ddplcbcer,  d^plctcemetU  ;  Latin  pMtea  (Greek  pldtus,  wideX 

Displant',  to  remove  a  plant;  displant'-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.), 
displant'-ing ;  displantation,  di8\plan.tay'* ^hvn, 

Displant'ed,  removed  from  where  it  was  planted ; 

Unplant'ed,  not  planted,  of  spontaneous  growth. 
French  diplawter,  diplantcUion;  Latin  displantdre,  displanidUio. 
Display',   show,  to  exhibit;    displayed'  (2  syl.),  display'-ing 
(Rule  xiii.),  display'-er.    Un'displayed',  not  displayed. 
French  d6ployer ;  Latin  dis  plicdre,  to  nnfold. 
Displease,  dis.ple€z\  to  ofiend ;  displeased'  (2  syL),  displeas'-ing 
(Rule  xix.),  displeas'-er. 

Displeasure,  di8.plezh\ur ;  displeas'm^e-Able. 

Unpleasant,   un.plez\ant,  not  pleasant;    iinpleMrMit-ly, 
unpleas'ant-ness. 

Displeas'-ing.  offensive ;  Unpleas'-ing,  not  pleasing. 

Fvenoh  ddplaisant,  dipUxisir ;    Latin  di^UcenUa,  di«pUciv«  {dia 

placifOf  to  displease). 

Dispose,  dis,pdze\  to  arrange,  to  feel  wUling ;  disposed',  ammged, 
inclined;  dispos-in^'  (Rule  xix.),  dispos'-er,  cBspte'-al, 
dispos'-able  (Rule  xxiii.),  dispo'sable-ness. 

Undisposed,  not  disposed. 

Disposition,  di8\pd.zt8h'\un.    Arrangement,  tempai. 

Indisposed,  in.di8.pdzd,  unwell,  not  inclined;  inAiqmaitkm ; 
indi^os'-^ble,  not  saleable. 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  239 


TTndisposedlkeBB,  wri'-d%8,po".zH,ne9Bt  unwillingness. 
Disposed  o£,    Farted  with,  sold.    {See  Depoee.) 
Undispeeed  oC    Not  painted  with,  not  sold. 

French  dispoaer^  disposition:  Latin  dupMMo,  dispMitu*,  dAtpC/niirt 
(dw  pono,  to  set  aside,  to  distribute). 

Bispoflsess,  diy,p58.z&^  (not  di8\po,zi^'\  to  deprive  of;  dis- 
possessed, di8\po8.ze8f  (not  dU^poJsesf) ;  dispossess-ing, 
di8\po8.ze8\ing  (not  dis^po.zis^.ing) ;  dispossession,  dW.- 
po8Jii8h'\wi  (not  di8\pd,ze8h" .un) ;  dis^possess'-or. 

DtB^possessed'  (3  syl.),  turned  out  of  possession; 

Un'possessed'  (8  syl.),  not  having  in  possession. 

Fr.  d^posgesHon  ;  Latin  dis  possesgio,  possessor,  possidso,  rap.  posKs- 
««tn»  (pM  [potisi  sedeOf  the  right  of  settling  down.    Dis  reverses). 

Dispraise,  dis.prdze\  censure,  to  censure;  dispraised'  (2  syL), 

disprais'-ing  (Rule  zix),  disprais'ing-ly,  disprais'-er. 

Dispraised,  dU.prdzd^^  censured; 

DTnpraised,  un.prdzd\  not  praised. 

Dis  and  German  preiaen,  to  praise ;  prsiser;  French  prieer,  to  value : 
Latin  pr^tium,  price  or  value.    To  praise  is  "  to  value." 

DisprooT  (noun),  conftitation ;  disprove'  (verb),  to  confute  (R.  li.) 

Disprove,  dis.proov'  (not  dis.prove),  to  confute ;  disproved, 
dis.proovd';  disprov-ing,  dis.proov'.ing  (not  di8.prd\ving, 
Rule  xix.);  disprov-ahle,  dis.proo\vd,bl; 

Indisprovable,  not  to  be  disproved. 

Diiprov-al,  dU.proo'-val,  refutation ; 

Disapproval,  di8'.ap,proo'\val,  displeasure. 

Disapprobation,  dis' .ap.pro.hay'^s'hun,  displeasure. 

Unproved,  un.proovd'  (not  un-provd),  not  proved ; 

Disproved,  dis.proovd'  (not  dU-provd),  confuted; 

Disapproved,  di8\ap.proovd\  not  pleased  with. 

JHs  and  Old  Fnglish  prof\ian],  to  prove ;  past  pro/ode,  past  part 
profod;  Latin  prdbdre  (prdbus,  honest,  upright). 

Disproportion,  dis\pro.por''.8hun.  want  of  proportion ;   dispro- 

por'tion-able,    dispropor'tionable-ness,    dispropor'tion- 

ably,  dispropor'tion-iLl,  disproportional-ly,   dispropor'- 

tion-ate,  dispropor'tionate-ly,  ^propor'tionate-ness. 

French  disproportion,  disproportionel ;  Latin  dis  proportio,  propor- 
tiondlus  {poriio,  a  portion). 

Dispiite'  (2  syl.),  a  contention,  to  contend;  disput'-ed  (Rule 
xxxvi.),  disput'-ing  (Rule  xix.).  disput'ing-ly,  disput'-er; 
disputable,  dis'.pu.ta.h'l  (not  dis. pute.,a.bU} ;  dis'patable- 
ness,  dis'pntably,  dis'putant. 

Dispntation,  di8\pu.tay'\8hun.    Controversy. 

DispittatiouB,  dU\pu,tay'\8hit8.    Contention?. 


240  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 


Disputative,  dW.pu.ta.tiv ;  dis^patative-ly. 

Undispu'ted,  not  disputed ;  nndispnted-ly. 

Indispntable  (not  un-),  in.dU".pu.ta,ble,  certain ; 

Indis'pntable-ness,  indis'patably,  certainly. 

French  disputtible.  disputant  {**  Disputation*'  is  not  s  French  word) ; 
Latin  dispHtoMlis,  dispiUdtio,  dispHtdtOTf  y.  dispiUare  (pCUo,  to 
prune  or  dress  vines,  to  think ;  dU  piUo,  to  think  different^.  "To 
think"  is  to  prune  or  dress  the  thoughts). 

Disqualify,  (2i«.ftti7^r.t./t/,  to  render  unfit;  disqualifies,  dU.kwSt.- 
i.fize ;  disqualified,  dU.kwbV.i.fide;  disqualifi-er,  dis.- 
kwoV.i.Ji.er  (R.  xi.) ;  disqualification,  du,kw5l/uJLkay^\' 
shun,  but  disquali'fy-ing  (Rule  xi.) 

Disqualified.     Having  something  which  destroys  fitness; 

Unqualified.    Not  having  what  is  required. 

JHs  and  French  qualification,  y.  qualifier  (Latin  gwUftas  fSeiOf  to 
make  of  the  quality  or  nature  required). 

Disquiet,  dis,kwi\et  (not  di8.kwoi\et\  uneasiness,  to  disturb ; 
disqui'et-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.),  disqui'et-ing,  disqni'et-er, 
disqui'et-ly,  disqui'et-ness ;  disquietude,  dis,qui^.e.tude. 

Unquiet,  un,kwi\eU  restless ;  unquiet-ly,  unqniet-nea. 

Inquietude,  in,f(wi\e.tude.    Anxiety. 

*       French  inquietude:  Latin  inquiitOdo,  inquiitus,  r.  inquUtdrt.    Ont 
word  is  formed  from  (Latin)  dia  quiea,  tne  reverse  of  rest. 

Disquisition,  di3\kwi.zi8h'\uny  discussion ;  disquisition-al. 
French  disquisition;  Latin  disquisitio,  v.  disquiro  (du  queero). 

Disregard,  dis'.re.gard^  slight,  to  neglect;  disregard^'-ed  (Bole 
xxxvi.),  disregard'-ing,  disregard'ing-ly,  disregard'-eor, 
disregard'-ful  (Rule  viii.).  disregard'fol-ly. 

Un'regard'ed,  neglected;  Dis'regarded,  slighted. 

Dis  and  French  regarder;  Low  Latin  regardium,  ** gwd^ ^  ward 
(one  under  a  guardian,  one  guarded  or  looked  after).  To  "renzd  * 
is  to  look  after  one  as  a  guardian,  disregard  is  to  neglect  lo  d^ig. 

Disrelish,  din.reV .ish,  a  dislike  of  the  taste,  to  dislike  the  taste; 
disrel'lshed  (3  syl.),  disreFish-ing. 

Dis'rerished  (3  syl.),  aversion  to  the  taste ; 

Un'rerished  (3  syl.),  having  no  fondness  for  the  taste. 

Greek  dis  [re]  leich[o],  leicho,  to  lick ;  re  leuJio,  to  lick  again ;  cKf  rt 
leicho,  to  lick  over  and  over  again.    It  is  a  badly  compounded  word. 

Disrespect,  dW. re. specif  want  of  respect,  to  show  want  of  respect ; 
disi^espect'-ed  (K.  xxxvi.),  disrespect'-ing,  disrespeof-ltal 
(R.  viii.),  disrespect'ful-ly,  disrespect'ful-ness. 
Dis'respecf  ed,  dishonoured.    Un'respect'ed,  not  respected. 

Irrespective,  ir.re,8pek".tiv,  without  regard  to ;  ir'iespeef- 

ive-ly,  independently  of  other  considerations. 

JHs  and  French  respect,  verb  respecter;  Latin  respicio,  snpllio 
tutu  (re  specio,  to  look  back  upon;.    Di*  reverses. 


AXD  ftF  SPELLING,  241 

IHsEObe'  (3  syl.),  to  undress ;  disrobed^  disrob'-ing  (Rule  xix.)> 
disrob^.    Uniobe',  onrob'-ing  (same  meaning). 

Bigrobed'  (2  syl.)t  divested  of  robing; 
IFniobed  (3  sylOt  without  robes,  or  dress. 
Bit  and  French  robe,  a  state  dress ;  Low  Latin  robo,  a  rob*. 

Diorapt',  to  burst  asunder ;  disrupt'-ed  (Rtde  xzxvi),  dismpt'- 
ing;  diamption,  dis.rup'^shun,  fracture. 

Latin  dAarumpOy  supine  ditruptwn  {di»  rumpo,  to  break  asnnder). 

Diaaatisfy,  dis^Sf.ls.fy,  to  leave  discontent;  diflflfttinficfl,  dis,- 
adfXs.fize  (Rule  xi.) 

BiBsatisfied,  di8.8dtf.i8,fide,  discontented ; 

Unsatisfied,  un\8df.l8,fide,  not  contented. 

BiBsat^isfy-ing,  leaving  discontent  behind; 

UiiBat^igfy-ing,  not  contenting. 

Biflsatisfiactory,  dU^af.is.fdkf'.tS.ry,  giving  dissatisfaction ; 

XTn'satiBfactory,  not  giving  satisfaction. 

BuBatisfac'tori-ly,  in  a  way  to  cause  dissatisfaction ; 

Unsatisfactori-ly,  in  a  way  not  to  satisfy. 

Biasatisfac'tori-ness,  a  state  of  being  dissatisfied; 

XTnaatiafactori-ness,  failure  to  produce  satisfaction. 

Biaaatiafaction,  di8.8atJi8,fdk''.8hun,  discontent. 

Unaatifffiable,  un^df.K8,fV',d.ble,  not  satisfiable. 

Latin  dia  adti^actio,  adti^fdcifre  {sdOafdcU),  to  do  enough). 

Buaect,  dis^ecf  (not  de.8ec1f),  to  anatomise ;  dissect'-ed  (Rule 
zxxvi),  dissect^-ing,  dissect'-or  (not  -er),  dissect'-ible 
(ought  to  be  -able)',  dissection,  di8.8ek\8hun. 

ft,  dissection;  Lat.  dissectio,  dissicdre  (dis  sSco,  to  cut  to  pieces). 

BiflMize,  di8,8eez',  to  dispossess.    Bisease,  diz.eze\  malady. 

Biaseized,  dU^eezd*;  disseiz'-ing  (Rule  xix.),  dispossessing 
wroYigfuHy;  diaseiz'in,  the  act  of  disseizing; 

Biaaeiz'-or,  one  who  takes  possession  unlawfully ; 

Biaseizee,  di8.8ee.ze^t  the  person  disseized. 
(These  words  are  also  spelt  with  "  -s  "  instead  of  "-z,"  but 
at  seize  is  always  spelt  with  *'  z,"  there  is  no  reason  why 
itt  compounds  should  adopt  a  different  spelling.) 

Low  Latin  disseisina,  disseizon ;  disseisio,  to  disseize ;  disaeisitor. 

BiaBemble,  dis.z^\b%  to  conceal  by  equivocation ;  dissembled, 
disjiSmWld;  diaaem'bling  (Rule  xix.);  dis8eml)ler,  one 
who  conceals  by  equivocation. 

Q 


242  ERROI^  OF  mSECH 

DiflBimnlation,  di8Mm\u.lay'',8fmn,  the  act  of  dissembling. 

JHs  and  French  aembler.  The  French  corresponding  words  ore  dig- 
aimuler,  dissimulcUion ;  Latin  disstmiUdref  diMin/Oldtia  (jrim/Alo^ 
to  feign  ;  dU  in  a  bad  sense,  gimilis,  like). 

(It  would  have  been  better  if  toe  had  adopted  the  v)ord  "  dissimulate  " 
instead  of  the  bad  French  form  "dissemble.*^ 

Diflseminate,  di8.8^\i.na.tef  to  scatter  as  seed,  to  diffuse; 
dissem^inat-ed  (Role  xxxvi),  dissem'lnat-ing  (Rule  zix.), 
dissem'inat-or  (Rule  xxzvii.);  dissemination,  dUjem'.i,- 
nay". shun;  dissemlnative,  disjBem\LnaMv, 

Trench  dissiminer,  dUs^mination;  Latin  dusSm^ndtio,  disaim^ndtort 
dieaim^indre  [simen,  seed). 

Dissent,  dis.sent't  disagreement,  to  disagree.  Descent,  d^^enf, 
generation,  a  going  down. 

Dissent^  (notm),  dissent'-er. 

Dissent'  (verb),  dissent'-ed  (Rule  zxx^d.),  dissent'-iiig. 

Dissentient,  di8.senf.8hl.ent;  dissension,  dis.8^'^hiun  (not 
-tion,  Rule  xxxiii.,  -t).    Assent^,  q.v.,  agreement. 

French  dissension;  Latin  disserUienSt^  gen.  -entia,  dissenaio,  verb 
dissentlre^  supine  dissensum  (dis  sentio^  to  thiok  tUfferently). 

Dissertation,  dW^er.tay'^shun  (not  de^ .er.tay'\8hun\  a  disqui- 
siiioD ;  disserta'tion-al,  dissertator,  di8\8er.ta.tor, 

French  dissertaiion,  dissertateur :  Latin  dAssertdOo,  verb  disaeirt&rt 
frequentative  of  disiro,  supine  dissertum  (dis  sero,  to  scatter  seed). 

Diasever,  di8.8^\er,  same  as  "sever";  dissev'ered  (3  syl.), 
diBsev'er-ing,  dissev'er-er,  dissev'er-ance;  disseveration, 

di8.8ei/.e.ray''.8hun.    (Not  French). 

Dissevered,  di8.8^\erd,  separated,  severed ; 

Unsevered,  un.8ev\erd,  not  separated  or  severed. 

Dis  intensive  and  Fr.  sevrer,  to  wean,  to  estrange.    Lat.  s^fpdrdrs. 

Dissident,  dis^si.dent  (not  di8.8i.dant),  one  who  dissents,  (04/.) 
dissenting;  dis'sidents,  dis'sidence,  dis'sident-ly.    ^ 

French  dissidence,  dvffddent;  Latin  dissidentia,,  diasidens,  ftnltive 
dissid&ntia,  verb  dissidire  {dia  sideo,  to  sit  apart). 

Dissimilar,  di8Mm\i.lar,  unlike;  dissim'ilar-ly;  dissimilarity, 
dW.sim.i.ld'/' ri.ty ;  dis'sinulltude. 

French  dissimiUiire,  dissimilitvde  ;  Latin  disslmlletudo  (dia  HmXUa). 

Dissimulation,  di8.8im\u.lay'\8hun,    (See  Dissemble.) 

Dissipate,  di8'.8l.pate,  to  disperse,  to  squander;  dis'edpat-ed 
(Rule  xxxvi.),  dispersed,  squandered,  ac^j.  dissolute; 
dis'sipat-ing;  (Rule  xix.);  dissipation,  dis'M.pay^jhwi. 

French  dissiper,  dissipation;  Latin  dissipation  diaaipdre  (dia  sipo,  to 
scatter  abroad ;  Greek  alph&n,  a  siphon). 

Dissociate,  di8.8o\8i.ate,  to  disunite ;  disso'ciat-ed  (R.  xxxvi.), 
disso'ciat-ing  (R.  xix.);  dissodation,  dis.Bo'Mui'^jtkMn, 


>4JN7>  OF  SPELLING,  243 

DiandaUe,  dU^c^ ,sha,Vl,  ill-assorted; 

UnBodable,  un^o^ .sha.H'l,  not  sociable. 

XTnsociftbly,  un.sd'.sha.bly,  with  reserve,  anfriendly. 

Biasociability,  dU^(f.8hd,biV\i.ty,  nnfltnees  for  sociel^y ; 

UiVKKsialullty,  saliennesB,  liviDg  an  unsociable  life. 

Unsocial,  un^^hdl ;  nnsooiableness,  want  of  sociability. 

JPreneh  ktaodaJbUM,  iutoctabU:  Lftiin  diitdeiOhUis,  di$§dcidtio,  di»- 
idcidre  (dia  addo,  aOciia,  a  companion). 

DisBOlate,  dU^soMte,  dissipated;  dis'solnte-ly,  dis'solate-ness; 
dissolution,  dU\80.lu" ^hun, 

Bissolable,  di8\8o.Ui.VL    {See  Dissolve.) 

French  dissolu,  dissolution;  Latin  disadlutus,  ditaSUUio,  ▼.  diiuolvir^, 
supine  dissdlutvm.    {See  next  article.) 

Dissolye,  d!i8.zolv\  to  melt;  dissoly'-ing  (Bule  xix.) 

Bissolyed,  di8Jsolvd%  melted.    Un'solved,  not  solved. 

Bissolv^er,  that  which  melts  something. 

Dissolvent,  di8.zfiV.vent,  that  which  has  the  property  of 
melting  something; 

InsolveBt,  a  debtor  unable  to  pay  his  debts,  not  solvent; 
insorvency,  the  state  of  being  insolvent. 

Dissolvable,  di8Js5V.va.b'l  (Rule  xxiii.),  or 

Dissoluble,  di8\8o.lu.b'l,  capable  of  being  melted ; 

Ihsolvable,  in.8oV.va.Vl  (Rule  xxiii.),  or 

Insoluble,  in.8oV.u.Vly  incapable  of  being  melted ; 

Unsolvable,  un.8bV.va.h%  incapable  of  being  solved; 

Unsoluble,  same  as  insoluble. 

Dissolubility,  di8\tdl.u.hiV\i.ty,  having  a  solvable  nature ; 

In'dissolubillty,  having  a  nature  which  resists  solution. 

Dissol'vable-ness,  negative  Insoruble-ness. 

French  dissoluble,  dissolvant  (wronsr  conj.)  insolvMliti,  insolubh, 
insolvable;  Latin  dissolv€re  (dis  solw>,  to  loose  thoronghly ;  Greek 
aUn  luo,  to  loose  altogether). 

fThe  wrong  conj.  -able  has  been  borrowed  ds  usual  from  the  French, 
bui  has  been  avoided  in  dissolvent.) 

IMsBonance,  di8'.8o.nan8ef  discord ;  dis'sonant,  discordant. 

Fr.  dissonance,  dissonant;  Lat.  dissdnans,  gen.  -sonaniis  (dis  sihuire). 

DJamade,  neg.  of  persuade,  di8.8wade',  per.8wade';  dissuad^'-ed 
(Rule  xxxvi.),  dissuad'-ing  (Rule  xix.),  dissuad'-er ; 
dissuasion,  di8.8way\8hun,  neg.  of  persna'sion  (R.  xxxiii.).' 
dissuas-ive,  di8.8wa^Mv ;  dissua'sive-ly. 

French  dissiutder,  dissuasion;  Latin  dissudsio,  dissudsor,  v.  dis- 
tuddire  (dis.  tuddeo,  Greek  Ionic  TuuUfOy  to  delight). 


244  ERRORS  OF  SPEECU 

Dissyllable,  dis sKV.la.h'l,  a  word  of  two  syllableH  (double   I); 
dissyllabic,    dis\8iV.ldb'\lk    (adj.);     dissyllabificatioii, 
di8''8il.la}/-i-ji.kay'*-8lmnf  making  into  two  syllables. 
(Lat,  words  containing  a  "j"  are  borrowed  from  the  Gk.) 
"  Fr.  dissylldbe,  dissyllabique ;  Lat.  diiayllabum;  <3k.  diss&a  stilldbi. 

Distaff,  plu,  distaffo  (not  distaves),  A  staff  used  in  hand- 
spinning.    (An  exception  to  Rule  xxxviii.) 

Old  Eng.  di8taif(ihiBiel  [stsef],  a  thistle  resembling  a  bunch  of  tow). 

Distance,  dis'.tanse,  remoteness,  to  leave  behind  in  a  race ; 
dis'tanced  (2  syl.),  dis'tanc-ing  (Rule  xix.);  dis'tant, 
remote ;  dis'tant-ly,  remotely. 

French  dUtanee,  distant;  Latin  distanHa,  distans,  gen.  di$tamii9 
{di  [dial  ato,  to  stand  apart). 

Distaste''  (2  syl.),  dislike  (followed  by  for:  as  "Many  have  a 
great  distaste  for  cheese,"  not  of), 

Distaste'-fol  (Rule  viii.),  distastefol-Iy,  distasteful-neflB. 

Distem'per,  disease,  to  disorder ;  a  preparation  of  colour  with 
water  (not  oil)  for  walls,  &c.,  to  use  this  preparation. 

Distempered,  dis.tSm^perd;  distem'per-ing. 

"  Distemper"  is  used  most  frequently  for  disease  in  dogs,  and  other 
dumb  animals.    {See  Disease.) 

It  was  once  thought  that  the  body  contains  four  "  humours,**  that 
the  just  balancing  of  these  fluids  constitute  health,  and  that  dis- 
ease is  a  disturbance  of  the  balance  (Latin  dis  tefnperdre).  The 
adjustment  of  the  fluids  gave  rise  to  the  expressions  good  and  ill 
"temper."  ''Good  temper"  being  the  effect  of  a  good  or  just 
mixture  of  the  fluids,  and  "bad  temper"  the  effect  of  a  bad  or 
unjust  mixture.  If  bile  prevailed  the  temper  was  '*  fiery,*'  if  air 
prevailed  the  temper  was  "sanguine,"  if  earth  it  was  "melaa" 
choly."  if  water  it  was  "  phlegmatic." 

The  couNTBNANCB  is  the  facial  index  "containing"  (Latin  eonU- 
nens)  the  outward  manifestation  of  the  "temi)er"  or  mixture  of 
the  four  fluids :  it  is  yellow  if  "  bUe"  [fire]  prevails,  red  if  "blood" 
[air]  prevails,  grey  if  "melancholy"  [earth i  prevaUs,  and  dead 
white  if  "  phlegm  "  [water]  prevails.    (See  Complexion.} 

"IMstemper  (p>iint),  Italian  distemper[amento],  v.  distemperartf  to 
dissolve,  tempera  or  tempra,  water  colour;  Latin  temperare,  to 
mix,  die  temper&rey  to  dissolve. 

IMstend^  to  stretch;  distend'-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.),  distend'-ing, 
distention  or  distension,  (2i8.ten'.</iu7i;  disten'sible. 

French  distendre,  distension:  Latin  distendire,  supine  ditteniwm  or 
disteiisum,  distentio,  distentiLs  or  distensiu  {tendo,  to  stretch). 

Distich,   dis^tik  (not  disMtch'),  two  lines  of  poetry  making 
complete  sense.    {Ch  =  "  k"  shows  it  to  be  firom  the  Gk.) 
Latin  distlchon;  Greek  di-sttchds,  two  lines,  an  elegi'ac  couplet. 

Distil',  to  let  fall  in  drops ;  distilled'  (2  syL),  distiU'-ing  (K.  i)  ; 
distill'-er,  one  who  distils;  distill'-able  (not  -ible^  1st 
Latin  coi^.);  distillation,  dis'MLlay'^^shun;  distill'- 


AXD  OF  8PELLTNG.  245 

the  place  where  distilling  is  cnrried  on;   distillatory, 

di8.tU'\la.to.ry  (adj.),  pertaining  to  distillation. 

("Distil"  w(mld  he  better  with  double  "L") 

French  distiOer,  distUlabU,  distillatitm,  distillaUnre,  dittiUerie;  Latin 
disUUatio,  distill[dre],  stiUa,  a  drop ;  Oreek  ttazo,  to  drop. 

Bigfcincf ,  separate,  hence  clear,  (fee. ;  distincf -ly,  distinct -nesB ; 
distinction,  dU.tink'.ahun ;  distinct-ive,  dis.ttnk'.tiv ; 
distinctive-ly,  distinctiye-nesSb    Verb  didtingaigh,  q.v. 

Indistinct,  not  distinct.  Distinct  followed  by  from, 
French  distinct,  disiinctum,  distinetif;  Latin  digtinetus,  distinction 
Biatiiignish,  dis. ting  g wish,  to  note  difference  by  certain  marks 
(followed  by  between) ;  disting^oished,  dis. ting* gwishd  : 
distin'gnish-ing,  distin'guishing-ly,  distin'guish-able 
(R.  xxiii.),  distin'gnishable-ness,  cQstin'gaishably,  dis- 
tin'guish-ment,  distin'gniah-er.     (See  Distinct.) 

Undistin^guished,  nn-  or  in-  -distin'gnishable. 

French  di«fi)iguer/  Latin  distinguire,  supine  distinctwnf  to  notify 
by  a  mark  (Greek  ttigma,  a  mark*  y.  stizo,  t  j  prick  or  mark). 

Distort',  to  pervert;  distorf-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.),  distort'-ing,  dis- 
torf-er ;  distortion  (not  -sion),  dis.tor'^hun  (Bale  xxxiiL; 
Undistorted.     Not  distorted. 

French  distortion  (wrong) ;  Latin  distortio,  r.  distorquirt,  topine 
distortum,  not  distorsum  (dis  torqueo,  to  twist  away). 

Distracf ,  to  harass ;  distracf-ed  (Rule  xxzvi.),  distrac'ted-ly, 
distracted-ness,  dis'tract'-ing,  distract'-er,  distracflng-Iy ; 
diatTBctiaafdisUrak'^kim;  dirtractive,  dis.truk\tUf, 

Undistracted,  un'.dis.trdJ^\ted.     Not  distracted. 

("  Distraught"  is  sometimes  used  in  poetry  as  past  part) 
Lat.  di8tr€Utio,  distrdho,  sup.  distraetwn  (dis  trdho,  to  draw  two  ways}. 

DigtEain'  (2  syl.),  to  seize  chattels  for  debt;  distrained  (2  syl.), 
distrain'-ing ;  distrainf  (noun);  distrain'-or ;  dis- 
train'-able,  subject  to  distraint.    (Rule  xxiii. ) 

Distress^  same  as  distraint',  the  act  of  seizing  for  debt. 
Latin  distring^re,  to  strain  hard  {stringo,  to  grasp). 
Distress',   afiOiction,  destitution   (see   Distrain);    distress'-ing 
(part,  and  adj.);   distressed,   dis.trisff  afflicted;    dis- 
tress'-fol  (Rule  viii.),  distressfnl-ly. 
French  duresse:  Welsh  trais,  rapine ;  treisiant,  oppression. 
Distribnte,  di8.trW.iite,  to  dole  out;  distrib'ut-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.), 
distrib'ut-ing  (Rule  xix.),  distrib'ut-er   (ought   to    be 
-or):  dMtnbxition,  dis\tri.W'.shun  ;  distriyut-able  (Role 
xxiiL);  distribnt-ive,  dis.trW .u.tlv ;  distrib'ntiye-ly. 
Undistributed,  un.dis.trib\u.tid^  not  distribated. 
Ihdistribntive,  in.dis.trW .uXlv,  not  to  be  distributed. 

French  distribwr,  distributeur,  distribution,  distributif;  Latin  A#- 
trtbatio,  distribiUor,  distribtUfre  {dis  trtbuo,  to  gHwe  la  |Muts). 


24$  ^HRORS  or  SPEECH  ^k 

DiBtmst^,  want  of  coDfidence,  to  doubt  or  suspect;  distrust'-ed, 
distrast'-ing,  distrust'lng-ly,  diatriist'-fal  (Bule  Yiii.)f 
distrust'fHl-ly,  distnisf  fnl-ness. 

BiBtruBf-ed,  sQspected ;  TJntmst'-ed,  not  trosted. 

Untmst'y,  not  trusty ;  untms'ti-»nefls,  unfaithfulness  in  the 

discharge  of  a  trust;  untrustworthy. 
Old  English  wntre&iiotizstt  mif aithful :  «m^edim[ian],  to  deeelTe. 
Disturb',   to    discompose;    disturbed'    (d    sjL),   distorV-ing, 
disturV-er,  diirturV-iuioe. 

Perturb',  to  disquiet  (a  stronger  t(*rm  than  disturb); 
perturbed^  perturV-ing ;  perturbation,  |)er'.tur.6ay".- 
shun,  agitation  from  disquietude. 

Perturbations  of  the  planets,  deviations  from  their  usual 
course  from  some  external  influence. 

Undisturbed  (8  syl.),  not  disturbed ;  undisturV-ed-ly  (6  syl.) 

French  perturhation ;  Latin  disturhdtio,  a  disordertDg ;  perttvrhdtio, 
great  trouble  or  disturbance ;  disturbdre,  to  throw  into  disordwr: 
perturbdre,  to  trouble,  to  tuna  topey  tarry  [twbOf  to  disturb). 

Dimnite,  disu.nlte^  to  disjoin  ;  diaunif-ed  (Rule  xxxvi), 
disunit'-ing ;  disunlt'-er,  one  who  severs  what  was  united. 

Disunion,  <{^s.u^n^.on,  want  of  union ;  distinity,  dU,u'.ni,ty, 

Disuni'ted,  separated  after  having  been  united ; 

TJnuni'ted,  not  united. 

I^encb  d^iunicn,  diswnir;  Latin  dU  wn/krt  (wniM,  oimX 
Disuse,  (noun)  disMce',  (verb)  disMze!"  (Rule  li.»  c). 

Disuse  {n(yiin)f  neglect  of  use;  disusage,  dlsM^^age; 
disuse  (verb),  disused,  dis.uzd';  disus-ing  (Rule  xix.) 

Unused,  un.u8ty  unaccustomed ;  unused,  tm.uzd,  not  used; 
Disused,  dis.Uzd,  the  use  discontinued. 
Unuseful,  un.u8e\ful;  unu'sual,  unusual-ly. 
Latin  dis  imim,  v.  vior,  supine  %uus,  to  use ;  Greek  ei^tAd^  vdutl. 
Ditch,  plu,  ditch'.es  (R.  liii.).  a  trench ;  ditch'-er,  one  who  makes 
a  ditch ;  ditch'-ing,  makiDg  a  ditch. 
Old  English  die,  a  dike  or  ditcii,  ▼.  dieiicm],  dieunf^  ditdiiaf  . 
Dithyramb,  dvrh\i.ram,  a  song  in  honour  of  Bacohus;  dithy- 
rambic,  dlrW.i.rum"Mk  (a4j.) 
Latin  d%ihvravnhu8f  diihyra'mbieiut ;  Greek  dUhwrmnXnn, 
Dittany,  dU\ta.ny,  a  corruption  of  die'tamnyy  garden  ginger;  the 
leaves  smell  like  lemon-thyme.    Also  called  dittander. 
Lat.  didatMius;  Gk.  didamium  or  dickmum  (fkom  LUM^  fak  GfMe). 

Ditto,  also  written  do.,  but  always  pronounced  dif.to,  same  as 
above,  same  as  aforesaid.    (Italian  detto,  said,  spoken.) 
(  Used  in  bills  and  books  of  account  to  save  repetition.) 


^  AND    OF  SPELLING.  247 

IHttj,  fla,  ditties,  dilf.Viz  (Rule  xlir.),  a  short  poem  intended 
to  be  snng.    The  word  is  almost  limited  to  *' love-songs.*' 

Welsh  ditiOf  to  utter  r  ditiad,  an  utterance. 

"Oomposition"  is  from  the  Latin  eomp&no,  "to  set  in  order,"  and 
the  Anglo-Saxon  diht-cm  is  "  to  set  in  orler,"  whenoe  dihtig. 

Diuresis,  di.u,re^.8i8f  excessive  flow  of  nrine ;  dise'resis,  q.v.,  the 
mark  (  " )  over  the  latter  of  two  distinct  vowels. 

Diuretic,  di.u.r^t\lk,  provocative  of  the  flow  of  urine. 

Fr.  diuritique;  Lat.  diureticua;  (Gk.  dia ourA),  whenoe  "urine"). 
Diurnal,  di.w/MaU  daily,  pertaining  to  a  day ;  diur'nal-ly. 

French  ditimc,  journal ;  Latin  diwmua  (diu,  di«f,  a  dayX 

Di'VBii,  dhvan\  a  coffee  and  smoking  room  fitted  up  with  sofas. 

French  divan,  a  sofa-bedstead  .  Persian  diiran,  the  imperial  council 
or  chamber  where  the  council  is  held. 

Kve  (1  syl.),  to  plunge  under  water;  dived  (1  syl.),  div'-ing 

(Bule  xix.j;  div-er,  one  who  dives;  diving-bell. 

Old  English  dt^[ian],  past  dyfde^  past  part,  dyfed^  part  pres.  dyfing. 

Diverge'  (2  syl.),  to  8prea«J  from  the  central  point,  to  recede  from 
each  other  (the  opposite  of  Converge') ;  diverged'  (2  syL), 
diverg'-ing  (R.  xix.),  diverg'-ence  (not  -ance\  fiverg'-ent; 
diver'gency,  plu,  divergencies,  di.vet' .jen.8lz  (R.  Ixiv.) ; 
diver  gent-ly  ot  diver'ging-ly,  in  a  diverging  manner. 

French  divtrger^  divergence,  divergent ;  Latin  divergium,  the  parting 
of  a  river  into  two  streams ;  Latin  vergens,  gen.  vergentii  {divergOf 
to  bend  di£Ferent  ways). 

Wveis.  di'.verz,  plu.  of  diver  (see  Dive);  (a^j.)  sundry. 

Diverse,  duversef^  not  alike,  not  identicaL 
"  History  supplies  divers  examples"  (sundry),  not  diverse, 
"  Squares  and  diamonds  are  diverse  forms,"  difierent. 
"There  are  divers  nations  on  the  earth,  but  each  one 
diverse  from  the  others." 

Divers-ly,  dV.verz.ly,  in  many  diffiBrent  ways ; 

Diverse'-ly,  not  in  the  same  way. 

Diversity,  plu.  diversities,  di.ver'.si.tXZy  differences. 

Diversify,  dLve/MJy,  to  vary;  diversifies,  di.vei^,si,f%ze; 
diversified,  di.ve'/.si.fide ;  diver'sify-ing  (Rule  xL), 
diver'sifi-er ;  diversificatioii,  di.ver^ .8i.fi.kay"shun. 

French  divers,  plu.  diverses  [  pernonnes,  &el.  {"  Diversification  "  is 
not  French),  diversijiir,  divtrnU;  Latin  diverse^  in  different  parts, 
diver sitas,  diverUfre,  sup.  diver  sum  {di  verto,  to  turn  different  ways.) 

Divert,  dtverfj  to  turn  aside,  to  amuse ;  diverf -ed  (R.  xxxvi.), 
diverf -ing,  diver'ting-ly,  diverf -er ;  diversion,  dtver^.- 
shun  (Riile  xxxiii.),  amusement. 

Divertisement,  d%.ver^.ttz.mentj  (not  dS.vair.tlz.mong). 
Fr.  divertir,  diversion^  divertissement;  Lat.  diverUfre  (see  above). 


248  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Divest,  dtvesf,  to  strip,  to  dispossess;  divesf -ed  (Rule  xxxvi.), 
divest'-ing;  divestiture,  di.v^'.ti.tchur^  the  act  of  sur- 
rendering one's  chattels  (the  opposite  of  InvestitiiTe) ; 
divestnre,  dtves^tchiir,  the  act  of  stripping  or  depriving. 

Old  French  dSvestir;  French  dSvitir;  Italian  divestire.  to  undress; 
Latin  di  [dis]  vestio,  to  deprive  of  dothing  (vestiSf  raiment). 

Divide,  d%,v%de\  to  part;   divld'-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.),  divid'-ing 

(Rule  xix.)»  divi'ding-Iy;    divid'-er,  one  who  divides; 

dividers,  dl.vi\derz,  compasses ;  divid'-able  (Rule  xxiii.) 

Divisible,  di.vlz\i.h%  what  can  he  divided ;  divislble-nesB, 

divis'ibly;  divisibiHty,  <K.rfe'.t.Mr.i.t2/ ; 
Division,  di.vlzh\un;  division-al,  divisional-ly. 

Divis-or,  eK.w'^or,  the  number  which  divides  another; 

Dividend,  dXv'.i.dend^  the  number  to  be  divided  by  the 

divisor,  the  share  to  each  creditor  of  a  bankrupt's  effects, 

the  interest  paid  on  public  "  stock." 

French  divisUfle,  v.  diviser,  dividende,  ditHMon,  diviaewr;  Latin 
dividend/us,  division  dlviaor,  ditfid&re,  sup.  dlvUmm  (di  and  Btnucan 
idvaret  to  sever  into  two  parts). 

Divine,  dLvlnef^  a  man  set  apart  for  the  sacred  ministry;  (adj.)^ 

sacred ;  (verb),  to  guess,  to  predict. 

(The  French  spell  the  verb  toith  "  de-,"  but  fall  back  to 

"  di-"  in  the  noun  "  divination,") 
Divine    (adj.),    divin'-er    (comp.),   di"^ii'-est    (super.); 

divinely    (adv.),    divine'-ness ;     divinity,    di.vin'.tty, 

theology ;  divinity,  plu.  divinities,  di.vin\i.t\z,  deity. 

("Divine"  and  "supine"  are  the  only  adj.  in  **-ine" 

which  can  be  compared  with  the  suffixes  -er  and  -est.) 
Divine  (verb),  divined'  (2  syl.),  divin'-ing,  divinliig.]y, 

divln'-er;  divination,  div' .i.nay'\shun,  prediction. 

French  divin,  diviniU,  deviner,  to  predict ;  devineur,  fem.  devinensae, 
divination n  prediction;  Latin  divinitas,  dlvinus,  divine,  (from 
divus,  Greek  dids,  god),  divlndtio,  divlnus,  a  diviner ;  divlndre,  to 
predict  (predictions  being  supposed  to  come,  de  divo,  from  dai^/. 

Divisible,  di.viz\i.Vl;  divis'ibly  {see  Divide). 

Divorce,   dtvorce^  (not  devorce),  dissolution   of   mnrriage,  to 

annul  a  marriage ;  divorced'  (2  syl.),  divorc'-ing  (R.  xix.), 

divorce'-ment,  divorce'-able  (-ce  nnd  -ge  retain  the  e 

before  -able,  Rule  xviii.),  divoroe'-less. 

Divorc'-er,  one  who  divorces ;  divorcee',  the  person  divoroed. 

Divorce  Court,  pUt.  divorce  courts ;  Oonrt  of  Divoroe,  plu, 

courts  of  divorce  (Rule  liii.) 

French  divorce;  Latin  divortium,  y.  divorUSre  {diverto,  to  tan  awiy). 

Divulge,  dl.vulj',  to  make  public,  to  disclose ;  divulged'  (3  syL), 

divulg'-ing  (R.  xix.),  divulg'-er,  divulg'-ence  (ought  to 

be  divulge-ance.    It  is  the  1st  Latin  conj.) 

French  diwiguer,  divulgaUon  is  a  word  we  might  adopt;  Latin 
dimUgatio,  divulgdre  {vrdgtu,  the  common  peopLa). 


AXD  OF  SFELLTXG.  249 


Divnkdon,  dLvUV^hiin,  laceration ;  diynl^'Bive,  di.vul.8iv. 

("  DitmUion"  one  of  the  few  words  in  -sion  not  French.) 

Latin  diwlsio,  divello  Rapine  divulaum,  (di  vello,  to  pluck  asunder). 
Biz'zy,  giddy;  diz^zi-ly  (Rule  xi.),  diz'zi-ness. 

Old  English  dyHg,  dysignes  dizziness,  dytiglke  dizzUj. 
lyerrid,  jef.rid,  a  Turkish  javelio.    (Arabic.) 

Bo,  dao^  to  perform  an  act;  past  did;  past  part,  done,  diin;  do-ing; 
pres.  tense  I  do,  thou  doat,  dust  [or  doest,  doo-est].  he 
does,  duz,  plu.  do,  doo,  all  persons;  past  tense  I  did, 
thou  didst,  all  other  persons  did. 
Doer,  doo-er,  one  who  performs  or  achieves  [something]. 
As  an  auxiliary,  the  verb  do  is  chiefly  used  in  asking 
questions,  in  which  case  it  stands  before  its  noun,  as  do 
you  wish  to  ride  this  morning  t 

S  As  a  representative  verb  "Do"  acts  the  part  of  a  pronoun, 
and  stands  for  any  antecedent  question  asked  with  tlie 
auxiliary,  as  "  does  Caesar  come  forth  to-day  t "  "  Yes^  he 
does**  [understand  come  forth  to-day]. 

S  Occasionnlly  it  is  used  for  the  sake  of  emphasis,  as  J  ^Zo  very 

much  wish  to  go, 
\  In  poetry  it  is  used  with  the  present  and  past  tenses  merely 

to  help  the  metre  or  the  rhyme. 

Doings,  doo'.ingz,  behaviour.  Pretty  doings,  very  censur- 
able conduct. 

Done,  dun,  achieved,  finished.  Done  with  [it],  finished 
with  it,  want  it  no  longer. 

Bone  np,  quite  exhausted. 

To  do  for  [him],  to  manage,  (threateningly)  try  to  ruin. 

To  do  away,  to  erase. 

To  do  with  [it],  to  employ  or  use  [it]. 

To  do  np,  to  pack  up,  to  tie  together. 

How  do  you  dof  How  are  you  in  health,  how  do  you 
thrive?  A  corruption  of  How  do  you  dut  {_dug[anj, 
to  thrive].  (Equal  to  the  Latin  valeo!)  The  full  question 
is.  How  is  it  that  you  do  thrive  [in  health]  t 

Old  English  ic  d6,  thtl  dAst,  he  d6th,  plu.  d6th ;  past  ic  dyde  thti 

dydest,  he  dyde,  plu.  dydon;  ^'Sstpart.  ged&n;  Infinitive  d6n. 
Duflton],  to  thxi\e,  makes  past  ddhte,  later  form  dowed,  Scotch  dow. 

Bo.,  pronounce  ditto,  of  which  it  is  a  contraction.  Used 
in  bills  and  account  books  to  save  repetition.  It  means 
the  **  same  as  the  foregoing."    {See  Ditto.) 

Bo  (to  rhyme  with  no),  the  note  C  in  Music. 

Boeile,  dS'Mle  or  dds'.ile,  tractable ;  docility,  doMV.i.ty, 
Itm6b.  doeOe,  doeiliU;  Latin  ddctlis,  dddHtas, 


i 


2r>0  ERRORS   OF  SPEECH 

Dock,  a  place  for  ships,  a  p^ace  where  persons  under  trial  stand 
in  a  law-court,  a  plant,  to  curtail;  docked,  dokt^  cur- 
tailed; dock'ing.  Bock'-age  (2  syl.),  charge  for  the  use 
of  a  dock. 

Old  English  doece  (for  ships) ;  French  dock;  0«rman  dodbe. 
"Dock"  (a  plant),  Latin  dav,cus;  Greek  daiik6s.    This  word  ought 

to  be  spelt  dauc  or  davk  (not  doik). 
'*  Dock "  (to  curtail;,  Welsh  toiAaw,  to  dip ;  tod,  something  dipt ; 

German  dodcen. 

Docket,  dok'M,  a  ticket,  a  label;  dock'et-ed,  dook'et-ing.     To 
'*  docket"  goods  is  to  mark  the  contents  on  a  label  or  set 
them  down  io  a  book,  to  summarise. 
Welsh  tocyn^  a  ticket :  tocynicid,  a  ticketing ;  tocynu,  to  ticket 

Doctor,  dnk\tdr  (not  docter,  Rule  xxxyH.),  fern,  doctor-ess  or 
doc'tress ;  doc'torate,  possessing  the  degree  of  doctor ; 
doctor-sMp  {-ship  Old  £ng.  suffix  "tenure"  of  office  or 
degree);  doc'tor,  to  give  medicine  in  illness,  to  adulter- 
ate, to  falsify;  doc'tored  (2  kvI.),  doc'tor-ing. 

Doctor  of  Divinity,  plu.  doctors  of  divinity  (Rule  liii) 
Latin  doctor,  doctits,  one  instructed  (doeeo,  supine  doctum). 
Doctrine,  ddk^.trin,  a  tenet,  what  is  taught ;   doctrin-al,  d6k\- 
trl,ndl  (not  dok.tri'.ntih,  pertaining  to  doctrine,  contain- 
ing doctrine;  doctrinal-ly. 
French  doctrine^  doctrinal;  Latin  doetrina,  theory,  learning. 

Boonmentfddk'ku.merU,  A  record;  doc'umenf'-al;  docnmeBtary, 

dok'ku.men'\ta.ry,  certified  in  writing. 
French  document;  Latin  ddcHmen,  ddc&mentum  (doeeo,  Be%  above). 
Dodder,  a  parasitic  weed.    (German  dotter,) 

Dodge  (1  syl.),  a  quibble,  an  artifice,  to  track,  to  evade,  to  qmbUe; 
dodged'  (1  syl.),  dodg'-ing,  dodg'-er,  one  who  dodges. 
Old  Eng.  dedg-ol,  sly,  dedg  [elian\  to  act  slyly,  dedg  [lianX  to  Ude. 

Doe,  do  (to  rhyme  with  no),  the  female  of  a  buck,  also  a  gender- 
word,  as  doe  rabUt,  (male)  buck  rabbit,  doe  hare,  ^jndle) 
buck  hare.    (Old  English  dd.    8e4  Buck.) 

Doff  (Rule  v.),  to  take  off;  doffed  (1  syl.),  doff'-ing. 

A  contraction  otdo-oS;  similarly  "  don "=  do-on,  *'dnp'*sxdo-yp. 
Dog,   either   male    or    female;    bitch,    only   a   female  dog; 
dogg'-ish,  churlish,  like  a  dog  (-ish  added  to  nouns 
means  "like,"  added  to  ac^.  it  is  diminutive),  dogglsMy, 
doggish-ness;  dogged,  dog'.ged,  sullenly,  self-willed. 
Dog,  to  track ;  dogged  (1  syl.),  dogg'-ing  (Rule  i) 
Dog-cart,  a  one-horse  cart  with  a  box  behind  fov  dogs. 
Dog-fly,  a  fly  very  troublesome  to  dogs. 
Dog-louse,  a  louse  which  infests  dogs. 
Dog-star,  tbe  Latin  canicula  (dim.  of.  eanis,  a  dogX 
Dog  teeth,  the  eye-teeth  of  man,  resembllDg  doga'  teeth. 


i 


AXD  OF  SPELLIXa.  251 

Dog-weary,  tired  as  a  dog  after  a  chase. 

Deg'ft-baae,  a  plant  supposed  to  be  fatal  to  dogs. 

Dog*8  tail,  a  grass,  the  spikes  of  which  resemble  a  dog's  tail 

Bog^B  ear,  the  comer  of  a  leaf  bent  down,  like  the  ear  of  a 
spaniel,  &c.;  dog*B  eared,  dogz  eard. 

f  Dog-,  meaning  "  worthless,"  "  barbarous,'*  "  pretended." 

Doggerel,  dogl',ge.rel,  pretended  poetrj  in  rhyme. 

Dog-Latin,  barbarous  or  pretended  Latin. 

Dog-fileep,  pretended  sleep. 

Dog-cabbage,  dog-violet,  dog-wheat. 
§  Dog-hole,  a  vilu  hole  only  fit  for  a  dog. 

Dog-trick,  a  vile  trick,  only  fit  to  serve  a  dog. 

IT  Dog-graea,  grass  eaten  by  dogs  to  excite  vomiting. 

Dog-rose,  a  rose  supposed  to  be  a  cure  for  the  bite  of  mad 
dogs  (Pliny  viii.  63,  xxv.  6). 

Dog-brier,  same  as  dog-rose. 

H  Dog-cheap,  a  perversion  of  the  Old  English  gdd-cedp, 
(French  bon  marehi)^  good  bargain. 

Dog-watch,  corruption  of  dodge-watch,  the  two  short 
watches  which  dodge  the  routine  of  the  watches  on  board 
ship ;  that  is,  prevent  the  recurrence  of  the  same  watch 
at  the  same  time. 

§  Ckme  to  the  dogs,  gone  to  the  bad.  The  Eomans  called 
the  worst  throw  at  dice  canis  (dog),  hence  the  word  came 
to  signify  " ill-luck,"  "ruin,"  &c. 

Danish  dogge,  French  dogus  (a  bnll-dog);    Spanish  dog<k,  a  terrier; 
French  doguirif  a  puppy  or  whelp. 

I)oge,  dcjje,  captain-general  and  chief  magistrate  of  the  ancient 
republics  of  Gen'oa  and  Venice. 
Italian  doge;  Latin  dux,  gen.  diids,  leader  {dtico,  to  lead). 
Dogma,  plu.  dogmas,  dog\vidh,  dog'.mdhz,  a  tenet,  an  arbitrary 
dictum  on  some  matter  of  faith  or  philosophy. 
Dog'matic  {noun),  a  dogmatic  philosopher. 
Dogmatics  (Bule  Ixi.),  dog.matf.lkSy  dogmatical  theology. 
Dogmatic  or  dogmatical  (adj.),  dog.m&i\i.hdl,  dictatorial; 

dogBiafical-ly,  dogmaf ical-ness. 
Dogmatize,  dogC .in>a.t\ze  (not  dogmatiset  B.  icxxii.),  to  assert 
dogmatieaUy ;  dog'matized'  (3  syl.),  dogmatiz'-ing  (R.  xix.), 
dogmatiz'ing-ly,  dogmatlz'-er ;  dog^matiat,  one  who 
speaks  upon  matters  of  faith  or  philosophy  dogmatically; 
dt^imatifim,  dog'.ma.tlzm. 

6T«ek  ddgma,  dOgmcUizOt  ddgmatikds,  ddgmatUtis;  Latin  dogma, 
dogmdtizo,  dogmdtlcus,  dogmdtistSs ;  French  dogmatiser,  whence, 
jw  uraal,  oar  error  of  spelling  with  $. 


2r,2  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Doily,  doi'.ly^t  a  small  napkin  used  at  dessert. 

Dutch  diocele,  a  towel :  in  Norfolk  a  house-cloth  is  called  a  dwVtl* 
and  the  doth  dvn/.eLing. 

Doings,  doo\ingz,  conduct,  behaviour.    {See  Do.) 

Doit  (1  8yl.)i  the  eighth  of  a  penny.    (French  d'huit.) 

Doloe,  doW.tchS  (in  Mu8ic\  sweetly  and  softly.    {Italian,) 

Dolce  far  niente  (Italian),  dole'.tche  faf  ne.en\te,  agreeable 
idleness  [sweet  doing-nothing]. 

Dole  (1  syl.),  a  share,  to  distribute  in  shares,  to  give  grudgingly ; 
doled  (1  syl.),  dol'-ing  (Rule  xix.),  dol'-er. 
Old  English  ddl  or  ddlj  a  share,  a  portion. 
Doleful,  dole' Jul  (Rule  viii.),  dismal;  dole'ful-ly,  dole'fol-nesB; 
dolesoibd,  doU^surriy  dismal,  querulous  {-some  O.  E.  suffix, 
*'  full  of"),  dole'some-ness  {-ness  denotes  abstract  nouns). 
French  dcmZeur,  doulffreua^  deuxU;  Latin  ddleo^  to  grieve. 
Dolerite,  doV-e-rite  (not  dolorite)^  a  variety  of  greenstone. 

Greek  ddUfrds,  deceitful.  Ro  called  from  the  difficulty  of  dSatin> 
guishing  between  felspar  and  augite  (its  compounds). 

Doll,  a  child's  plaything.    Contraction  of  idol, 

Latin  iddlivm,  an  image ;  Greek  eid6lon  {eidda,  form  or  flgnxe). 

Dollar,  dJoV.laTy  an  American  coin  =  4s.  2d.  (marked  tiius  $, 
meaning  scutum).  The  line  drawn  through  the  "S"* 
denotes  that  a  contraction  has  been  made.  For  a  similar 
reason  lb  (a  pound  weight  lihrum\  has  a  line  through  it 

German  thaler  =  fdhler;  Danish  daler.  (So  called  from  OuU,  a 
valley;  the  counts  of  Schlick  extracted  from  Joachim's  Uiol  or 
valley,  the  silver  which  they  coined  into  ounce  pieties.  Tlds 
money  became  standard,  and  was  called  valley-money  or  ikalen.) 

DoUman,  dolmen. 

Dolman,  plu.  dolmans,  dof.manz,  a  long  Turkish  robe,  the 
summer  jacket  of  the  native  Algerian  troops. 

Dolmen,  plu.  dolmens,  doV.m^m,  a  cromlech. 

"Dolman,"  Hungarian  dolmang;  Turkish  dolaman. 
"  Dolmen,"  Celtic  dol  men,  table  stone.    It  consists  of  a  stone  nper- 
posed  on  two  stone  standards ;  French  dolmen. 

Dolomite,  doV.o.mite  (not  dolemite\  a  magnesian  limestone.  So 
called  from  M.  Dolomieu,  the  French  geologist. 

Dolorous,  d5V.o.rus  (not  do.lo.rus),  doleful;  dol'orous-ly,  dol'or- 
ous-ness ;  dolour,  do\ldr  (not  dbl.er), 
French  douUmrenx;  Latin  ddhyr,  v.  dOHret  sup.  dSlKtwn,  to  grieiTe. 
Dolphin,  fern,  dolphinet,  doV.fln^  dUV.ftnSt,  a  sea  mammal. 

Delphine,  dSl.fln  (adj.),  applied  to  certain  French  elaancs 
edited  for  the  Daupiiin  or  eldest  son  of  Louis  XIV. 
(Our  word  is  a  jumble  of  had  French  and  Latin.) 

French  dauphin;  Latin  delphin  or  delphimu;  Greek  cU^pMa. 


AND   OF  SPELLING.  2.*,3 

Bott,  a  blockhead ;  dolf -ish,  stupid  {-Uh  added  to  noons  means 
"like,"  added  to  adj.  it  is  dim.)\  dolt^ish-ly. 
Old  English  dol,  foolish ;  doldrunc,  immersed  in  stupiditx. 

-dam  (Old  English  suffix  meaning  "possession,"  "right," 
"dominion"),  kingdom,  the  dominion  of  a  king;  freedom^ 
the  power  or  right  of  a  free  man ;  wUdom,  the  possession 
or  property  of  a  wise  person. 

Domain'  (2  syl.)  or  demesne,  di.mean%  estate  in  lands.  "  Do- 
main" is  also  used  for  domitiion,  empire,  in  which  sense 
demesne  is  never  employed. 

French  domains ;  Old  French  demaiiM;  Latin  dominium,  lordship 

{domirvus,  lord  and  master). 
Demesne  is  de  meisan  [maisoni  a  house,  and  was  applied  to  the 

manor-house  and  its  lands,  kept  by  the  lord  for  his  own  use. 

Borne  (1  syl.,  rhymes  with  home).    Doom  (rhymes  with  room), 

d5me,  a  cu'p51a;  domed  (rhymes  with  foamed,  1  syl.), 

fitted  with  a  dome.    Doomed  (1  syL),  fated,  destined. 

French  d&ma;  Latin  d6tna,  a  solarium  or  roof  terrace,  where  persona 
went  to  sun  themselves,  a  gallery  on  the  house-top. 

Bomeeday,  dooms'.day,  the  day  of  judgment. 
Old  English  d&mdceg,  judgment  day. 

BomeBday-book,  dooms\day^  book.    Two  volumes  containing  a 

record  of  the  estates  and  chattels  of  all  the  British  do- 

mini(ms   over    which   William   the  Conqueror   reigned 

(1086).     Kept  in  the  Record  Office,  London. 

Old  English  ddmboc  ("liber  judicialis"),  to  which  appeal  was  made 
in  the  Saxon  times  to  settle  disputed  claims  of  property.  Stotr 
derives  the  word  from  domu8-dei-**book,"  the  book  kept  in  the 
"domufidei"  of  Wiucheater  cathedral,  but  "domerbooks"  were 
well  known  before  the  time  of  the  Conquest. 

Bomestic,  do.mes'.tlh,  a  house-servant,  {adj.)  pertaining  to  a 
private  house,  tame ;  domestically,  do.mea'.ti.kaLly, 

Domesticate,  do.tnes'.ti.kate,  to  tame,  to  habituate  to  home- 
life;  domes'ticat-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.),  domes'ticat-ing  (Rule 
xix.),  domestication,  do-m^s.ti.kiy*' .shun. 

French  demestiqiAe,  domestiquer  ("domestication"  is  not  French); 
Latin  domestic^s  (domus,  a  house  and  home). 

l^oniicile,  ddm'.i.dle  (in  law),  the  place  where  a  person  has 
resided  at  least  forty  days. 

Domiciliary,  ddm\i.8\V\i.a.ry,  A  "domiciliary  visit"  is 
one  paid  by  authority  in  search  of  some  person  or  thing. 

Domiciled,  dJ^m' .Lslled,  located  as  resident. 
French  domieiliaire,  v.  domicilier;  Latin  domicUium. 

Bominant,  ddm^i.nant,  ruling,  as  the  "  dominant  spirit,"  the 
"dominant  party,"  the  "dominant  power";  (in  Mtisic) 
the  "  dominant "  is  the  fifth  from  the  key  note :  thus,  in 
the  key  of  C,  the  dominant  is  G. 


2r>6  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

DoBt,  dust,  second  per.  sing,  of  do.  A  corrapt  form  of  d^t. 
Dust,  dry  and  finely  pulverised  earthy  matters. 

D5t,  a  point  [as  a  "  full  stop,"  the  mark  ahove  the  letter  t,  d^c], 
to  make  a  dot ;  dotf-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.),  dott'-ing  (Rule  i.) 
D5t  (in  familiar  language),  a  dowry,  a  dotation. 

**  Dot  **  (a  point),  same  as  tot,  a  little  thing ;  Dan.  tot,  a  smaU  bunch. 
"Dot"  (a  dowry),  Latin  dot,  gan.  do1iis\t  a  dowry. 

Dotage,  do'tage,  second  childishness.    (See  Bote.) 

Dotation,  dd.tay*\shun,  money  ftinded  for  some  charity. 
French  dotation;  Latin  dCtdtio,  an  endowment 

Dote  (1  syl.),  to  love  fondly  (followed  by  on  or  upon),  to  show 
the  childishness  of  old  age ;  dot'-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  dof-ing, 
dot'-er;  d5t'-age,  the  chiildishness  of  old  age;  dot'-ard, 
one  in  second  childishness  {-ardf  Old  Eng.  suffix,  **  one 
of  the  species  or  kind,"  dotard^  **  one  of  the  doting  kind'*). 

French  radoter,  to  dote  or  talk  childishly ;  radotage.  radotewr,  one  in 
his  dotage.  WeLih  doiian  and  dotio^  to  puzzle,  to  oonfnse. 

Doth,  diithj  third  per.  sing,  of  do,  now  does,  duz,  except  in 
poetry.  Old  form  ic  d6,  tbti  d6stj  he  dith,  plu.  d6th  all 
persons.   (The  substitution  of  -a  for  -th  is  post-Morman.) 

Doable,  dub\h%  twofold,  to  fold,  to  increase  twofold ;  donbled, 
duhWld;  doubling,  dub'. ling  ;  doubly,  dUb'.ly;  doabler, 
duh'.ler;  double-ness. 
French  double,  dovMeur:  Latin  duplum  (dtio  plioo,  to  fold  In  two). 

Doublet,  dub'.let,  a  man's  garment  of  former  times. 

(This  is  one  of  our  perverted  French  words.  In  French^ 
a  ''doublet*'  is  pourpont,  an4  the  word  doublet  meant 
" a  false  stone"  Rule  Ixii.) 

French  doublure  (I'fitoffe  dont  nne  autre  est  doublfi). 

Doublon,  dub  bloon',  a  French  form  of  the  Spanish  word  doblan^ 
a  '•  double  pistole." 

(It  would  be  more  consistent  to  "keep  the  Spanish  form 
for  Spanish  words,  and  not  to  disguise  them  by  French 
spelling.) 

Doabt,  douty  uncertainty  of  mind,  to  be  uncertain  in  mind; 
doubted,  douif.ed  (Rule  xxxvi.);  doubt-ing,  dottl^.ing; 
doubt'ing-ly :  doubt-er,  doutf.er;  doubt-foL,  doufjvl 
(Rule  viii.);  doubt'ful-ly,  doubt^fal-ness ;  doiibt4eflB, 
douf.less;  doubtless-ly. 

**I  doubt  not  but  [that]  you  are  right,''  is  the  Latin  form 
mm  diibito  gum... but  **I  have  no  doubt  yon  are  Tight**  is 
also  s;ood  English.  The  two  ideas  are  not  identical:  the 
former  phrase  means  "  I  have  no  doubt  [notwithstanding 
all  that  may  be  said  to  the  contrary]  that  nevertheless 


AND  OF  SPELLING,  257 

yoa  are  right."  The  latter  simply  expresses  the  opinion 
of  the  speaker  without  regard  to  opposing  statements. 

A  Latinisei  French  word.  French  douter;  Latin  dUbito.  We  hare 
borrowed  the  diphthong  from  the  French,  and  inserted  the  Latin 
bf  which  is  ignored  in  Koand. 

Douceur,  a  bribe  for  '*  place." 

{We  use  this  word  in  a  sense  almost  unknown  in  France. 
In  French  douceur  means  "  sweetness"  and  gratification 
is  used  for  "  gratuity.'*  Few  Frenchmen,  unacquainted 
with  En^lishy  would  understand  such  a  sentence  as : 
Faites  cela,  et  11  j  aura  quelque  douceur  pour  vous.) 

Douche  bath,  doosh  bdth,  a  shower  bath. 

French  douche ;  Latin  dudre,  to  conduct  or  direct.  (The  shower  Is 
"directed"  to  any  part  of  the  body,  to  relieve  local  suffering.) 

Bough,  dow  (to  rhyme  with  grow,  low)y  bread,  <fec.,  before  it  is 
cooked;  dough'-y,  sticky,  " stoiigy." 

Old  English  dilg  or  ddh.  We  have  strangely  combined  both  forms, 
without  preserving  the  sound  of  either. 

Soiue  (1  syl.  to  rhyme  with  house,  mouse).     In  sailors'  lan- 
guage, to  ''extinguish  instantly"  [a  light],  to  "lower 
suddenly  "  [a  sail] ;  doused  (1  syL,  to  rhyme  with  soused 
sssowst);  dous-ing,  dowse'. ing  (Rule  xix.) 
Greek  dud  (n.  dusia),  to  sink,  to  set  [as  the  sun,  &c.] 

IKy^e,  diiv,  a  pigeon ;  dove-cot,  duv.cot^  a  pigeon  house. 

Dove-tail,  duvdale  (in  Joinery),  to  uuite  by  a  "notch" 
shaped  like  a  "dove's  tail";  dove-tailed,  duv  taild; 
dove  tail-ing  (French  en  queue  d'aronde). 
Old  English  duua  =  duva;  German  taube. 
Dowager,  dow.a.ger  (dow  to  rhyme  with  now^  not  with  grow), 
the  widow  of  a  person  of  rank ;  if  the  mother  of  the 
present  peer,  she  is  termed  the  duchess  dowager  of..:, 
the  countess  dowager  of...;  but  if  not  the  mother,  she 
is  termed  "Louisa"  dtichess  of...,  or  countess  of...; 
both  are  referred  to  in  common  speech  as  the  dowager 
duchess,  the  dowager  countess,  &e, 

Qaeen-dowager,  widow  of  a  king,  but  not  a  reigning  queen. 

French  douairih'e  (douairj6re)  "veuve  qni  jouit  du  douaire,'  i.«.,  a 
jointure  or  dowry.  '*  Douair,"  is  a  corruption  of  the  Low  Latin 
dotarium  (dou'arium).    Latin  dos,  gen.  dotis,  a  dowry. 

J^Jwdy,  doto.dy  (dow-  to  rhyme  with  now),  slovenly  in  dress; 
dow^di-er  (comp.),  dow'di-est  (super.),  dow'di-ly,  dow^di- 
nees;   dow'dy-ish  {-ish  aided  to  adj.  is  dim.,  added  to 
nouns  it  means  "like"),  dowdy-ness. 
8ootch  dawdie,  a  dirty  sloven  {daw  and  the  dim.,  a  little  sluggard) 

Dower,  ddw\er  (dow-  to  rhyme  with  now,  not  with  grow),  pro- 
perty settled  on  a  widow  for  life,  the  fortune  brought 

s 


w 


258  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

a  wife;  dowry,  dUko.ry  (same  as  dower);  dowered,  dSw'.erdf 
having  a  dowry ;  dowser-less. 

Dowager,  ddw\a.ger,    (See  ahove^  Dowager.) 
French  doiiairej  corruption  of  Low  Latin  dotarwm  (don'ariiim). 

Dowlas,  ddw'.las  {dow-  to  rhyme  with  now)y  a  coarse  linen  cloth, 
used  for  towels,  <fec. 
80  called  from  Dau/rlaiSf  in  Franee,  whore  it  \b  manufactured. 

Down,  fine  soft  feathers,  any  fine  hairy  substance  light  enough 

to  float  in  the  air;   (adv,)  tending  towards  the  ground, 

on  the  groand,  towards  the  mouth  of  a  river,  into  the 

country  [from  London].    Persons  in  the  provinces  go 

up  to  London ;    downward  (adj.),  tending  to  a  lower 

position,  as  dovmward  motion;  downwards  (adv,) 

"Downward,"  ufed  cu  an  adverb  it  grammatically  in4:orreet.  It 
should  be  either  adownward  or  downwards,  "a-"  being  an  ad' 
verbial  prefix,  and  "-a  "  an  adverbial  poatfix.  In  the  vxtrds  [now] 
"adays,"  [Bleep]  "anights,"  uoe  have  the  dotible  adverbialSt  to  thai 
arte  of  the  signs  may  be  omitted  toithout  affecting  the  adverbial 
form;  a/xordingly  we  have  in  Old  English  dse^ea  **  daily,'* 
nightes  *' nightly,    and  Shakespeare  im«s  anight /or  "anights.*' 

Downfall  mot  downfal),  downhill  (not  dovmhil)  (Rule  viiL); 
downfallen,  dovm.falVn. 

Down-train,  the  train  from  the  provinces  to  Londpn.  or 
from  some  minor  station  to  the  chief  terminus.  Up- 
train,  Uie  train  from  London  t.o  the  provinces,  or  from 
the  chief  terminus  to  some  inferior  station. 

**l>own"  (feathers^  German  daune;  Dnnlsh  duun. 

"Down"  (adv.  and  prep.)  Old  English  adiin,  down,  ad^tnweard, 
downwards.  It  is  the  prefix  a-  which  converts  dtin  into  an  ad- 
verb, and  this  significant  letter  ha»  been  unwisely  dropped 

Downs,  ddwnz  (to  rhyme  with  towns,  elown8)f  large  open  hilly 
sheep  pastures  contiguous  to  the  sea. 

The  Downs,  a  well-known  road  for  shipping  in  the  English 

Channel,  near  Deal  in  Kent. 

Old  Eng.  diin,  a  hill ;  French  dunes.    It  would  have  saved  obscuri^ 
it  we  had  mad^  the  following  distinctions : — 

Duun  (feathers  called  down),  or  "dnve,"  French  dnvti. 
Adown  (adverb),  and  down,  preposition. 
Jhines  (the  hiUy  sheep-walks  and  sand-hills). 

Doxology,  plu.  dozologies,  dox.oV.o.glz  (Rule  xliv.) 

French  doxologie ;  Greek  ddxdldgia  (doxa  logot,  gtorj  wovAiX 

Dose,  dose,  doee,  does,  doss. 

Doze  (1  syl.),  a  nap,  to  take  a  nap ;  d5zed  (1  syl.),  Aoi'-ing 
(Rule  six.),  doz-er;  doz'-y,  do'zi-nesB  (Rule  xi.) 

Dose,  ddce  (1  syl.),  a  quota  of  medicine,  to  give  medicine,  to 
give  anything  ro  largely  as  to  produce  disgust;  doaei, 
ds'x^  (B.  xxxiv.);  dosed  (1  syl.),  dos-ing,  dda^Amg  (Bole 
sxxTi.);  doB-er,  ddee-er.    {See  Doee.) 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  860 

Does,  doze,  pla.  of  doe,  the  female  of  the  fallow  deer. 
JkieSj  dUzy  third  per.  sing.  pres.  of  Do  (g.t;.) 
Don,  dSSf  a  straw  hassock  to  kned  on. 

"Doze,**  Dan.  dose:  Old  Eng.  dtpcBs,  dnll :  Wehdi  dwps,  heavy.  dnlL 
"Dose,**  French  dose;  Greek  ddns,  a  thing  given ;  Latin  ddsis,  a  doae. 
**Doe8*'  (female  deer),  Old  Eng  dd,  a  doe.    "  I>oe8,"  dUx  (see  Do). 
*'  Doss,"  Archaic  dossd,  a  bundle  of  straw,  doeier,  a  straw  loMket. 

Dozen,  duz'*n,  twelve  [articles]. 

A  baker's  dozen,  thirteen,  i.e,.  twelve  and  a  "  vantage  loaf." 

French  dovaoAtu;  German  duUend,  contractioti  of  the  Latin  duo 
decern  {duo  'cent),  duo  +  decern,  two  +  ten. 

D^nt),  a  slattern,  a  hrownish  colour,  a  brownish  cloth;  drab, 
drabb'-ish  (Hole  i.),  {-ish  added  to  nouns  means  "  like," 
added  to  adj*  it  is  diminutive);  drabVish-ly. 
Old  English  drabbe,  a  slattern,  diregs,  lees  of  wine. 
Drachm,  drum,  the  eighth  part  of  an  apothecary's  ounce.    A 
fluid  drachm  is  a  tea-spoonfuL    Contraction,  dr.  or  drm. 
Dram,  the  sixteenth  part  of  an  ounce  avoirdiipoise  (dr.) 
(The  distinction  in  spelling  shoiild  be  preserved,  altkcyagh 
the  apothecaries'  weight  is  sometimes  written  dram.) 

"Drachm,"  French  drachme;  Latin  drachma,  the  eighth  (or  rather 

seventh)  of  an  onnee,  84  =  1  lb  of  12  oas. ;  Hebrew  drachvnon. 
"Dram  "  is  the  Italian  dramma. 

Draft,  draught  (both  drdft,  to  rhyme  with  craft,  laughed). 

Draft,  a  cheque  for  money,  a  bill  of  exchange,  a  plan 

drawn  in  outline,  a  copy,  an  abstract;  to  transfer  men 

from  one  company  to  another. 

Draught,  a  stream  of  air.  a  portion  of  liquor  drawn  off, 
liquor  drunk  at  one  potation,  a  catch  of  fiisb,  force  neces- 
sary to  draw,  traction. 

Draughts  (no  sing.),  a  game  i^ayed  with  little  flat  round 
"  men  "  of  two  colours. 

Draughtsman,  drdfts-m^n,  one  of  the  little  flat  round 
pieces  used  for  "  men  "  in  tbe  game  of  draughts ; 

Draftsman,  one  who  makes  a  draft  or  draws  a  plan. 

(These  are  the  distinctions  usually  observed,  but  there  is 

no  rigid  rule,  and  the  two  words  differ  only  in  spelling.) 

Old  English  drag[an\  to  draw ;  past  dr6g  or  drdh,  past  part,  dragen. 
The  word  draught  is  an  absurd  amalgamation  of  drog  and  dn'^, 
disguised  by  tlie  diphthong  au.  The  final  t,  is  a  "  weak "  aflSx 
added  to  a  "strong"  verb. 

l)tlg,  to  pull   along,  to   trail;    a  cart,  a  harrow,  a  skid,  an 
obstacle;  dragged  (1  syl.),  dragg'-ing  (Rule  i.) 
Old  English  dra^anl,  past  drdg  or  dr6h,  past  part,  drcegen. 

Dnggle,  drdg\g%  to  trail  through  the  mire ;  draggled,  drag*., 
jfld;  draggling,  drag'.gling ;  draggle-tail,  a  slattern 
who  suffers  her  gown  to  trail  through  the  mire ;  draggle- 


ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 


tailed,  one  dressed  in  a  gown  which  has  heen  trailed 

through  the  mire ;  also  daggle-tail  and  daggle-tailed. 

"Draggle"  is  dim.  of  drag,  and  "daggle"  of  ddg.  to  dangle,  but  the 
.idea  is  not  identic^L  Draggle-iail  is  one  who  drags  the  skirt  of 
lier  gown  through  the  mire  :  but  dagglertail  is  one  who  has  her 
gown  in  jags  or  "  dags  "  from  being  trailed  through  the  mire. 

/ragonuua,  plu,  dragomans  (not  dragomen;  it  is  not  a  com- 

pound  of  *'  man  "),  an  Eastern  interpreter  or  guide. 

French  and  Spanish  dmgaman;  Italian  dragomeuw/O:  Chaldee  fur- 
gaman  (turgmn)^  whence  '*  targum  "  an  exposition  of  the  Old  Test. 

Dragon,  drug^on^  a  fabulous  monster. 

French  dragon. ;  Latin  drdco,  gen.  drae6n[is] ;  Greek  drak&n  (from 
derk6),  to  look  ai  one  [with  fiery  eyes].    In  Welsh  dragon  is  a  com- 
manoer,  and  pen-dragon  a  chief  commander.     Many  enconntert 
«  «  **  with  .dragons  "  in  ancient  story  were  fights  with  Welsh  dragons. 

Dragoon,  dragoon',  a  horse  soldier,  to  persecute  with  violence ; 

dragooned'  (2  sjl.),  dragoon'-ing. 

Dragonnade,  a  persecution  under  the  **  tender  mercies"  of 

dragoons.    *'  The  dragonnHdes  "  were  a  series  of  religious 

persecutions  by  Louis  XIV.,  "  to  root  out  heresy." 

{The  double  n  in  *'  dragonnade  "  is  at  variance  with  K.  iii.) 

French  dragon,  dragonnade.  Originally  a  company  of  soldiers  who 
fought  on  foot  or  horse,  with  arquebuses  called  dragons,  because 
the  head  of  a  dragon  was  wrought  on  the  muzzle.  (The  suffix  -adt 
means  "  the  acr.  of,"  "  to  act  with."  Latin  ago^  ojcium,  whenoe 
"cannon-ade,"  to  ad  Moith  cannon,  "  dragonrnjade,**  &c. 

Brain  (1  syl.),  a  sink  or  sewer,  to  <lraw  off  liquids,  to  empty,  to 
leave  dry;  drained  (1  syi.),  drain'-ing,  drain '-er,  drain'- 
age,  arrangement  for  draining  off  water;  drain'^-able. 
Old  English  drehnigean^  to  drain. 

Drake,  fern.  duck.    In  common  speech,  ducks  and  drakes  are  all 

called  '•  ducks,"  and  as  food  both  are  termed  "  ducks.** 

''Duck"  moans  the  fowl  that  ducks  or  dives,  the  dipping-fowL 
"Drake"  \a  a  contraction  of  dtick-rica  (d'rio').    So  in  German  entc  is 
duck,  and  enie-rich  a  drake. 

Dram,  the  sixteenth  part  of  an  ounce  Avoirdupoise.    Diachm. 
dram,  the  eighth  part  of  an  apothecary's  ounce. 

"Dram.**  Italiin  dramma.     "Drachm/'  French  drachme;  Latl 
drachma ;  Hebrew  drachmon. 

Drama,  dray\mdh  (is  more  usual  than  drdh-mdh,  and  aocor 

better    with    the    derivatives),    a    thentrical   piece   1 

representation ;    dramatic  or  dramatical,   dray,maf. 

dray.mufd.kul;  dramatlcal-ly;  dramatise,  dram\a,t 

to  adapt  to  the  stage  (Rule  xxxi.) ;  dram'atised  (3  s 

■dram'atls*ing  (Rule  xix.);  dramatist,  dram\a,tUt, 

Dramatis  Fersonie,  dram\a,tls  per.sD\ne  (not  per^jK 

characters  introduced  in  a  drama  or  play. 

French  drame,  dramatique,  dramaiiser;  Latin  drama, 
Greek  dramas  drdmatikds  {drao,  to  do  or  act). 

Drank.    (^See  Drink.) 


AND  OF  8PELLTNG,  2f51 


Drape  (1  syl.),  to  cover  with  folds;   draped  rl  syl.),  drap'-ing; 

drap'-er,  one  who  deals  in  cloth  ;  drapery,  dra\pi.ry. 

French  drap^  cloth,  draper,  a  draper,  draperie;  Low  Latin  draparius; 
Spanish  ropa,  cloth  ;  roperia,  old  clothes  ;  ropagey  drapery. 

Drastic,  drus'Mk,  violently  purgative;  drastics,  drus^tikSj  power- 
ful purgative  medicines. 
French  drasixqu/t :  Greek  drastSrios,  vigorous  {drad,  to  accomplish). 
Dxanglit,  drdft  (to  rhyme  with  crafty  laughed).    Draft. 

Draught,  a  stream  of  air,  a'  portion  of  liquor  drawn  off, 

liquor  drunk  atone  potation,  a  catch  of  fish,  traction. 
Draughts  (no  sing.),  a  game  played  with  draughtsmen. 

Draft,  a  cheque  for  money,  a  bill  of  exchang(%  a  plan  in 
outline,  a  copy,  an  abstract;  to  trans ier  men  from  one 
company  to  another;  draft^-ed,  draff-ing. 

Dra^tsxaan,  one  who  draws  drafts  or  plans ; 

Draughtsman,  drafts-man^  one  of  the  **men"  or  pieces 

used  in  the  game  of  draughts. 

"Draught  is  the  amalgamated  forms  of  dr6g  and  dr6h  with  i  inter- 
polated. Oil  English  clragian],  to  draw ;  past  dr6g  or  dr6K, 
past  part,  drcegen.    "  Draft "  is  a  phonetic  spelling  of  "  draught " 

Draw,  foat  drew,  past  parU  drawn,  to  ptill,  to  rai^^e  [water  from 
a  well],  to  suck,  to  delineate,  to  take  out  [money  from  a 
bank],  to  write  out  [a  cheque];  draw'-ing,  pulling,  rais- 
ing [water],  (fee;  (noun),  a  picture  "drawn"  with  pen- 
cils, (fee.  A  drawing  room,  the  chief  reception  room  to 
which  ladies  "  withdraw." 

Drawer,  drawW,  a  tray  which  *'  draws  **  out  of  a  frame. 

Ohest  of  drawers,  a  set  of  drawers  including  the  frame. 

Drawers  (no  sing.),  draw*rz,  linen  or  cotton  trousers  "  drawn 

on  "  the  leg*«,  and  worn  as  an  tinder  garment 
Drawer,  one  who  '*  draws"  with  a  pencil,  one  who  " draws '' 

a  bill  of  exchange,  &c.    Drawee,  drauf.eet  the  pei-son  on 

whom  a  biH  of  exchange  is  *'  drawn.** 
To  draw  back,  to  retreat,  to  move  for  the  sake  of  avoiding. 
To  draw  in,  to  contract,  to  pull  in. 
To  draw  near,  to  approach. 
To  draw  off,  to  decant,  to  draw  away,  to  retreat. 
To  draw  on,  to  put  on  [gloves,  stockings,  <fec.],  to  bring  on, 

to  write  a  cheque  or  bill  of  exchange  on  a  person  named. 
To  draw  ont,  to  extract,  to  prolong,  to  array  soldiers. 

To  draw  together,  to  collect 

To  draw  np,  to  raise,  to  aixay,  to  compose. 

Drawn  [battle  or  game],  one  in  which  neither  side  wins. 

Old  English  drag[an].  to  draw  or  dn^ ;  past  dr6g  or  dnfh,  past  part. 
d/nBoen;  Latin  traho.  "Drag"  and  "Draw"  are  different  totsDM 
9i  we  same  verb. 


2^2  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Bray,  a  brewer's  cart ;  dnty^man,  diaylione. 

Old  Eng.  drcBge,  a  drag  (▼.  dfras^ofa'i^;  Lai.  trahea,  a  dray,  (▼.  iiraho). 

Dread,  drH,  terror,  to  fear  greatly;   dread'-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.), 
dread^-ing,  dread'-er,  dread'-fal  (R.  viii.),  dread'ftil-ly, 
dread'fol-ness,  dread-less,  dreadless-ly,  dreadleas-ness. 
Old  English  drdd,  v.  drdkd[an\  past  drid,  past  part  dr<6d€n. 

Dream,  dreme  (1  syl.),  noun  and  verb;    dreamt,  drSmt  (not 

dreampt\  or  dreamed  (1  syL),  dream'-ing,  dream'ing-ly, 

dream'-er,  dream'-y,  dreaml-ly  (R.  xi.),  dreaml-ness, 

dream'-less,  dreamless-ly,  dreamless-ness,dream'-land. 

German  traum,  v.  trdumen  (tr&umerei  would  give  qs  a  new  and  use- 
ful word,  "dreamery/*  the  "stuff  dreams  are  made  of").  The 
Anglo-Saxon  dredm  means  "joy/'  drtdmUtu  "joyless." 

Drear,  drere  (1  syL),  gloomy ;  dreary,  dree'.ry,  dismal ;  dreari-ly, 

dree'.ri.ly  (Rule  viii.) ;  dreariness,  dree^ri.nesa.    "  Drear" 

means   properly  that  gloom  and  dismal  feeling  which 

comes  over  us  at  the  sight  of  blood. 

Old  English  dredr,  blood,  gore,  dre6rig,  Moody,  gory;  dredri^net, 
dreariness ;  dre^lioe\  drearily,  &o. 

Dredge  (I  syl,),  to  sprinkle  [ftour  on  meat],  to  deepen  a  river; 
dredged  (1  syl.),  dredg'-ing  (Rule  xix.),  dredg'-er,  a  box 
for  dredging  [flour  on  meat].    Drudge,  a  menial. 

"Dredge"  (to  sprinkle  flour).  Old  English  dreg{an]  or  dri^an\  to  diy. 

The  flour  sops  up  the  moisture :  Greek  trugo,  to  dry. 
"Dredge"  (to  deeperi  a  river),  Old  English  drcege,  a  drag,  v.  dnifianl, 

to  drag ;  Fr.  dragrier,  draguagt.    (The  second  -d  is  interpolated.) 

Dregs  (no  sing.),  sediment,  refuse:   dregg'-y  (Rule  i.),  muddy; 

dreggi'-ness,  dreg\i,ness ;  dregg'-ish,  foul  with  lees. 

Old  English  dragen,  drawn  ^the  part  drawn  off) ;  Danish  drofk  rub- 
bish ;  Greek  trux,  gen.  tr&goa,  lees  of  wine. 

Drenidi,  to  wet  thoroughly ;    drenched  (1  syl.),  drench'-ing, 
drench'ing-ly,  drench'-er. 
Old  English  drenc[(m],  to  drench,  past  dreviete,  past  part,  gedrtnetd. 

Dress,  plu.  dress'-es  (Rule  x^^xiv.),  raiment,  to  put  on  clothes,  to 

tiim ;  past,  dressed  (1  syl.),  past  part,  drest  or  drccDod 

(1  syl.),  dress'-ing,  dress'-er,  one  who  dresses  another,  a 

bench  on  which  food  is  "drest"  for  meals;    dreoir-y, 

showy  in  dress;  dress'i-ly  (R.  xi.),  dressl-ness;  dzefis'uigB, 

architectural  oraamentation  in  relief,  manures. 

This  is  an  example  of  a  French  word  which  has  acquired  with  ua 
quite  a  strange  meaning.  To  dothe  oneself  in  French  is  slboMibr, 
aud  dresHtr  means  to  trim  trees,  dress  f  jod,  iron  liaen,  gamiah  a 
table,  &c.,  but  not  to  "put  on  clothes  [net  Rule  IxUL) ;  Lattn 
dirigo,  supine  direeUim,  to  set  in  order,  to  make  itratcht  (r«g»>. 
We  have  the  familiar  expressions  "  I  most  go  and  make  mya^ 
straight,"  "  I  must  put  myself  in  order"  (Le.  dreuer) 

Dribble,  dri5M)7,  to  oose  in  drops;  dribbled,  dr^'.h'ld;  dribbler, 
drib'. bier ;  dribblet,  drib' let ^  a  small  quantity. 


AND  OF  SPELLING,  263 

To  pay  in  diibblets,  to  pay  pieoe-meal  in  small  sums. 

French  dripple,  drip,  with  dim.    Old  English  \iripCam],  Co  drip,  to 
distil  in  drops.    Danish  draabe^  a  drop. 

Dried,  dride  (I  syl.);  drier,  dri\er,    {See  Pry.) 

Drift,  [snow,  sand,  <fec.]  driven  in  heaps  by  th^  wind,  oovert 
meaning,  to  drive  in  heaps,  to  float  down  running  water ; 
drift'-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.),  drift'-ing. 
Old  English  dn/lan^  to  drivt ;  past  dnif,  past  part  dnfm. 

Drill  (Hula  v.),  an  instrument  for  boring  holes,  an  iniMmment 

fur  sowifjg  seed,  military  exercises ;  to  pierce  with  a  drill, 

to  sow  with  a  drill,  to  drill  soldiers,  &c. ;  drilled  (1  syl.), 

drill-ing,  drill'-er ;  drlLl-eergeant,  driU  aa^r^.jent. 

Old  English  thirl{ian\,  to  perforate ;  past  thirlode,  past  part.  thirloA, 
fhirl,  a  hole ;  German  drillen,  to  bore  holes,  to  train  soldiers. 

Drink,  past  drank,  past  part,  drunk  (but  drank  is  often  used), 
drunken  (xdj.),  drink'-er,  drink'-able,  drink'able-ness ; 
Draught,  draft,  a  diink,  is  from  another  word.  {See  Draught.) 

To  drink  to,  to  salute  someone  in  drinking,  to  wish  well  to 

someone  by  drinking  to  them. 
Old  English  drinc[an],  past  drune,  past  part  drtmcen. 
Drip,  to  fall  in  dr«»ps,  that  which  falls  in  drops;  dripped  (1 

syl.),  dripp'-ing  (Rule  i.),  falling  in  drops,  the  fat  which 

**  drips "  trom  meat  in  roasting ;  dripping-pan,  the  pan 

which  receives  the  drip  of  meat  in  roasting. 
Old  English  drip[an],  past  dripede,  past  part,  driped. 
Drive,  past  drove  [older  form  drave],  past  part,  driven. 

A  drive  (1  syl.),  carringe  exercise;  to  drive  [horses],  to 

guide  horses,  to  ur<?e  on ;  drlv-er,  one  who  drives  [horses]. 
Diove  (1  syl.),  a  herd  of  cattle  or  flock  of  sheep  on  their 

way  to  market,  &c,;  drov'-er,  one  who  conducts  a  drove. 
Diiv-ing  (Rule  xix),  guiding  horses,  urging  on,  tunnelling 

from  the  shaft  into  the  mine. 
To  drive  a  bargain,  to  make  hard  terms. 
To  drive  a  trade,  to  carry  on  a  trade  with  energy. 
Old  English  driflan],  past  drdf,  past  part,  dri/en. 
Drivel,  dTiv'.eU  to  slaver,  to  talk  listlessly  and  sillUy ;  driv'elled 

(2  syl.),  driv'ell-ing  (Rule  iii.  -el.);  driv'ell-er,  a  dotard, 

one  who  drivels.     » 
This  is  from  the  verb  drip  with  -d  dim. 
DiiBBl^,  drie'js'l,  fine  rain,  to  rain  in   fine  drops;    di&szled, 

driz^.z'ld;  drizzling,  driz'ling ;  drizzly,  dHz'.ly. 
German  rieseln,  to  drizzle,  rieselregen,  a  drizzUng  rain. 
Drallf  drole  (not  dr6l,  R.  v.),  a  wag,  funny ;   drollery,  drdW.i.ry 

(not  drdV.e.ry);  droUish,  drdle-ish,  somewhat  droll  {-ish 

added  to  adj.  is  dim.,  added  to  nouns  it  means  ''Uke," 

added  to  verbs  it  means  to  "  make"). 
Trench  drdle;  German  drollig,  drolL 


264  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Dromedary,  drum.e,dd.ry^  the  Arabian  camel  (with  one  hunch) ; 
the  Bactrian  carnal  has  two  hunches. 

French  domadaire  (French  -ma-,  English  and  Lathi  -m«-);  Latin 
dr&medarim;  Greek  dromaa  {kamilo»\  the  runnhig  cameL 

Drone,  fern,  bee  (both  1  syl.),  the  male  of  the  honey-bee,  an 
idler,  to  emit  a  humming  noise ;  droned  (1  syl.),  dron'-ing, 
dron'-iflh  {-ish  added  to  nouns  means  ''like/'  added  to 
adj.  it  is  dim.),  dron'lsh-ly,  dron'ish-ness. 
Old  English  drdn  or  dr^kn^  a  drone. 

Droop,  to  hang  down,  to  fing,  to  languish;  drooped  (1  sy].), 
droop'-ing,  droop^ing-ly. 
Old  English  dropletan]^  to  drop. 

Drop,  a  liquid  globule,  the  platform  of  a  gallows,  to  fall  in  drops, 
to  lower,  to  let  fall ;  dropped  (1  syl.),  dropp'-ing  (R.  i.); 
droppings  (noun),  the  excrements  of  birds,  &c.;  drop'-let, 
a  little  (Jrop;  drops,  liquid  medicine,  mother's  milk. 
Old  English  dropa,  a  drop,  v.  dropetan  or  drap[ian]. 

Dropsy,  drop\sy^  a  disease ;   dropsi-cal,  drSp'M,kal  (Rule  xi.) ; 
dropsied,  drdp^sed^  diseased  with  dropsy. 
A  contraction  of  hydropsy,  but  the  loss  of  the  first  syl- 
lable has  spoilt  the  significance  of  the  word. 

French  hydropHe;  Latin  hydrops;  Greek  hudrdps  QiudOr  <ip$f 
water  manifestation). 

Drosky,  plu.  droskies,  dr^s'.ky,  dr^s.Mz  (Bule  xliv.) 

Buss  an  drozhki,  a  four-wheeled  open  carriage. 

Drofls  (R.  v.),  refuse ;  dross'-y,  dross'i-ness  (R.  xi.)  (Old  Eng.  drm.) 

Drought.  Neither  the  spelling  nor  the  pronunciation  of  this 
word  is  settled.  The  most  common  pronunciation  is 
drSwt  (to  rhyme  with  out),  but  many  call  it  dratU  (to 
rhyme  with  thought,  taught), 

Drought^-y,  droughtl-ness  (Rule  xi.) 

Another  spelling  of  the  word  is — 
Drouth,  drouth'y,  drouthl-ness. 

Sometimes  we  hear  the  words — 
Dryth,  dryth'y,  dryth'i-ness  {y  long). 

Old  English  drugath  or  drugoih  (changed  to  druo^fK,  drow^X 
"Drought"  is  a  double  metathStis  of  "drugoth**  (flxsi  Into 
drougth  and  then  into  drought). 

In  regud  to  the  pronunciation :  every  other  word  In  the  laiuiiaco 
spelt  in  a  similar  way  is  pronounced  -art,  and  uniformity  Ii  de- 
sirable. We  have  bought,  [drotmht],  fought,  fumght,  ouffiU,  timgkt, 
thought,  and  vrrought 

"Dryth":  •fAaddel  to  adj.  converts  them  into  abstraot  iumibi,  m 
leng-th,  bread-th,  d^^th,  dry-th. 

Drove  (1  syl.),  a  herd  of  cattle  or  flock  of  sheep  on  their  mad 
to  market ;  past  tense  of  drive ;  drov'-er,  one  who  drives, 
cattle  to  market.    {See  Drive.) 


AND  OF  SPELLING,  2«5 


Dnmn,  drSwn  (to  rhyrne  with  down,  noun\  to  kill  by  gnbmersion 
in  water;  drowned  (1  8yl.)>  drown'-ing. 
Nomiui  dntkne,  to  drown ;  German  [er]tranken. 

BiowBy,  sleepy;  drow^si-er  (more  Bleepy),  drow'si-est  (Tno?«t 
sleepy),  drow'si-ness  (Ru  e  xi.).  drow'si-iy,  drow^si-ish 
('ish  added  to  adj.  is  dim^  added  to  nouns  it  means 
•*like  **);  drowsing,  drSwse'.ing.    (Dutch  drosen,  to  doze.) 

Bmb,  to  beat;  drubbed  (1  8.\1.),  dmbb'-ing  (Rule  i.),  dmbb'-er. 
Old  English  trtbuHan],  to  be&t ;  Greek  tribo,  to  thresh. 

Drudge  (1  syl.),  a  menial,  to  toil;  drudged  (1  syl.),  drudg'-ing 
(B.  xix.),  dmdg'ing-ly ;  drudgery,  druj'.e.ry,  ignoble  toil. 

Old  English  dreMan],  to  toil :  past  dreag  or  dreah^  past  part,  dnnen. 
(The  d  i»  inUrpolated  for  phonetic  use.) 

Bmg,  a  substance  used  for  medicine,  an  article  slow  of  sale,  to 
dose,  to  put  poison  into  food  or  drink  ;  drugged  (1  syl.), 
dmgg'-ing  (Rule  i.) ;  drugg'-ist,  one  who  deals  in  drugn. 

French  drogue,  droguiste  (drogtierie,  drujrgery,  is  a  word  we  miglit 
adopt) ;  Old  EngUsh  drig,  dry.    **  Drugs  "  were  once  '*  dry  herbs. " 

Ihngget,  a  coarse  woollen  cloth.  (This  word  ought  to  have 
only  one  g,  it  is  not  a  "  little  drug,"  as  the  spelling  indi- 
cates, but  the  French  droguet.) 

Bndd,  fern.  dmidesB,  drU'.ldj  dru\id.e88,  a  Keltic  priest: 
drnid-iam,  the  riteH  and  fiiith  of  the  Druids ;  dmidic  or 
dmidical,  dru.id\ikf  druAd\i.kul. 

Welsh  denoydd  {derw,  an  oak ;  derwen,  oaken ;  udd,  a  chief ;  Keltic 
wydd,  a  priest ;  Anglo  Saxon  toita,  a  prophet  or  wise  man). 

Brmn,  a  musical  instrument,  the  tympanum  of  the  ear,  a  package 
[of  figs  in  a  wooden  cylindrical  box],  a  crowded  reception, 
to  beat  a  drum,  &c.;  drummed  (1  svl.),  dmmm'-ing  (Rule 
i.),  dniimn'-er,  drmn'-ma'jor,  kettle-drum. 
German  irom[mel],  a  drum ;  Norse  drum,  a  booming  sound. 
Dmnk,  intoxicated ;  drunken,  given  to  intoxication ;  dnmk'en- 
nesB;   dnmk'-ard,  one  of  the  drunken  kind  (-ard  Old 
Eng.  suffix,  **  one  of  a  species,"  "  of  the  kind."  {See  DriidL ) 
Old  English  drincianl  past  drane,  past  part,  druncen. 

Urape  (1  syl.),  a  pulpy  stone-fruit;   drupel,  dru\pel,  a  pulpy 
fruit    with    seeds   like   the   raspberry   and   bla<  kberry : 
drapaceonB,  drU.pay^^hus,  prr>diicin«]:  drupes,  like  drupes. 
French  drupe;  Latin  dr&pa;  Greek  druppa,  orerripe  olives. 

Dry*  dri-er  {eomp.\  dri-est  [super.)  (Rule  xi.),  dries,  drize  (1  syl.), 
dried  (I  syl.). 
Iliy'-er,  one  who  dries;  dri-er,  more  dry;  dry'-ing. 
Ury-ly  or  dri-ly,  dry-nesa  or  dri-nesa. 

("Dry/*  "shy."  and  "sly,"  are  uncertain  in  their  ipelUng,  but  it 
would  he  ufell  to  reduce  them  to  the  general  rule  (Bole  xL  j 


2Cfi  ERRORS  OF  SPEECIT 


Dryad,  dfy^Md,  a  wood-nymph. 

French  dryade;  Latin  dryddes;  Greek  druddfy  (dnu,  an  o«k.) 
Bual^dufMl,  a  plu.  consisting  of  only  two.  Dael,a  fight  between  two. 

Du'al-ist,  one  who  believes  in  dualism ; 

Bu'el-ist,  one  who  fights  a  duel. 

Bual-lBm,  du\aUizm,  the  system  which  presupposes  the 
nature  of  man  to  be  twoifold,  the  system  which  presup- 
poses that  there  are  two  reigning  principles  in  nature. 

Bualistic,  du'.aLis^'.tlk,  adj.  of  dualism,  as  the  dtuiliatic 
system  of  Anaxag'5ras  and  Plato,  who  taught  that  there 
are  two  principles  in  nature,  one  active  and  the  other 
passive ;  duality,  du.al\i.tyt  the  state  of  being  two,  &g. 
French  duel;  Latin  dudlis  (dua  for  duo,  two);  Greek  dtuu,  duality. 
Dub,  to  confer  knighthood,  to  give  [one]  a  title;  dubbed''  (1  syl.), 
dubb'-ing  (R.  i.)     (Old  Eng.  dubb[an],  to  dub,  to  strike.) 

Dubious,    du\bi.uSf    doubtful ;     du^ious-ness,     du'MouB-ly ; 

dubiety,    duM\S,ty,    doubt ;     dubitable,    du\bi,i&,b'l ; 

dubitably,  du\bl.td.bly. 
Latin  dvhietas,  duhiosua,  diMWMis,  dabius  {diMvAn,  donbt). 
Ducal,  du\kal,  adj.  of  duke.    (French  ducaL    See  Di|ke.) 
Duoat,  duk\dt  (not  du'.kdt)^  a  coin  once  common  in  Italy. 

The  first  appeared  in  Venice,  and  bore  this  inscription  **  SU  Ubi, 
Christe,  datus,  quern  tu  regis,  iste  ducatus."  ["May  this  dndhy 
[ducat-us]  which  thou  rulest,  O  Ghridt,  be  devoted  to  thee."]  Tha 
word  "  ducatus"  gave  name  to  the  coin. 

Duchess  (not  dutchess),  duch'^esSy  fem.  of  duke;    dnoheaB*! 
(po88.  sing.),  duchesses  ivlu.),  duchesses'  {poss,  pU^) 
French  dtte,  fem.  ducheaae  (Latin  dux,  gen.  diusia,  a  leaderX 
Duck,  the  female  of  drake ;  duck' -ling,  a  young  duck  or  drake. 
{•ling.  Old  Eng.  suffix,  "  ofispring  of^"  or  simply  diminu- 
tive).   When  sex  is  not  an  object  of  the  speaker  both  are 
termed  ducks,  when  kiUeJ  for  table  both  are  called  dimks. 
To  duck,  to  dip,  to  pop  down  for  the  sake  of  avoiding 
something ;  ducked  (1  syl.),  duok'-ing. 

Ducking-stool,  a  stool  once  employed  for  the  purasiiment 
of  scolding  and  brawling  women,  also  called  cuckin^Hrtool 
{chuck,  to  throw),  the  stool  "  chucked  "  into  the  water. 

Duck-legged,  duk.Ugd,  having  short  waddling  legs. 

To  make  ducks  and  drakes,  to  throw  stones  &«.,  an  the 
surface  of  water  so  that  they  rebound  repeatedly. 

To  make  ducks  and  drakes  of  your  money,  to  spend  it  m 

idly  as  if  you  threw  it  into  water  for  amusement. 

German  ducken,  to  duck,  to  dip  the  head.  ▲  "duck**  is  fha  fowl 
that  "  ducks  "  or  dips  its  head  [in  water].  **  Drake  '*  ia  a  eoBtiae- 
tion  of  duch^aJee  or  rica  (d'raJee  or  d'Ho},  the  duok  maatar.  So  in 
(German  ente,  a  duck ;  enU^rieh,  a  drake. 


AND   OF  SPELLING,  «67 

• 

Duet,  a  tube  for  conyejing  [water] ;  aqne-dmet  (not  oqwidMckX 
a  dnct  for  water.    (Latin  aqtuB  ductuSy  a  duct  for  water. ) 
Latin  duetua,  a  duct  (t.  dOeOy  tnpine  duditm,  to  lead  or  conveyX 
Ductile,  duhf.tU  (not  diik\tile\  easy  to  draw  out  into  lengths, 
like  wire ;  ductility,  duk.til\i.ty, 
French  ductile,  ductiliU;  Latin  duetttia. 
Dudgeon,  dud'.jdn,  a  sword  or  dagger,  inward  displeasure. 
To  take  [a  thing]  in  dudgeon,  to  look  on  it  as  an  offence. 

"  Dudgeon  "  fa  da^^r),  German  degen,  a  sword,  a  rapier. 
" Dudgeon"  (diapleasure),  Welsh  dygen^  grudge,  malice. 

Dne,  duty,  owed.  Dew,  moisture  of  the  air  condensed.  Do,  doOt  q.v, 
Dn^y  (du-lyf  tru-lyt  and  whoUly  drop  the  final  e  before 

the  suffix  -iy,  Rule  xviii.) 
Dues,  dilze^  custom-house  taxes,  &c.    Dews,  plu.  of  dew. 
French  dH,  past  part,  of  devoir;  Latin  deb^e,  perf.  debHi. 
Duel,  du\el,  a  fight  between  two.   Dual,  du'M,  a  numb,  in  Gram. 
Du^el-ist,  one  who  fights  a  duel ; 

Du'al-ist,  one  who  believes  there  are  two  principles  in 
nature,  one  who  believes  man  to  possess  a  twofold  nature. 

Du'ell-er,  du'ell-ing.    (Rule  iii.,  -el.) 
French  duel;  Latin  duettum  (dulo]  [hiellum. 
Duenna,  dil.en\nah,  an  elderly  woman  whose  duty  in  Spain  is 
to  look  after  some  young  lady  under  her  charge  (Span.) 

Duet,  du'.ef,  a  song  for  two  voices.    Duetto,  plu,  duettos  (Ital.) 
Dug,  the  udder  of  a  cow,  &c. ;  the  past  tense  of  dig  (q.v.) 

Duke  (1  syL),  fern,  duch'ess;  duke-dom  (-dom  =  "dominion"); 

duch'-y;  ducal,  du'.kdl;  du'cal-ly. 
French  due,  fern,  dueheese;  Latin  dwc,  gen.  d'Om,  a  leader. 
JPukminara,  duV -ka.mair"  rdh  (not  dul.kam\a.rah\  the  plant 

called  "bitter-sweet,"  or  "woody  nightshade." 

Latin  dulci$  amd/nu,  sweet  bitter.    The  stalks  and  root  taste  at  first 
bitter,  but  after  being  chewed  a  little  time  they  taste  sweet. 

Suloei,  duV.$ety  sweet  [applied  to  sound]. 

l>ulciiy  {-€%'  not  -OT-);    duldfies,  dUVM.fize;    dulcified, 
d&Vjn.Jide;  dai'dfy-ing. 

Dulcimer,  duV.8i.mer,  an  ancient  musical  instrument. 

French  dtUeifter:  Latin  dtdeif^ms,  dulcia.    (The  two  words  "duldlo- 
quent"  and  "duldty  "  might  be  introduced.) 

DuUa»  duM.dh  (not  du'M.ah,  as  it  is  generally  called),  the 
reverence  paid  to  saints. 

Latria,  la.tri'ah,  adoration  paid  to  God. 

Ijrtin  dQlia;  Greek  dotdeia  or  douUii,  the  reverence  paid  bj  a  slave 

(dauJos)  to  his  master. 
Latin  IcUria;  Greek  latareia,  the  service  of  a  free  workman  (UUria,  a 

hired  servantX 


268  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Doll,  stupid,  obscure ;  dnll-er  {eomp.),  dull-est  {super.) ;  dnU'-ard 
i-ard,  01(1  Eng.  surtix  meaning  "sptciHS,"  "kind"),  one 
of  the  dull  kind ;  dull-nesB,  dul-ly  (Rule  v.,  h). 

Bull,  to  make  dull ;  dulled  (1  syl.).  dull-ing. 
Old  English  dol,  foolish,  dallict,  dully;  Welsh  dwl,  stupid. 
Duly,  du'-ly,  fitly  {see  Due).     Dully,  dul-ly,  stupidly  {see  Doll). 
Dumb,  dum  (b  silent),  mute,  wanting  the  power  of  speech; 

Dumb-animals,  all  quadrupeds  are  so  termed  in  contra- 
distinction to  man,  who  is  a  **  speaking  animaL" 

Dumb-ly,  dum\ly;  dumV-ness,  dum'.ness. 

Dumb-shoTf,  signs  and  gestures  without  words. 

Dumb-waiter,  a  piece  of  furniture. 

Dumfoun'der  (without  h),  to  strike  dumb  with  amazement; 
dumfoun'dered  (3  syl.),  domfoun'dei^ing. 

Dummy,  plu.  dummies,  dum'.miZy  one  who  is  dumb,  an 
empty  bottle.  In  tljree-lianded  whist,  the  hand  ezpof^d 
is  called  "  dummy"  and  in  French  morU 
{Either  the  "b"  should  he  struck  out  of  "dumb,"  or  it 
should  he  retained  throughout.  It  is  rather  remarkable 
that  •*  dumbness  "  has  ?io  "  b  "  in  the  Anglo  Saxon  dumnys.) 
Old  English  dunU),  dumnys,  dumbness  ;  German  dvmm. 

Dumps,  a  fit  of  the  sullen s ;  dump-ish,  rather  stupid  and  sullen ; 
dum'pish-*ly,  dum'pish-ness. 

Norse  dump,  dull ;  German  ditmm,  stupid,  sottish ;  dumff,  dvlL 
Dumpy,  dum'.py,  squat,  short. 

Humpty-dumpty,  any  person  or  thing  small  and  thick-set 

Dumplings  dUm'.pling,  dough  leavened  with  yeast  and 
boiled.  Heavy  or  Suffolk  dumplings  have  no  yeast. 
There  are  several  varieties. 

Korse  dump,  low,  squat.    (?)  thumb,  the  short  squat  fingw,  oaDed 
"dumpy."    Anglo  Saxon  ihUma;  German  daumen. 

Dun,  a  brown  colour,  one  who  importunes  a  creditor  for  pay. 
ment,  to  din,  to  importune  lor  payment;  dunn-iah  (Rule 
i.),  rather  brown  (ish  added  to  adj.  is  dim.,  added  to 
nouns  it  means  "like"). 

Dun  {v.),  dunned  (1  syl.),  dunn'-ing  (Rale  i.) 

Dune  (1  syl.),  a  sand  hill  near  the  sea-coast. 

Old  English  dun,  a  black-brown  colour ;  dunung,  a  ndM ;  dft^iamX 
to  make  a  noise ;  diin,  a  hill. 

Dunce  (1  syl.),  a  dolt,  one  backward  in  book-learning. 

Jhmsers,  disciples  of  Duns  Scotus,  the  schoolman,  who  citBumnd 
against  "the  new  learning"  which  was  fatal  to  the  quiddities  of 
Dunseiy.  The  new  school  called  those  who  opposed  them 
corrupted  to  dunces;  German  duns,  a  dunce. 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  2«9 

Donderliead,  dun',der.Md,  maddle-beRded ;  dnnderhead'-ed. 

None  timg,  tutU,  heavy,  slow,  lumpish,  which  enters  into  composi- 
tion with  hand,  tuad.  heart,  speech,  hearing,  &o.,  &c. 

Jhine  {X  syL),  a  sand-bill  near  the  sea-coast.     (Old  Eng.  dUn,) 

Dung  (noun  and  verb),  dunged  (1  syl.),  dung'-mg,  dong'-y, 
dunghill  (double  2,  Rule  viii.)     (Old  Eng.  dung.) 

Ihingeon,  dun'.jun,  a  dark  dismal  prison,  underground ;  doi^jon, 
the  strong  keep  of  an  ancient  castle. 
The  prison  of  the  ancient  castles  was  under  the  dovijon  (q.v.) 

Dunned  (1  syl.),  dunning,  <fec.    {See  Dun.) 

Daodecimal,  du\o.de8'\i.mul  (adj.),  computing  by  twelves ; 
duodecimals,  cross  multiplication,  each  lower  denomina- 
tion being  tbe  twelfth  of  the  one  next  higher,  just  as  a 
penny  is  tbe  twelfth  of  a  shilling ;  duodedmal-ly. 

Dnodedmo,  plu.  duodecimos  (not  duodecimoes,  Rule  xlii.), 
du'.o.des'^i.moze,  the  size  of  a  book  in  which  each  sheet 
is  f<)lde<l  into  twelve  leaves. 

French  duodecimal;  Italian  duodedino;  Latin  dUddieimiu  (<iiM>  + 
decern,  two  +  ten). 

Duodenum,  du^o.dee^'jnum  (not  du,od\e.num,  an  intestine  about 
twelve  fingers  long,  in  the  human  body;  di^odenal, 
du\o.dee*\nal  (adj.);  duodenitis,  du\o.de.ni'\ti8,  inflam- 
mation of  the  duodenum  {-itis,  Gk.  suf.,  inflammation). 

Dnp,  [the  door]  to  open,  past  dupt  or  dupped  (1  syl.),  dupping* 

'*Then  up  he  rose  .  .  .  dupped  the  chamber  door, 
[And]  Jet  in  the  maid . .  ."—Ham,,  iv.  v. 

"Dap "is  Ang.  Sax.  do-ypp,  "do-open,"  or  do-up,  lift  up  [the  latchl. 

Ihtpe  (1  syl.),  one  deceived,  to  cheat;  duped  (1  syl.),  dup'-ing 
(Rule  xix.),  dup'-er,  dup'-ery. 

French  dupe,  v.  duper;   Latin  duplex,  wily  ("Cursus  dupVCcia  per 
mare  Ulyss^i,"  Hor.  Od.,  1. 6,  7,  " of  the  wily  or  duping  Ulysses"). 

IHiplicate,  du'.pluhate.  a  copy,  a  pawnbroker's  ticket,  to  fold  or 
double;  du'pUcat-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.),  du'plicat-ing  (Rule 
xix.);  duplication,  du\pli.kay'\8hun ;  duplicature,  du'.- 
pli.ka.tchur ;  duplicity,  du.pli8\i.ty, 

French  dupliccUa,  duplication,  duplicaU;  Latin  dupUcdtio,  dup2<- 
edre,  supii  e  duplicdtum,  duplidLtas. 

Barable,  du\ra.b%  lasting;  du'rable-ness,  du'rably,  durability. 

Fr.  durable,  dwahiliti;  Lat.  durdbilis,  durabilitaa  (durtu,  hard). 

Dnza-xnater,  du'.ra  may'.ter  (not  mut.er),  the  outer  membrane 

of  tbe  brain.     The  inner  membrane  is  the  pia-inater, 

I«atin  dura-inater.    Called  "hard"  (dura),  because  it  is  more  tough 
than  the  other  two  membranes  of  the  brain.      Called  mater  or 
'  "mother"  from  the  su( position  thit  all  the  other  membranes  of 

the  body  were  *'  born  "  out  of  it,  or  were  simply  elongations  of  it. 

IKizainen,  du.ray\ment  beart-wood.     (Latin  duramen,) 


270  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Dmance,  dii\riiMef  imprisonmeiit.    Endu'zanoe,  tderaniie. 
Dnratioii,  duj-ay'^hun^  continuance.    (Not  French.) 
Duress,  duressy  constraint,  restraint  of  liberty. 

Latin  dvxare,  to  accustom  to  bardship;  Old  French  d^Jream:  Latin 
dtlritief,  dHuratio  {durus,  hard). 

BoxBt,  past  tense  of  dare,  to  be  bold  to  do.    {See  Barau) 

Dnflk,  dim  light,  partially  dark;  dnsk'-isli,  rather  dosk  {-ith 
added    to  adj.  means  rather ^  added    to    nouns    lihe)\ 
dusk'ish-ly,  dusk'-y,  dnakl-ly  (Rule  xLX  dusk^i-neas. 
Old  EngUsh  dti;<^«c[(ut],  to  extinguish ;  {Mkst  <2«m6kmI«,  p.p.  dwaueed. 
Dost  {n(mn  and  verb).    Dost,  dust,  second  per.  sing,  of  Do  (g.v.) 
Dnst'-ed  (B.  xxxvi.),  dust-ing,  dust'-er,  dust'-y,  dnstl-ness. 
To  bite  the  dust,  to  fall  dead  in  battle. 
To  kick  up  a  dust,  to  make  a  disturbance. 

To  throTf  dust  in  one's  eyes,  to  bamboozle.  The  allusion 
is  to  the  Mahometan  practice  of  casting  dust  into  the  air 
for  the  sake  of  "confounding"  the  enemies  of  the  faith. 
"When  the  Enghsh  king  pursued  the  Iman  who  hHd 
stolen  his  daughter  for  Allah,  Allah  threw  dust  in  his 
eyes  to  check  his  pursuit.**  A  Oori  Legend. 
*•  Dust,"  Old  Eng.  dust,  dustig,  dusty.  "  Dost,"  Old  Eng.  dM. 
Dutch  iadj.)t  pertaining  to  Holland  or  the  Netherlands,  the 
language  of  the  Hollanders. 

The  Dutch,  the  people  of  Holland  or  the  Netherlands. 

A  Dutchman,  plu.  Dutchmen.   "  Dutchmen"  is  the  definite 

plu.,  as  two,  three,  &c.,  Dutchmen,  but  "  The  Dutch**  the 

indefinite  plu,  (R.  xlvi.  %).    Dutch-docks,  German  docks. 

German  Deutsche.    *'  Dutch  clocks,"  corruption  of  Deuitch  dock.. 

Duty,  plu.  duties,  du\tiz ;    du'ti-ful  (Rule  xi.),  da'tiftil-ly, 

du'tiful-ness  (R»  viii.);  du'ti-able,  subject  to  excise  duty. 

Duteous,  du\te.u8;  du'teous-ly,  du'teous-ness. 

("Duty"  and  "beauty"  have  this  change  of  vcwel,  fo^ 
which  there  is  no  sufficient  reason.) 
French  dH,  past  part,  of  devoir;  Latin  debeo. 
Duumvir,  plu.  duumvirs  or  duumviri,  du.um\veTz  or  <iit.tttii'.' 
vi.rl.    In  ancient  Rome,  the  supreme  magistracy  veste^J 
in  two  men;   duumvirate,  du.um\vi.rate,  the  fom  o^ 
government  or  office  of  a  duumvir;  danm'TiniL 
Latin  dmimnir,  plit  duumviri,  duwnvirSlis^  duumvtrdtet. 
Dwaif,  plu.  dwarfs  (not  dwarves.  Rule  xxxix.),  dwair4Bh  (-i$h 
added  to  nouns  means  "  like,"  added  to  a^J.  it  is  dim.), 
dwarfish-ly,  dwarf ish-ness;  dwarf -ing,  keepiof  amdl;       , 
dwarfed  (not  dwarft-ed),  hindered  from  growing.  j 

Old  English  dweork  or  dweorg,  a  dwarf.  .A 


AND  OF  SPELUNG.  271 

Dwell  (Kule  t.),  patt  dwelt,  p<ut  part,  dwelt,  to  live,  to  abide ; 
dwell'-ing,  living,  abiding,  a  house,  a  residence;  dwell'-er. 

To  dwell  on  [« isubject],  to  continue  talking  on  it. 

None  ctoelt,  to  dwell,  to  twrrjr ;  dvceUr,  a  dweller,  a  loiterer.    The 
Anglo  Saxon  dw^ian]  means  "to  deceive "  (dtool  an  error). 

Dwindle,  dw^.£l,  to  diminish ;  dwin'dled  (2  syl.),  dwindling. 
Old  Eng.  dtotoCon],  to  pine  away,  to  dwindle ;  past  dwdn,  p.p.  ckoinen. 

Dwt.,  pronounced  penny -weight.  It  is  D  (penny,  dendrium), 
and  wt  (contraction  of  weight).  Similarly  Gwt ,  hundred- 
weight is  C  (hundred,  centum)^  and  wt  for  *'  weight." 

Dye,  to  tincture.    Die,  to  lose  life.    (Both  di.) 

Dyes,  dyed,  dye-ing  (violation  of  R.  xix.),  dy'-er  (from  Dye). 

Dies,  died,  dy-ing  (Rule  xix.),  di-er  (from  Die). 

Dyes,  tinctures,  third  per.  sing,  of  Dye. 

Dies,  plu.  of  die,  a  stamp,  third  per.  sing,  of  Die. 

Dice,  plu.  of  die,  a  cube  for  playing  "  dice.** 

"Dye,"  Old  Eng.  dedg,  ▼,  ded(f[ian]  ptL-^t  dedgode,  past  part,  dedgod. 
"Die,"  Old  Eng.  deddiian\,  past  deddods,  past  part,  deddod. 
"Die"  (a  cube),  Fr.  d6,  plu.  d4s. 

Dyke  (1  syl.),  a  geological  term.    Dike,  a  trench,  a  mound. 

A  "  dyke  "  is  the  material  which  tills  up  a  fissure  in  a  rock. 
Old  English  die,  a  dyke ;  French  dyke  (in  mines). 
Dynamics,  di.namf.lksj  that  science  which  treats  of  force  acting 

on  moving  bodies.    (AU  sciences  terminating  in  the  Greek 

'ika,  except  five,  are  plural,   Rule  Ixi.)     Dynamic  or 

dynamical  (adj.),  dynamlcal-ly. 

Dynom'eter  or  dynamometer,  di'na.mom'\e.terf  a  (mechnn- 
ical)  instrument  to  measure  the  relative  strength-in- 
draught of  man  and  other  Huiraals ; 

Dynameter,  an  (optical)  instrument  for  determining  the 

magnifying  power  of  telescopes ;  dynametlcal. 
Dynamite,  dV.na.mite,  an  explosive  agent,  consisting  of 

porous  silica  sat-urated  in  nitro-glycerine. 
Fr.  dynamique,  dynanwrn^t/re ;  Lat.  dynamia;  Gk.  dunamis,  power, 
^'yiuurty,  plu,  dynasties,  dfn\u8.ttz,  a  race  of  monarchs  from 
one  common  he»d;  dynastic,  di.na/.t\k  (adj.) 
French  dynastie,  dynastique;  Latin  dynantia;  Greek  dunasteia. 
^^  (Greek  due-,  a  prefix  always  denoting  evil,  opposed  to  «*-, 
which  always  denotes  what  is  good). 

D^Bentery,  dis'.en.terry,  severe  diarrhoea;  dysenter'ic. 

Fr.  dyaeenterie,  dyMentdrique  (double  «,  a  blunder) :   I^at.  dysenteria, 
dy^mtericus  ;  (Gk.  dua  enUSra,  bad  [state  of]  the  buwels) 

I)yipepBia  or  dyspepsy,  dU.pep'.sl.ah,  di8.pep\8y,  indigestion; 

djriipep'tio,  one  who  suffers  from  dyspepsia. 

French  dyapeptU;  Oredk  dus  pepsis,  bad  digestion  (pepto,  to  oook). 


272  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Dysphagia,  dis.fag'.i.ah,  a  difficulty  of  swallowing. 

Greek  dva  phagein,  difficultj  in  swallowing. 

Dyspnoda,  disp.nee'.ah,  a  difficulty  of  breathing. 

French  dynjmie;  Latin  dyspnaa,  asthma;  Greek  du$  pnoia,  dUU- 
caltj  of  brea  hing. 

DysniJa,  dl.8u\ri.ah^  difficulty  of  passing  urine ;  djrBUiio. 

Fr.  dysvric;  Lat.  dyaHHa,  dyaHrictu;  Gk.  dua  ovria  difficulty  of  uiiiM. 

E-,  Ef-,  Ex-,  iu  composition,  means  out  of. 

£-  or  Ex-  means  out  of,  hence 
* '  Privaf  ion  "or  '  *  pre-eminence  **; 
'Tis  XX-  before  a  vowel,  c. 
The  aspirates,  p,  q,  s,  t; 
Tis  EF-  before  an//  but  ■- 
With  liqpiida^  c,  d,  g,  j,  v. 

-ea,  -89a,  -ia  (in  Bot.),  denote  a  genus  or  division. 

Every  word  (except  eager  and  ea>gle)  beginning  with  ea-  is  Anglo-flazoB. 

Each,  etchi  every  individual  of  a  number  treated  separately. 

Each  other :  as  *'  Be  to  each  other  kind  and  true,"  that  is. 
Each  [one]  be  to  [every]  other  one  kind  and  true.  "  Each  ** 
is  nominative  case,  and  **  other"  objective,  governed  by 
to,  '*  It  is  our  duty  to  assist  each  other,"  tiiat  is,  It  is 
our  duty  each  [one]  to  assist  [every]  other  [one].  (In 
Latin,  alter  alterum  adjuvdre.) 

Eager,  e'.gur,  desirous ;  eager-ly,  eager-ness. 

Welsh  egyr;  French  aigre:  sharp,  sonr;  Latin  acer^  sharp,  brisk. 
Eagle,  e\g%  a  bird  of  prey ;  eaglet,  S'.gJety  a  young  eagle. 

French  aigle;  Latin  Aqulla  (dquiltu,  a  dun  colour). 
Ear,  e*er,  ere,  hear,  year,  earing,  ear-ring,  hearing. 

Ear,  eV,  organ  of  bearing,  appreciation  of  musical  soimds, 
spike  of  corn,  to  f>rm  into  seed  com;    eared,  S'rd; 
earing,  ^r^-ing,  forming  into  ears  ol  corn,  time  of  plough- 
ing (as  opposed  to  harvest), 
•*  There  sliall  be  neither  earing  nor  harvest"  {GefLTbr.  •). 

Ear-ring,  a  ring  for  the  ear.    Hearing,  perception  of  sonnd. 

E'er,  e'er,  a  contraction  of  ever. 

Ere,  airy  before  in  time,  sooner  than ;  erst,  at  first. 

Hear,  /leV,  to  perceive  by  the  ear. 

Tear,  ye'r,  a  period  of  twelve  months. 

"Ear"  (organ  of  hearing),  Old  English  edre, 

"Ear"  lof  c-rn).  Old  English  edr  or  (B-hir. 

"Earing"  (time  of  pl'ughing),  Old  Eng.  eriung,  ploughiBf,  t. 

" Fa  -ring"  (ring  for  the  ear),  Old  English  edr^ng. 

E'er"  ever»,  old  English  cefer  or  cffre. 

\  Ere  "  n>ef ore  in  time),  O.  Eng.  ear  ovekr,  (comp.)  lirrc^  (rapcr.)  < 


M  ' 


**  Hear,'*  Old  English  hyr{an]  or  hAr{an],  to  hear. 
"  YMr,**  Old  English  gear;  German  jaUr. 


AND  Oh  SPELLING.  ilS 

£arl,  fern.  oonnteaB,  url,  eottn'.test, 

Earrdom,  the  title  and  rank  of  earl  (-dom,  rank,  estate,  &o.) 

Old  English  eorL  The  title  was  first  used  hj  the  Jutes  of  Kent. 
The  Norman-French  count  is  no  EngUsh  tiUe,  although  we  retain 
the  words  eouwty  and  countest.    French  counU,  comiesae. 

Early,  ur^dy;  earli-er  (comp.),  earli-est  (super. j^  soon,  before 
the  lime;  earli-nesa,  ur^.U.nis  (Rule  xi.) 
Old  Eng.  ^,  before,  in  time ;  ardlic (adj.),  early;  ardUoe  (adv.) 
Earn,  urn,  to  win  by  service.    Urn,  a  vase. 

Earned,  umd;  eam-ing,  ur'.n%ng;  eam-ingB  (nonn)  ur'- 

ningz,  wages,  money  earned. 

Old  English  crm[ian]  or  eam{ian],  to  earn;  esmimg  or  eamung, 
earnings,  wages.    "  Urn,"  Latin  urna,  a  pitcher. 

Earnest,  ur'.nest,  a  pledge,  a  deposit  to  confirm  a  bargain, 

bansel,  ardent,  serious,  eager;   eamest-ly,   u/.nist.ly ; 

eamest-nesB,  w/.nest.ness ;  in  earnest. 

(*'  flamest "  [money]y  ought  to  be  ernes  or  emest.) 

"Earnest**  (noun J,  Welsh  ernes,  a  pledge. 

"Earnest**  (a4iJ,  Old  Eng.  earnest,  eomeste  (oAo.);  Germ,  emst 

Earth,  wrth  (noun  and  verb);   earthed  (1  syl.),  earth'-ing; 
earth-ly,    urth'.ly ;    earthli-ness   (Rule    xi.),    earth-y, 
wrth'-y;    eurthl-ness    (Rule    xi.),  earth'-en,  made    of 
earth ;  earthenware,  urth\^,ware,  crockery. 
Which  is  correct : 

*'  Day  and  night  are  produced  by  the  earth's  revolving  on 
its  axis,"  or 

*'  Day  and  night  are  produced  by  the  earth  revolving  on 

its  axis  "  f 

(In  the  former  case,  "revolving''*  is  a  verbal  noun,  not  a  participle, 
the  sentence  is  Da^  and  Night  are  produced  hy  "the  revolving  of 
the  earth'*....  Here  *' revolving "  =  rewZutiow,  and  would  have 
been  better  with  the  old  spelling  revolvung.  Similarly  we  have  the 
phrases,  *'by  the  preaching  [ie.  preachmmi]  of  repentance,"  or 
by  John^s preaching  repentance  "  whete  "preaching**  is  a  verbal 
noon.  The  second  example  is  not  incorrect,  but  it  is  less  idiomatic, 
and  more  German  than  English.  [The]  earth^evolving-im-its-aais 
being  all  one  word.    The  former  is  decidedly  to  be  preferred.) 

^wwig,  e*r.ujig,  an  insect.  (Old  Eng.  edr  wigga,  ear  [shaped]  in- 
sect.  The  bind  wings  being  in  shape  like  the  human  ear.) 

Ear'wigg-ing  (Rule  i.),  whispering  slander  to  gain  favour. 

Ease,  eze^  comfort,  freedom  from  pain ;  easy,  e.zy ;  easi-ly, 
easi-ness  (R.  xi.);  eased,  %zd;  eas'-ing,  ^.zing  (R.  xix.); 
ease'-m^t  (only  five  words  drop  -e  before  -menU  R.  xviii.) 

Easy,  Ijay ;  (com  p.)  easi-er,  e\zi.er;  (super.)  easi-est. 

Old  English  ed^  and  edthlic,  easy,  (comp.)  edthere,  (super.)  edthost, 
(adv.)  edihe  and  edthelke;  French  aise. 

Easel,  ijs%  a  frame  with  a  shoulder,  used  by  artists. 

Old  English  esd,  a  shoulder  :  less  likely  esol,  German  esel,  an  ass. 

s 


274  ERRORS  OF  SPRECff 

East,  est;  east-em;  easterly,  e9f,er.ly. 

Easter-ling,  a  native  of  the  East. 

Easf-ing,  the  distance  a  ship  makes  good  in  an  eastward 
direction.    The  eastward  (nonn),  the  east  direction. 

Eastward  {a4j.)y  eastwards  (adv,) 

(The  use  of  eastward  as  cm  adverb  is  objectionahle.    It  is 
the  final  -s  which  is  the  adverbial  badge.) 

Old  Eng.  east  (noun  and  adj.)f  easten-wind,  the  east  wind,  tagUm  and 
eastinney  in  the  east,  eastan,  from  the  east,  «i8frV}M/rd,  eastward. 

Easter,  ls\t^  (noun  and  adj.),  the  season  commemorative  of 
"  The  Resurrection"  of  Christ;  easter-tide,  easter-week. 

Old  English  Easter,  easter-dcBg,  easter-day:  easter-tidy  easter-tide; 

easter-vmce,  easier  week ;  eaater-mdndth,  ApriL 
(April  VX18  the  time  of  the  awnual  Sixmdinavian  jestivaL  in  honow 

of  the  moon  coMed  "East&r,"  "  Ostar,"  '*  Eastre"  dec  J 

Easy,  easier,  easiest.    {See  Ease.) 

Eat,  'past  ate  (not  eat^  nor  ete)^  past  part,  eaten;   eat,  ete 
(1  syl.);  eat'-ing,  eaf-er,  eaf-ahle. 

Eaf.able,  fit  to  eat.    Eatables,  things  to  eat  or  for  food. 

Edible,  e\dl.b%  possible  to  be  eaten. 
("Eatable"  means  suitable  for  food;  "Edible,"  possible 
to  be  eaten,  but  not  ordinarily  ttsed  as  food.) 

To  eat  one's  words,  to  retract  them.    The  idea  is  from 

Proverbs  xxvi.  11. 

Old  English  etan,  to  eat ;  pres.  tense  ic  ete,  past  (6t,  past  part  eten. 
"Edible,"  Latin  gdilis  (ido,  to  eat). 

Eaves  (no  sing.),  ei)z,  the  part  of  the  roof  which  overhangs  the 
walls.      Eavesdropp-er,  a  sueak  who  listens  surrepti- 
tiously to  what  is  said  in  private ;  eavesdropp'-ing. 
Old  English  ^ese,  eaves ;  ▼.  Italian],  to  make  eaves ;  (ifes  dropa. 

Ebb  (noun  and  verb),  (14  monosyllables  not  ending  in  /,  i,  or  s, 
double  the  final  letter:  viz.,  add,  odd;  bwr,  err;  6it*, 
butt ;  ebb,  egg ;  buzz  and  whizz) ;  ebbed  (1  syl.),  ebb-ing. 
The  reflux  of  the  tide.  The  contrary  of  flow  or  flood,  as 
ebb-tide,  flood-tide,  ebb  and  flow. 
Old  English  ebba  or  ed&e,  ▼.  t^ian\,  past  e&&od«,  past  part,  dhod. 

Ebony,  eb\6.ny,  a  tree,  the  wood  of  the  tree. 

Ebonise,  Sb'.o.nlze,  to  make  black  like  ebony;  eVonised 

(3  syl.),  eb'onis-ing  (Rule  xix.),  eVon  (adj.) 

{The  "  0  "  o/  these  words  is  a  blunder.    It  should  he  "  e.") 

French  ih&ne,  ▼.  6b4ner,  4b4nier,  the  tree;  Latin  ibinus,  the  tiee; 
gbinum,  the  wood :  Greek  SbinQs,  ff^'nUnds  (adj.) 

Bbriety.    {See  Inebriety.) 

Ebullition,  e'.bul.lish".un,  the  operation  or  state  of  boiling. 
French  ibuXlition ;  Latin  ebuUUio,  v.  ebulUo,  to  boiL 


Jestament.  alsn      ;f^^^»  one  of  f>./T^°**' ^^^  the  centra/ 

*'*o,  i)7i,  .  .'•  "•-archill •  n_L  '^smbJiDo' 

XIH  ^'^  «*'-o.  «' ;f  ^*  **'"'^«- 

'    ««fi:s  selected ;  Greek 


Ik 


276  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Eclipse,  e.kVlips'  (n.  and  v.);  eclipsed'  (2  syL),  edips^ing  (R.  xix.) 

Ecliptic,  ^JillpWik,  the  apparent  annual  path  of  the  sun 
through  the  heavens.  So  called  because  the  moon  to  be 
eclipsed  must  be  near  this  hypothetical  path. 

French  Sdipse,  v.  iclipser,  idiplique;  Latin  ecHpsis,  eeUp1Me%u: 
Greek  ikleipsis  {ek  leipo,  to  leave  out). 

Eclogue,  plu,  eclogues,  Sk'.Ug,  ek\ldgz,  a  pastoral  poem. 

(The  French  termination  of  this  word  is  foolishj  seeing 
we  have  discarded  this  very  un-English  ending  in  a  host 
of  other  words^  and  *'  log  "  is  all-sufficient.) 
French  idogue;  Latin  ecUfga;  Greek  ^ldg6  (ek  lego,  to  pick  out). 

Economy,  plu.  economies,  e.k6n\o,m\z^  careful  expenditure  of 
money.  Political  economy,  the  way  of  ruling  a  people 
so  as  to  increase  their  wealth.  Vegetable  or  Animal 
Economy,  the  usual  operations  of  nature  in  the  growth, 
preservation,  and  propagation  of  vegetables  or  animals. 

Economics,  the  science  of  household  management. 

Economic  <yr  economical,  e\ko,nbm" .i.kal ;  economical-ly. 

Economise,   e.kon'.o.mize,  to  manage  household  matters 

with  frugality;  econ'omised  (4  syl.),  econ'oml&-ing  (Rule 

xix.),  econ'onus-er  (Kule  xxxi.),  economist,  e.kSn,o,mUt. 

French  ieonomique,  iconomitUy  v.  iconomiser,  4conomie;  Latin 
cecdndmia,  (xc6n6mlcus ;  Greek  oikonomed,  to  manage  a  household  ; 
oik&nomia,  management  of  a  house  ;  oikdndmikds,  ta  oikOndmikck, 
economics  :  oik&n&mds,  economist.  (There  is  no  such  Greek  word 
as  oikonomizo.)  "Economy**  is  that  frugal  and  careful  expendi- 
ture of  money  which  is  shown  in  a  well-managed  household. 

Ecstasy,  plu.  ecstasies  (not  ex-  and  not  -cy,  -cies).  It  is  the 
Greek  ek  and  stasis  (a  standing  out  [of  oneself]).  So 
apostasy  is  the  Greek  apo  stasis  (a  standing  off  firom 
[the  faith]).  Ecsta.sy,  a  trance,  rapture,  a  fit 
{It  is  not  the  Latin  '*  ex,"  but  the  Greek  **ek-,"  which  it 
always  vyritten  ec-.    The  last  syl.  is  not  -kis  [-m],  but  -sis.) 

Ecstatic,  e^.8tat^^A; ;  ecBt&ticsA,ek.stdtf.i.kdl;  ecstafical-ly, 
rapturously,  in  an  ecstatic  manner. 
The  French  forms  of  these  words  should  be  creftilly  avoid- 
ed ;  they  are  exta^ii.  extatique^  part  Latin  and  part  Greek. 
Latin  ecstdsis;  Greek  ^(kstaaia,  ikstaiikds. 
Ecumenic  or  ecumenical  [Council],  e.ku.inSn\ik,  e,ku,m^\i.kdl, 
a  general  [council  of  the  Roman  Catholics]. 
Fr.  cecumSnique ;  Gk.  oikoumgnHOs  (oikoumenS,  the  habitable  woddX 
Eczema,  ek\ze.maK  a  skin  eruption,  without  fever. 

Greek  ^  zi^na,  a  boiling  out  (z&i,  to  seethe). 
-ed,  tie  suffix  of  the  past  tense  and  past  part,  of  verbs  of  the 
weak  conj.      Old   English  -od  ,  -ed,  Latin   ^t[ttm1  or 
-dt[uni].    In  adj.  it  denotes  the  **  subject  of  some  aotton,** 
as  renown-ed  the  subject  of  "  renown." 


AND  OF  SPELLING,  277 

§  When  added  to  a  word  ending  in  -d  or  -t  it  forms  a  distinct 
syL,  as  aid'-ed  (2  sy\.),  pound' -ed  (2  8yl.),yif-«d  (2  syl.) 

§  When  followed  by  -ly  or  -n^ss,  it  generally  forms  a  distinct 
syL,  as  confused  (2  syl.),  confusedly  {conjujteddy,  4  syl.), 
blessed  (1  syL),  hUss.ed.ne8S  (3  syl.) 

Edadoiu,  e.day'.shUs,  voracious;  eda'doiukly,  eda'dons-nefls ; 
edacity,  t^das'A.ty,  voracity. 
Latin  edSxXUUf  edax,  gen.  eddeis  (glattonom). 

TMiHali^  gd^,ishi  aftermnth,  the  grass  which  serves  for  pasture 
alter  the  main  crop  has  been  removed. 

Old  English  edUe.  the  aftermath,  -iK  converts  verbs  and  adjectives 
into  notLns.  Ed  is  a  corrtiption  of  et[an],  to  eat,  hence  edHae  or 
«t-ise,  food  or  [grass]  fit  for  pasturage. 

Eddy,  plu.  eddies,  ed'.diZf  a  whirl  of  wind  or  water,  to  form  a 
whirl,  (fee;  ed'dies  (third  person  tdngular,  present  tense); 
eddied,  id'.did;  ed'dy-ing. 
Old  EngUsh  ethu  or  ythu,  a  wave  or  flood  {ethan  or  yihian,  to  flow). 

Bdentate,  plu,  edtotata,  e.den\tate,  e.den.tay\tah,  animals  like 
the  sloth,  armadillo,  and  anteater,  which  have  no  incisive 
teeth;  eden'tat-ed  (Rule xxxvi.),  without  fVont  teeth. 

Vrench  idenM;  Latin  edenUUvo,  extraction  of  teeth,  edentdtus, 
€ltx\dente9,  without  teeth. 

Edge  (1  syl.),  noun  and  verb.    Hedge  (1  syl.),  noun  and  verb, 

Edg'-in^  (R.  xix.),  making  edges,  edge- trimming,  outside  row ; 

Hedg'-ing  (Rule  xix.),  making  or  trimming  a  hedge. 

Edged  (1  syl.),  having  an  edge,  sharp ; 

Hedged  (I  syL),  inclosed  with  a  hedge. 

Edge-less,  without  an  edge.    Hedge-less,  without  a  hedge. 

To  edge  in,  to  insinua'e  something  into,  to  get  in; 

To  hedge  in,  to  surround  with  a  hedge. 

Edgewise  (2  syl.),  not  edgeways. 

Old  English  toi^an],  direction,  manner. 
To  edge  on,  a  corruption  of  egg -on. 

Old  English  eg^ian],  to  incite,  to  urge  on. 

Old  EngUsh  eeg,  an  edge :  ecged,  edged,  sharpened  :  Welsh  hogi,  to 

sharpen ;  hogiad,  a  sharpening  ;  hogal,  a  whetstone. 
"Hedge,'*  Oid  English  hege,  a  fence ;  hegt^ewe,  a  hedge-row. 
fThe  d  is  interpolated  in  both  cases  J 

Edible,  ei',di.b%  capable  of  b^ing  made  food ;  Eatable,  fit  or 
suitable  for  food.  Edibles,  e\di.Vlz^  things  which  may 
serve  for  food ;  Eatables,  foods. 

"Edible  "  LaUn  gdKre,  to  eat ;  idilxs  or  idiUis,  idulium,  food. 
"Eatoble,"  Old  English  et[anl  to  eat,  and  -able. 

Edict,  a  decree,  a  proclamation.    (Latin  edictum,  e-dico.) 


# 


278  ERROItS  OF  SPEECH 

Edify, ^(^^t./^^,  to  instraot ;  edifies,  ^(2^^./2«  ;  edified,  ^^t.yu2«  ; 
ed'ifi-er(Rxi.);  edi&G^Q(D^Sd\ufi.hay''jihun;  ed'ify-ing. 

Edifice,  pVu.  edifices  (Bnle  xxxiv.),  M'.t./l8,  ed\i.flsJiz,  buildings. 
Applied  to  large  public  buUdiugf. 

French  Edification,  Mifi>ce,  v.  Sd^fler ;  LatiB  OK^/IcMio,  adil(flcium, 
eed^l^ficdre  (cedes  fadOy  to  make  a  building). 

Edile,  e'.dile,  an  officer  of  ancient  Rome ;  edile-fihip,  office  of 
edile.     (ship.  Old  English  suffix  =  "  office  of.") 

Latin  cBdilia.  This  officer  had  charge  of  the  streets  and  paUie 
buildings,  supervised  the  sewers,  weights  and  measures,  plays  and 
processions ;  regulated  the  price  of  food,  &c.  (caies,  sing.,  temple). 

Edit,  ed\it,  to  revise  a  book  for  republication ;  ed'it-ed  (Bule 
xxxvi.),  ed'it-ing. 

Editor,  (not  -er),  fern,  editress  or  editor;  one  who  revises 
a  book  for  republication,  one  who  controls  the  literary 
part  of  a  periodical  or  serial ;  editor-ship,  office  of  editor. 
(ship,  Old  English  suffix  meaning  "  office  of.") 

Edition,  e,d%8h\on,  a  reprint  of  a  book.  An  edition  consists 
of  no  deiinite  number  of  copies.  In  novels  about  500, 
in  school  books  about  2,000,  in  popular  reprints  about 
10,000,  in  newspapers  about  20,000,  while  in  books  of 
doubtful  sale  100  copies,  would  be  fair  average  numbers. 
In  large  reprints  it  is  usual  to  state  the  number  of  copies 
an  edition  covers,  as  "  31st  edition,  167th  thousand." 

French  4diteur,  Edition ;  Latin  edttio,  editor,  v.  ido,  supine  iditvm, 
to  publish.    (Note— ^do,  to  eat,  has  e  short.) 

Educate,  ed'.u.kate,  to  teach ;  ed''ucat-ed  (B.  xxxvi.),  ed'noat-ing 
(Rule  xix.),  ed'ucat-or  (not  er.  Rule  xxxvii.) ;  education, 
ed\u.kay*' .shun ;  ed'uca'tion-al ;  ed'uca''tional-ly. 

French  Education ;  Latin  edUedtio,  ediicdtor,  edUcdre,  supine  ed&eA' 
turn,  to  teach  {ed&cdre,  to  pilot  forth). 

It  18  curious  to  trace  the  ideas  represented  by  imtyZi  used 
to  signify  education.    For  example : 

To  edify  (Lat.  €edes  facto),  to  "  make  a  temple  "  of  the  body. 

To  instruct  (Lat.  in  8truo),to  "  cram"  or  "  pile  up"  in  the  mind. 

To  educate  (Latin  e-ducdre,  ducdtor),  to  "  pilot  fbrth  "  the 
mind,  or  guide  it  safely  through  the  dangers  which  beset  it 

To  train  (Lat.  traho),  to  "  draw  "  or  **  drag  "  out  the  jwwers. 

To  teach  (Anglo-Saxon  tdcan),  technical  education,  "to 
show"  or  teach  by  "  showing  "  how  things  are  to  be  done. 

To  learn  (Ang.-Sax.  laran,  Idr),  to  obtain  "  lore"  or  wisdom. 

To  inform  (Latin  tn/an?io),  to  "  form  in  "  the  mind. 

Tuition  (Lat.  ty£or),  to  put  the  mind  in  a  state  of  **  defSsnceJ 

School  (Greek)  "  spare  time." 


»» 


AND    OF  SPELimO,  279 

Ednoe,  e.dtu^,  to  extract,  to  bring  to  light ;  educed'  (2  syL), 

educ^-ing  (Rule  xix.) 

Latin  edUeSre  (not  tiie  siune  verb  m  "edncftto,"  edUcdrt)  (fi-dOco,  to 
lead  forth,  to  draw  out). 

-ee  (Fr.  saffix),  denoting  the  object  of  some  action :  as  legatee, 
the  object  of  a  legacy;  payee,  on«  to  whom  money  is  paid. 

Eel,  heel,  heal,  ell,  helL 

Eel,  tie  (1  syl.))  a  fish.    (Old  English  dl,  an  eel.) 

Heel,  heU  (1  syl.),  part  of  the  foot.    (Old  English  h€l.) 

Heal,  hele  (1  syL),  to  cure.    (Old  English  hdl[an].) 

Ell  =  2,  a  measure  of  length.     (Old  English  eln.) 

Hell,  the  place  of  ftiture  torment.    (Old  English  hell.) 

Bvery  word  (except  eoflrer,  eagU,  and  hearat)  b^[innlng  with  ea-,  ee-, 
hea-,  and  hu-  is  Anglo-Saxon. 

E'en,  me  (1  syL),  contraction  of  the  adv.  even, 

-eer  (Fr.  suffix  -ier,  -iewr,  termination  of  nouns),  denotes  one 
employed  for  or  on  a  work,  as  engineer, 

E*er,  ere,  air,  are,  ear,  hear,  here,  hair,  hare,  heir,  year. 
E'er,  air,  contraction  of  ever.    (Old  Englisb  efre  or  dfer.) 
Ere,  air,  before  in  time.     (Old  English  dr,  before.) 
Air,  air,  atmosphere.    (Latin  aer,  the  atmosphere.) 
Are,  dr  (to  rhyme  with  far),    (Norse  plu.  of  Ang-Sax.  bed,) 
Ear,  e'r,  organ  of  hearing.    (Old  English  eare  and  ear,) 
Hear,  hS'r,  to  apprehend  with  the  •*  ear."   (Old  Eng.  hyrlan],) 
Here,  he'r,  in' this  place.    (Old  English  hSr,) 
Hair  (1  syL,  to  rhyme  with  air),  of  the  head.   (Old  Eng.  ?uir,) 
Hare,  hair,  an  animal.     (Old  English  hara,) 
Heir,  air,  the  next  male  successor.    (Latin  hares,) 
Year,  ye'r,  a  period  of  twelve  months.     (Old  English  gear,) 
-ef  (Latin  prefix  for  ex-)  before  the  letter  -/. 

Every  word  b^;inning  with  ^-  (except  effendi)  is  from  the  Latin. 
Effiace,  ef.fase^  (not  e.fase'),  to  strike  ©ut,  to  rub  out ;   effaced' 
(2  syL),  effac'-ing  (R.  xix.),  effac'-er,  efface'-able  (ce  and 
-ge  retain  the  final  -e  before  -able),  efface'-ment  (only 
five  words  drop  the  final  -6  before  -ment). 
French  effcuxr,  effapdbU;  Latin  ex  fades,  [rubbed]  from  the  surface. 

liffect  (noun  and  verb),  ef.fect'  (not  e.fecf),  the  result,  the  out- 
come of  a  cause,  infiuence,  to  accomplish. 

Affect,  to  assume,  to  move  the  affections ; 

Effects,  chattels ;  in  effect,  really,  in  reality. 

Effected,  ef,feW,ted,  accomplished; 

Affected,  af.f^.ted,  moved  in  the  heart,  artificiaL 


280  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Effect'-ing,  accomplishiog ;  Affecf-ing,  pathetic. 

Effect'-er,  better  effect-or;  efFect'-ible  (not  -ahle\ 

Effective,  ef,fS1^Mv ;   effective-ly,  effective-neaB. 

Effectual,  ef.fek\tu.al;  effec'tual-ly. 

Effectuate,  ef.fek\tu.ate,  to  accomplish,  to  bring  to  pass; 
effec'tuat-ed  (Rule  xxxv.),  effec'tuat-ing  (Hule  zix.) 

Efficacions,  ef\fi.kay**^hu8^  producing  the  effect  expected ; 

effica'cious-ly,  effica'cious-ness. 
Efficacy,  plu,  efficacies,  if-Ji.ka.9y,  if.Ji.ka^Xz  (R,  xliv.) 
Efficient,  i/Ji8h.ent;  efficient-ly,  effident-ness. 
Efficience,  if.fish'-ense;  efficiency,  if.fl8h\en.sy, 

French  ^et,  efficace,  effectuer,  ^eoHtS,  ^cient;  Latin  effeetio, 
Rector,  eiffectum,  efficddiaa,  efficax,  gen.  ^cddi,  ▼.  <tfEoia  (e/  [ex] 
f&ciOt  to  make  out  of). 

Effeminate,  Sf.fim'.i.nate  (adj.  nnd  verb),  womanish,  feeble,  to 

make  womanish ;  effem'inat-ed  (R.  xxxvi.),  effem'inat-ing 

(E.  xix.),  effem'inat-oT.  effem'inate-ly,  effem'inate-nesB ; 

effeminacy,  plu.  effeminacies,  if.fim\i.na.inz. 

French  effemiiU.  v.  effeminer;  Latin  effeminate  (adv.),  ^emmattu, 
^ffeminaiio  (Jimina,  a  woman). 

Effendi  (Master),  a  Turkish  title  which  follows  a  proper  name, 
about  equal  to  our  Esq..  as  **Ali  Effendi." 

Effervesce,   if.fer.vis',  to   froth   up;    effervesced'    (3  syl.), 

effervesc'-ing  (R.  xix.) ;  effervescence,  if\fer,vi8'aerue  ; 

effervescent,  ef.fer.ve8".8int ;  ef fervesc'-ible. 

French  effervescence,  effervescent;  Latin  effervescens,  gen.  effwvttuaUU, 
effervescentia,  effervesco  (inc»^pt.  of  effefi'veo,  to  grow  hot). 

Effete,  Sfjeeft  worn  out,  sterile.    (Lat.  effetus ;  foetus,  oflBquring.) 

Efficacious,  if. fi.kay. shits  ;  efficacy,  <S;c.    {See  Effect) 

Effigy,  plu.  effigies,  ef.fije,  if.fi.jlz,  one's  representation. 

To  bum  (or  han<?)  in  effigy,  to  bum  (or  hang)  the  image. 

French  ^gie;  Latin  effigia,  ▼.  effigidre  (Jingo,  to  fa^^hion). 

Effiorescent,  if  .fijo.rh** jsent,  flowenng;  effioresoenoe,  ifjlo,* 
ris*' .sense,    {-se-  denotes  inceptive  action.) 

Effluvia,  plu.  (the  sing,  ejfiuvium  is  not  much  used),  effigy joLSh, 
exhalation,  the  disajreable  smells  which  rise  firom  ill- 
drainage  and  putrefying  matters. 

Effluent,  ef\fiu.ent ;  effluence,  ef.fiu.ence, 

French  ^uence,  effiuent,  effluvt;  Latin  ^HAoium,  tfffnnMa  (^^[aO 
fiuens,  flowing  out  fromX 

Effort,  ef.fort,  endeavour,  exertion ;  effort-less. 

Jfrench  effort;  Latin  ef  [ex]  fortU.  the  strong  [thing]  pot  forth. 

ESronteTY,  ef\frdn.tirry  (not  e.fron'.te.ry),  impudence. 

.French  ^ff'rmUerit;  Latin  ^  lex]  fronte,  out-conntenan<rtng. 


AND  OF  SPEfJjING,  2«1 

Eifalgenoe,  tfJWf.jence^  Instre,  splenrlour;    effulgency,  plu, 
-dee,  ifjaVJSn^lz;  eflhilgent,  ff.fuVj^t;  eflhil'gent-ly. 
Latin  ^fiUgens,  gen.  ^ffiulgentU  (^  [ex]  ftUgeo,  to  shine  out). 
Effusion,  ef,fii\zhun,  a  spilling  [of  blooii];   effusive,  ef.fu\z\v; 
effa'sive-ly;  effuse,  ef.fuze^;  effused  (2  syl.),  effus-ing. 
French  tiff^uion;  Latin  effuno^  e^ffundo,  sup.  eiffOaum,  to  poor  out 
Eft  or  efet,  if'M,  a  newt  or  small  lizard.    . 

Old  EngUsh  efeU.    In  Sussex,  &o.,  called  ^et  by  the  peasantxy. 
Eftsoons  (only  used  in  poetiy),  soon,  soon  after. 

Old  English  ^-tdna,  soon  after. 
Egg,  one  of  the    14   monosyllables  (not  ending  in /,  Z,  or  s) 
-with,  the  final  consonant  doubled  (Rule  vii.) 

To  egg  (followed  by  on),  to  incite;  egged,  egd;  egg'-ing. 

"Egg"  (nonnX  Old  English  ctg;  aegea  hwite,  the  white  of  an  egg. 
"^X"  (verb).  Old  English  egg[ian],  to  incite. 

Eg^lantine,  eg\lan.tine,  the  swe^t  briar. 

Tt.  Sglantier,  the  tree  :  dglantine,  the  flower ;  Lat.  rosa  eglanteria. 

Egotist,  ig\o,ti8tt  one  who  talks  about  himself;  egoist,  ig'.o.isty 

one  who  believes  nothing  to  be  ctrrtain  except  Uiat  he 

himself  exists. 

Egotism,  iSg'.o.tXzmy  the  habit  of  self-praise ;  egoism,  ^g^.o.- 
izm,  the  faith  of  an  egoist. 

Egotistic  or  egotistical,  ^g'.oJKs' .tXk,  ^g^o.tls"  ti.Ml,  self- 
conceited;  egotis'tical-ly;  eg'otise,  eg'otised,  eg'otiS-ing. 

French  Sg&i»me,  folate;  Latin  ego,  I  (AH  Greek  sufiBbc  "one  who/' 
■ism  Greek  snffix  "system  " 

Egregious,  e.gr^^Lvs,  supereminent  (in  a  bad  sense). 

Egre'gions-ly,  egre'gious-ness. 
Latin  egriffiua  (e  grUge  {Uetwil,  picked  out  of  the  flock). 

e\gre88,  act  or  right  of  departing.    Ingress,  tbe  act  or 
right  of  entering;  egression,  e.griah'^un ;  ingression. 
Latin  egrreutM,  egreaaio,  ▼.  egridior  {e  [ex]  gradior,  to  walk  out). 

e^.grit,  a  small  white  heron.     (French  aigrette.) 
80  called  from  the  *'  aigrette  "  or  plume  in  the  head. 
Egyptian,  e,jip\8hunj  adj.  cf  Egypt,  Egyptian  language; 

Egyptology,   t.jlp.tdV'.o.jy,  study  of   the   archaeology  of 

Egypt;  Egyptologist.  e\jip.tdV\o.gUt. 
French  egyptienne;  Latin  Mgyptius,  JEgyptus;  Greek  Aigvptdi. 
Eh  ^  at  interTOgative  of  doubt    Is  it  not  so? 
Ah  sari  exclamation  of  pain,  surprise,  &o. 
Hey  t    What  is  it  you  say  ? 
Ha,  hdh  I  take  care.     Ha !  ha !  laughter. 
Heigh-ho,  hay. ho  or  hlJhd  I  expresses  weariness. 
He!  or  be!  he!  expresses  seom. 


ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 


X  [down],  %\der  (not  ^,der\  down  of  the  eider  duck. 
Gtomuui  txder;  French  eider,  M/tndon^  eider-dowxL 
;ht,  atty  a  number.    Ait,  ate,  a  river-iBland.    Ate  (1  syl.), 
past  tente  of  6aL    Hate,  to  dislike. 

Eighteen,  ate\teen;  eighteenth,  at^.t«enth ;  elghteen-mo, 
plu,  eighteen-moB  (R,  xlii.),  ate.teen\moze.  -mo  is  the  last 
syl.  of  deci-mo  (ten)  added  to  the  English  teen  (^ten). 

iiither,  S^,thSr.    Ether,  eWh^  (a  Tolatile  liquid). 

Either,  e\th^,  one  of  two,  correlative  of  or. 

Neither,  nedhSr,  not  either,  correlatiye  of  nor. 

Each,  etch,  both  one  and  the  other  of  two  articles. 

§  It  is  wrong  to  use  either  when  the  choice  lies  between 
more  than  two  things. 

§  Either  you  or  I  am  wrong;  Either  yon  or  I  are  wrong  (f). 
Either  you  or  I  are  wrong  is  the  better  grammar,  that  is, 
either  you  or  I  [toe]  are  wrong  [one  0/  im]  ;  but  custom 
has  sanctioned  the  rule,  that  Uie  verb  is  to  agree  with  the 
noun  or  pronoun  nearest  it :  "  Either  you  [are  wrong]  or 
I  am  wrong.'^  Similarly,  "Either  you  [...]  or  he  u 
wrong ; "  "  Either  he  [...]  or  you  are  wrong."  In  French, 
the  same  construction  is  observed  with  or,  Ac,  as  with  and, 
" Either/'  Old  Sng.  oegther,    "Neither,"  Old  Eog.  nathor  or  mtther. 

Ejaculate,  ejdkf.u.late,  to  call  out;  ejao'ulat-ed  (Rule  xxxviX 
ejac'idat-ing,  ejac'ulat-or;  ejaculation,^  jaA;'.ii.{ay''.«Mifi 
vociferation ;  ejaculatory,  e.j(Wu.la.t'ry, 

French  ^aculer,  ijaculation,  4J€uulatoir€,  <;aeu!aieiir. 
Latin  ^dcCUatio,  ejdeOXare  (ejde&lo,  to  hurl  out). 

Eject",  to  cast  out;  ejecf-ed  (Bule  xxxvi.),  ejecf-ing,  ^jeof- 
(Ilule  xxxvii.) ;  ejection, g.j^.«7mn;  eject-ment  (in  La' 
a  writ  to  recover  possession  of  land. 
Latin  ^eetio,  Rector,  ^jicio,  supine  Rectum  (e  jacio,  to  throw  out) 
Eke  (1  syl.),  to  add;  (noun),  a  piece  adde  1  to  a  hive  to  hoi 
and  increase  its  capacity,  (adverb)  likewise;  ekee, 
eked  (1  syl.),  ek-ing  (Rule  xix.),  t.king. 
Old  English  ede,  likewise :  edca,  an  addition ;  eetcfan],  to  eke. 

-el,  -eel,  (Latin  el\i8\  belonging  to,  capable  of:  cru-el,  belc 
to  the  cru\de'\,  raw  or  fierce ;  hdt-el,  belonging  to  tt 
or  host ;  genteel,  belonging  to  the  g^ntr)-  liens'], 

-el  (Latin  elJ{y>s]  diminutive),  lib-el,  a  little  book  (K6«r,  a 

Elaborate,  e.ldb\o.rate  (adj.  and  verb),  highly  finished, 
cated,  to  bestow  much  labour  on  ;  elah'orat-ed  (R 
elah'orat-ing  (R.  xix.)  elab'orat-or,  elaborate-' 
xvii.),  elab'orate-ly;  elaboration,  e.UW.o.ray'',s: 
Fr.  ^laborer,  Elaboration ;  1*1.  eldhOrdtio,  eldb&rdtor,  eULlOr 


AND  OF  SPELLINO,  283 

Elain  or  Elaine,  e.lay'Xn  (3  sjL,  not  e.Ume*  nor  e.lay'.ine),  the 

liquid  principle  of  oils  and  fats.    Also  written  Olein  and 

Oleine,  ol\e.ln.    The  fatty  principle  is  Stearine,  8tt.a.rin. 

"  Elain,"  Greek  daian,  olive-oil  (elaia,  the  oliye-tree). 

"Olein,"  Latin  dleum,  oil  with  the  termination  -ine,  which  denotes  a 

simple  substance,  as  chlorins. 
"  Stearine,"  Greek  gti&r,  suet,  hard  fat. 

Elapse,  e.ldps,  to  intervene,  to  pass  away;   elapsed,  elapsf; 

elape'-ing  (Bole  xix.) 

Latin  elapsio,  eldJbor,  supine  elapswn  (« [ex]  lo&or,  to  slip  away). 

Elastic,  «.2a/.t{%,  resilient ;  elastical,  e.las'.ti.kdl ;  elastioal-ly ; 

elasticity,  e,ld8\ti8''8i.ty,  resiliency. 

French  dlastique,  iUuticiU;  Greek  elaund,  to  draw  out. 

Elate,  e.late\  to  puff  up;    elat'-ed  (Bule  xxxvi.),  elafed-ly, 

elaf-ing  (Bule  xix.);  elation  (not  elasion),  e.lay'^hun 

(not  a  French  word),  joy  and  pride  of  success. 

Latin  dctUo  [tf  [ex]  fero,  suf.  « [ex]  latvm,  to  carry  out  [of  oneself  J). 

Elbow,  SV.ho,  the  joint  of  the  arm  between  the  shoulder  and 
wrist,  a  turn  like  the  arm  bent,  to  push  or  jostle ; 

labowed,  SV.lode ;  ellww-ing ;  ellx>w-room,  ample  room. 
At  your  elbow,  close  at  hand. 

Out  at  elbows,  shabby,  reduced  in  circumstances. 
Old  Eng.  tlnboga,  the  elbow  (eln  hoga,  bow  of  the  arm ;  Lat.  vhia). 
Elder,  H',d^,  a  tree,  a  ruler  of  the  Presbyterian  church,  a  senior. 
Eld,  old.     Eldj  an  old  person  (noun);  old,  aged  (adj.) 
El'der,  prior  in  years ;  Older,  more  aged. 

El'dest,  first  born ;  Oldest,  most  aged. 
Elder  and  eldest  have  no  relation  to  number  of  years,  the 
eldest  bom  may  or  may  not  have  lived  more  years  than 
the  youngest.  Thus  "  my  youngest  son  is  now  twenty, 
his  eldest  brother,  or  my  eldest  son,  died  in  infancy." 
Similarly :  "  tis  elder  brother  died  in  infancy,"  the  num- 
ber of  days  or  years  that  the  child  lived  is  beside  the 
question.  Elder  and  eldest  refer  to  priority  of  years; 
older  and  oldest  to  duration. 

"Elder**  [tree],  cormption  of  Ellar.    Old  Eng.  eUam,  the  elder-tree. 
"Elder"  (senior).    Old  English  eald,  old;  ecUdw  (an  elder),  yldrcL. 
(comp.).  yldeste  (super.) 

^  ^^orado,  el  do.rdh\do  or  el  do.ray\do,  a  country  of  fabulous 
wealth.      The  country  which    OreUa'na,  lieutenant  of 
Pizarro  pretended  to  have  discovered  in  South  America. 
Spanish  el  dorado,  the  golden  [country]. 
*l«campane,  SV.e.kam'.pain,  the  plant  hSlSn'ium.    So  called, 
says  Pliny  21,  33,  because  it  is  feigned  to  have  sprung 
from  Helen's  tears.    The  French  call  it  orU  de  cheval. 
lAtin  inMa  (for  hM^nium)  eampdna,  Helen's  bell-floweT. 


284  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Electy  edekff  to  oboose^    The  elect,  those  who  are  chosen. 

Elect'-ed  (Bule  scxxvi.),  elect'-ing,  elecf -or, /i?m.  elecfress, 
one  who  has  a  right  of  electing,  one  elected  to  rule  in  a 
German  electorate;  elec'tor-al. 

Election,  e.lik\8hun;  electioneer,  e.l^'.8hun-eer^,  to  use 
exertion  to  promote  the  election  of  an  M.P.,  &o. 

Elec'tioneer'-ing ;  elec'tidneer'-eir,  one  who  electioneers. 

Elective,  e.lek'.tlv;  elec'tive-ly ;   electorate,  e,Wc^.to,rate, 

Elite,  a.leeif,  the  flower  of  society.    (See  Eligible.) 

French  Section,  ileet%f^  Electoral,  Slectorat,  ^leeteur,  ileetreta,  ^UU. 
Latin  electio,  elector,  eligo  {e-lego,  to  pick  out). 

Electricity,  plu.  electricities^  e\lek.tri8^\i.t%z  ;  elec'tric  or  eleo'- 
trical  {ado.)i  elec'trioal-ly ;   electrician,  e\Uh.tr%»V'um^ 

one  skilled  in  the  science  of  electricity; 

"EiecintYi  e.lSk\tri.fy ;  electrifies,  «.Z^.<H.^«;  eleottified, 
e.lek\tri.Jide;  elec'trify-ing  (Rule  xi.);  electrifiaUe, 
e.Wff ,tri.f%'\a.Vl ;   electrification,  e.leW.Wlfi.ha'y" ahun ; 

Electrise,  e.lek\trize ;  elec'trised  (3  syL),  eleo'tadiB-ing 
(R.  xix.),  elec'trls-er;  electrisation,  e.Wt\trLzay"jtTwn: 
electris-able  (these  are  French  forms,  tlule  xxxi.) 

Electrine,  e.lek.trln,  pertaining  to  amber. 

Latin  electrum,  amber ;  -ine  {-inus),  pertaining  to. 
Electrode,  e.lek\trode,  the  direction  of  the  electric  stream. 

Greek  iUktrdn  and  hddos,  the  road  or  way  [of  the  electric  ■tream). 

Electrolysis,  e' .lek.troV\i.8l8,  decomposition  effected  by  elec- 
tricity.   (Greek  SlektrSn  and  lusis,  dissolution.) 

Electrolyte,  e,lek\troditej  a  substance  which  can  be  decom- 
posed by  electricity ;  elec'trolyt'lc. 
Greek  SlektrOn  and  Itiomai,  to  be  loosened  or  decomposed. 

Electrophorus,  e.l^\tr}jf\S.ru8  (not  e,Wc\tro,fc^*jnu),  an 

instrunient  for  collecting  or  condensing  electricity. 
Greek  ilektrdn  and  phdrio,  to  convey  or  carry  [electricity]. 

Electroscope^  edek\trd.8kope,  an  instrument  for  taking  the 
existence,  character,  and  force  of  electricity;    elmrtio- 
scopic  or  electroscopical,  e.lik\tro,8k5p''A.kdl  (a^j.) 
Greek  iWctrdn  and  8k6p€o,  to  surrey,  to  examine  [electrldty]. 

Electrotype,  edek^.trd.tipe,  a  deposited  metallic  impreesioii 

obtained  by  electro-galvanism, 
Greek  6Uklr&n  tUpos,  a  type  or  image  [obtai&ed  by  eleotrkili|% 
Electmm,  better  electron,  e-lik^.trdn,  a  natural  alloy. 

Electro-,  -chemistry,  -biology,  -dynam'ios,  •] 
-metallurgy,  -plaling. 


AND  OF  SPELLING,  2J»5 

Electrometer,  e*. lSk.tr omf.e.tSr,  an  instrument  for  measariog 
the  tension  or  quantity  of  electric  fluid ;  electromefrical. 

Greek  iWeMn  and  mStrUnt  a  metre  or  measure  [of  electricity]. 

French  ilectrique,  Electricity,  SlectrisablCy  ilectriaaiion,  6lectriur, 
iUetromttre,  dlectrophore,  Electroscope;  Latin  electrum;  Greek  ilic- 
irdfn,  amber.  Thalds  (b.o.  600)  noticed  the  electrical  property  of 
rubbed  amber  In  attractiiig  small  substaaces. 

Eleetoary,  plu.  electuaries,  e.ViJtf,tu.a.riz,  an  opiate  confection. 
Latin  electiMurium;  Greek  ek  leicho,  to  lick  np. 

EleemoByiiary,  eV .e.e.m68'' .i.ner ry  (seven  syllables,  not  six). 

Latin  eUinnosyndTiu*,  eleimosynaria,  an  almoner;  Greek  iU&mdaunSf 
pity  {^e6,  to  have  pity). 

Elegance,  H'.e.gance;    el'egant,  eregant-ly;    elegancies  (no 
sing.),  SV.e.gdnMZt  embellishments. 
Fr.  iUganee,  iUgani  ;  Lat.  eUfjoM,  eUgantia  (e-Iego,  to  pick  out). 

ElAgy,  plu.  elegiee,  &,'.e.giz,  a  funeral  or  mournful  song ;  elegiac, 
(LejWdh  (not  el.e'.ji.ak) ;  eregist,  one  who  writes  elegies. 

Elegise,  iV.e.jize  (Rule  xxxii.),  el^egised,  el'egis-ing. 
Fr.  dUgie,  iUgiaque;  Lat.  i^gla,  iUfgldcus  (Gk.  iligeia,  iUgeids). 

Element,  ^r.«.fnent,  an  uncompounded  or  simple  body;  el'emental, 
pertaining  to  first  principles ;  elemen'tary,  rudimentary. 

The  elen^ents  (of  Aristotle^  fire,  air,  earth,  and  water;  (of 
alchemists)  salt,  sulphur,  and  mercury. 

Out  of  one's  element,  out  of  one's  sphere. 
French  iUmint,  4l£menta4re;  Latin  Omentum,  EUmentdritu. 

Elemi,  iV,i.viy  (not  e.le€'my)^  a  resinous  substance  brought  from 
Ethiopia;   elemine,  SV.e.mln^  the  crystallised  resin  of 
el$mi  sometimes  used  in  lacquer. 
Frendi  iUmi;  Italian,  Spanish,  &c.,  elemi. 

Elephant,  {maU)  bull  elephant,  (fern.)  cow  elephant. 

Elephantine,  SV.e,fan*'t%n,  very  large,  pertaining  to  ele- 
phants; elephantoid,  eV.e.jan\toid  or  elephantoidal, 
il\e,fdn.toid\dlf  having  the  form  of  an  elephant. 

Elephantiasis,  SV.e.fdn.t%\a.8ls,  a  disease  affecting  the  legs 

and  feet  which  swell  and  look  rough  like  an  elephant's. 

French  iUphanty  iUphantxasiSt  elephantin;   Latin   eUpJumiidcus, 
tUphantii&siSy  eUfphanttu;  Greeik.  iUfphcu. 

Eleyate,    il\e.vate,   to    raise    up ;    erevat-ed    (Rule    xxxvi.), 

erevat-ing  (Rule  xix.),  erevat-or,  erevatory ;  elevation, 

l^,e.vay''.8hun,  height,  exaltation. 

French  ^Ztfver,  iUvaiion,  iUvaXeur,  iUvaioire;  Latin  eUMtiOf  eliodfre 
{e  I^vo,  to  raise  from  [a  lower  state]). 

EleTon,  e.Uv'.en  (a  numeral);  eleventh,  e.Wv'.enth  (an  ordinal), 
eleventh-ly  (adv.) 
Old  English  endleof,  eleven ;  endl%fla  or  endl^a,  the  eleventh.  ^ 


iS  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

filf,  plu.  el^es  (not  elfs).  Nonns  in  -If  make  the  plural  by 
changing  -/  into  -»«»,  as  "df"  elves^  "self*  selves^ 
"shelf"  shelves,  "calf-  ealvtt,  "half"  hahfes,  "wolf" 
wolves  (Kule  xxxviii.) 

Elfin,  SV.fxn;  el'flsh  {-ish  added  to  nouns  means  "like," 
added  to  adj.  it  is  daoL.);  el'flsh-lj,  •I'fish-neis^  elf-lock. 
Old  English  df,  plu.  e\f(u,  eJftn;  Frendi  iif  and  Hfty  pla.  tlftB. 
Elgin  marbles,  el.gin  {-gin  as  in  "  begin  "),  Greek  sculptures  in 
the  British  Museum  collected  by  Lord  Elgin. 

EUdt,  e.W.U,  to  draw  out ;  elicit-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.)*  elicit-ing ; 
elicitation,  e.U8\i.tay".8hun  (not  French). 
Latin  elieitatio,  elMo,  supine  elMtwn  («  [ex]  laeU,  to  lure  out). 
Elide,  e.lidef,  to  "  strike  out"  a  vowel  or  syllable;  elid'-ed  (Rule 
xxxvi.),  elid'-ing  (Rule  xix.) ;  elision,  e,lizh\uii, 
Fr.  ilider,  ilinon;  Lat.  €llaio,  eUdenSf  didd,  sup.  eitdum  («  [ex]  kedoy. 
Eligible,  H'.i.jl.b%  suitable,  qualified ;  d'igibly ;  eligible-nees, 
iV^i.jtb'Lness ;  eligibility,  ^Vd.ji.hW'.i.ty,  suitableness. 
French  iUgibU;  Latin  iUgo  (e  [ex]  Ugo,  to  pick  out). 

Eliminate,  e,l%m\i.nate,  to  cnst  out,  to  get  rid  of;  elim'inat-ed 
(Riile  xxxvi.),  elim'inat-ing  (Rule  xix.),  eliminatian, 
e.Um' .i.nay'' ^hun,  rejection,  a  getting  rid  of. 

French  Elimination,  iliminer ;   Latin  dimindiiOt  e{{mfndr«  (e  [ex] 
limen,  [to  turn]  out  of  doors). 

"EliBionf  e.lizh'.un.    (/Sf<>£  Elide. ) 

Elite,  a.Uetf,  the  "  pick  "  of  society,  the  best  men  of  the  army. 

French  6liU;  Latin  electus  (e  [ex]  lego,  to  pick  out). 
Elixir,  e.lix'.ir,  a  compound  tincture ;   elix'ate,  to  extract  by 
boiling;  elix'at-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.),  elix'at-ing  (Rule  xix.); 
elixalion,  e' Xix. d^' .shun,  decoction  into  tincture. 
Fr.  ilixir  {"  elixation "  is  not  Fr.);  Latin  dixir,  eUtogrt,  to  seettM. 
Elizabethan,  e.liz\a.beeth'\ant  the  style  in  vogue  in  the  reig? 
of  Queen  Elizabeth.    (Cbiefly  applied  to  arehiUcture.) 

Elk,  a  moose-deer.    (Old  English  etch.) 
Ell,  L,  hell,  eel,  heel,  heaL 

Ell,  a  measure  of  length ;  L,  one  of  the  four  Hqnids. 

Hell,  the  place  of  future  torment.    (Old  English  hell) 

Eel,  Ble  (1  syl.),  a  fish.    (Old  English  dl) 

Heel,  part  of  the  foot.    (Old  English  Ml) 

Heal,  hele  (1  syl.),  to  cure.    (Old  English  h4S[an\.) 
Ellipse,  plu.  ellipses,  el.llps',  elMp^sez  (not  eJlip^,  an  OTal  fi 

EHipais,  plu.  ellipses,  el.lip\sis,  &c.  (not  e.lip'Mtf  Sso. 

Ellip'tic  or  ellip'tical,  pertaining  to  an  eUipse ; 

Ediptic,  ek.lip\tik,  the  apparent  annual  path  of  the 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  287 


Ellip'tical-ly  (not  t.llp'.ti.kal.ly). 

Ellipsoid,  etlip' ,8oid,  a  solid  fignre  formed  by  the  revolation 
of  an  ellipse  abont  its  axis.  (Gk.  eUeipsis  eidoty  ellipse-like.) 

Ellipflaidal,  eV.lipfoV'ddl,  a^j.  of  ellipMid. 

EUipBOgrapb,  eHip\8o.graf,  an  instroment  for  describing 

a  semi-ellipse.    (Gk.  elleipsis  grapho,  to  describe.) 

French  ellipse,  ellipsoide,  elliptique,  ellipticitd;  Latlii  eUipHs;  Greek 
^fUeipntf  a  defect  (el  kipo,  to  leave  behind). 

Elm  (1  8yl.»  not  el'm),  a  tree.    (Old  Eoglish  elm;    Latin  ulmtu.^ 

IBlocntiaii)  ^.o.ku'\8hnn,  oratory;   elocn'tion-ist,  a  teacher  of 
elocution;  elocutionary,  el'.o.ka".8huji.a,ry ; 

Eloqnent,  eV.o.quent;  el'oqnent-ly ;  eroqnenoe,  oratory. 

French  ilocution,  Eloquence,  Eloquent;    Latin    eldcHtio,   eldquium, 
trUfquenHa,  eW^fuens,  gen.  eldquentis,  y.  elOquor,  to  speak  out. 

Elongate,  e.ldn'.gate^  to  extend ;    elon'gat-ed   (Rule  xxxvi.), 

elon'gat-ing ;  elongation,  e\Un.gay*\8hun. 

Fr.  ^xmgaiion  (term  in  Agiron  ],  the  angle  at  the  earth  made  by  a  line 
drawn  to  the  sun  and  some  other  planet ;  Lat.  elongcure  {JLongua). 

Elope,  e.lope\  to  run  away  with  a  man  with  the  view  of  mariviug 
him,   without   the    consent    of  parents   or   guardians ; 
eloped'  (2  syl.),  elop'-ing  (R.  xix.) ;  elopement,  e.lope'ment. 
Genuan  enfkmfen,  to  run  away ;  entlaufung,  elopement. 
El'oqnent,  el'oqnent-ly ;  eroqnence.     {See  Elocution.) 

Else  ^1  syL),  besides,  otherwise,  other  person  or  thing ;  elsewhere. 
Old  English  dies,  else ;  elUs-hwcer,  elsewhere. 

finodate,  e.lii  .8i.date,  to  make  clear,  to  explain ;  elu'cidat-ed, 
elu'cidat-ing,   elu'cidat-or,   elu'cidatory ;    elucidation, 
e,W M.day'\8hun ;  elucidative,  e.lu'.si.day.Viv. 
Frenoih  ^Ittcider,  6Vwsidat%on;  Latin  eluciddtio,  elucidofre  (Jmx,  light). 

®ude,  e.ludefy  to  evade,  to  escape;    elud'-ed  (Rule  xxxvi.), 
elud'-ing  (Rule  xix.),  elud'-er,  elud'-ible ; 

Delude',  to  deceive,  delud'-ed,  delud'-ing,  delud'-er. 
Elusion,  e.lu,8hun,  evasion.    Delu'sion,  deception. 
Elusive,  e.lu\8iv,  evasive ;  elu'sive-ly.   Delu'sive,  deceptive. 
Elusory,  e.lyf^o.ry,  unreal ;  elu'sori-ness,  unreality. 
Delusory,  de.lu\8o.ryy  tending  to  deceive ;  delu'sori-ness. 
French  4lvder;  Latin  eWMo,  eludSre,  snp.  elunun  (liido,  to  play). 
^^Eii,  eV.van  (in  mine8),  a  dyke  of  porphyritic  rock  crossing  or 
interfering  with  the  metal. 

^▼eg,  elvz,  plu.  of  elf.     (See  Elf. ) 

^ysian,  eMz'.i.an  (not  e.lizK.an  nor  e.lizh' .e.an). 

Elysium,  e.Viz'.i.um  (not  edizh'.e.um),  the  abode  of  bliss. 
(The  **y"  shows  the  word  to  he  of  Greek  origin.) 

Lat  Elysium,  elysvusiad].) ;  Gk.  ilusion(hi6,  to  loose  [from  the  body]). 


2««  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Em-  (Latin  in-,  French  and  Greek  en-),  a  prefix  before  -&,  -j),  or 
-m,  and  meaning  in,  into,  on, 

Em-  (Old  Eng.  prefix),  means  *♦  to  make,**  "  to  collect  into". 
(Much  confusion  arises  from  the  slipshod  use  of  «m-  and 
tm-,  but  they  are  widely  different  in  meaning.  **Em-" 
(our  native  prefix)  means  to  make,  to  collect  into ;  but 
"  Im-"  is  either  tlie  preposition  in  softened  before  b,p,  and 
m,  or  else  a  negative  joined  to  an  a^jectiye,) 

'em,  a  contraction  of  them, 

(Look  under  im-  for  words  not  inserted  wider  em-,) 

Emacerate  or  macerate,  e.mas'se.rate  (q.v.) 

Emaciate,  e.mdshf  .S.ate,  to  become  thin,  to  lose  flesh ;  emaciated, 
e.vfuish\S.dMd  (Rule  xxxvi.);   emaciat-ing  (Rule  zix.); 
emaciation,  e.mush'.S.d'^shun,  leanness. 
French  6maci6,  dmaciation;  Latin  emacichre  (e  maeer,  to  make  lean). 

Emanate,  em\a.nate  (not  eminate),  to  issue  from ;  em'ana-ted 
(Kulexxxvi.),  em'anat-ing;  emsaiB.Uon,em\a.nay''jhun. 
Fr.  Smaner,  Emanation:  Lat.  emdndtia  (e  mdndre,  to  flow  outX 

Emancii)ate,  e.m^n\8i.pate,  to  set  at  liberty ;  eman'cipat-ed 
(H.  xxxvi.);  eman'cipat.ing  (R.  xix.),  eman'oipat-or ; 
emancipation,  e.mdn'.si.pay^'^hun;  emancipa'tionigt. 

Emancipist,  e.man'.si.pist,  an  Australian  convict  who  has 
regained  his  liberty  and  become  a  free  man. 

French  imanciper,  Emancipation;  Latin  emancip&tio,  emancipdrt, 
Mandpium  is  mantt-capio,  taken  in  the  hand  as  a  rightful  poieee- 
sion ;  e-mancipium,  is  "delivered  out  of"  the  hand.  In  Borne,  a 
father  freed  his  son  thus :  He  first  sold  him  to  a  stranger,  where- 
upon he  lost  all  rights  oT^^r  him,  and  the  stranger  had  him  as  a 
"slave-chattel."  The  stranger  then  mannmited  him  as  he  would 
any  ordinary  slave.  Hence  to  emancipate  is  "to  give  up  poesee^ 
sion,"  but  manumit  is  to  "set  free"  Imanu  mittire). 

Emasculate,  e.mm'.ku.late,  to  unman ;  emas'culat^ed,  emas'ca- 
lat-ing,  emas^culat-or;  emasculation,e.maa'.^.2a^''^Mm. 

French  EmasctUer,  &maMulation;  Latin  em/uc&lator,  emoec^ldrs 
(e  mas,  [to  remove]  from  the  male  kind). 

Embalm,  em.harm\  to  fill  a  dead  body  with  spices,  Ac; 
embalmed,  em.barmed' ;  embalming,  em,barm',ing ; 
embalmer,  em.barm\er;    embalm'-ment. 

Fr.  em^umer,  embaumeur,  emhaum£merU  ;  Latin  im  [in]  (oMhman, 
[to  put]  balsams  or  balms  in  [a  body]. 

Embank',  to  inclose  or  protect  with  a  bank ;  embanked'  (8  qrL), 
embank'-ing,  embank'-ment. 

Old  English  banc,  a  bank,  and  prefix  em-,  "to  make**  [a  bank]. 

Embargo,  plu.  embargoes  (Rule  xlii.),  em^bar^.goze,  an  cider  to 
prohibit  a  ship's  leaving  port  or  trading  for  a  stated  time. 


I 


AS'D   OF  SPELLING,  «» 

to  pnt  this  restraint  on  a  ship;   emhar'goed  (3  syl.), 
embia^go-ing.    {See  Quarantine. ) 
(Followed  by  on;  "There  is  an  embargo  on..."  *' to  pnt 
an  embargo  on...**    French  mettre  embargo  sur.,.) 

fi^MUiiah  embarifo,  ▼.  emhaargar;  French  em5ari7o. 

to  go  or  pat  on  board  ship;   embarked'  (2  syl.), 
embark'-ing ;  embarkation,  em* iar.kay'' jihun, 
(There  is  no  reason  why  the  **k"  should  he  changed  to  t 
in  **  ewharkation*' ) 

Wnach  embarquert  embarquemeiU  (**  embarkation  "  la  not  French).     ' 
em.haf'ras  (double  r  and  double  «),  to  perplex; 
embaT^raased  (3  syl.),  embar'rass-ment. 

French  emibamu,  embamuser  (barren  a  barX 

plu.  embaasiea,  em\ha8.8iZj  the  charge  of  an  ambas* 

sador,  an  ambassador  and  his  suite,  an  express  message 

■ent  ofllcially  to  a  foreign  nation ;  em'bassage  (3  syl.) 

(It  is  very  inconsistent  to  spell  "ambassador"  with  "a** 

and  **  embassy  "  with  "  e."    See  Amend,  Emendation. ) 

Fr.  omftosMde,  ambassador;  Med.  Lat.  amboMia;  Keltic  ambael,  a 
minister ;  in  Italian  both  are  spelt  with  a,  bat  in  Spanish  with  e. 

Embattle,  em.bdt^.t%  to  put  in  battle  array  ;   embattled,  «m.. 

baf.fld;  embattling,  em,bat\tling ; 

Bmbaftle-ment,  an  indented  parapet;  embaftlement-ed 

or  embaftled,  furnished  with  battlements. 

Fr.  embataUUr;  Welsh  baiel  with  em-,  "  to  collect  into"  [battle  array]. 

Bnibay',  to  enclose  in  a  bay ;  embayed'  (2  syl.),  embay'-ing. 

Old  Engllwh  hyije,  a  bay ;  French  baie,  with  em-,  *'  to  make.*' 

Embed",  to  lay  in  a  bed  of  sand,  earth,  (fee. ;  embedd'-ed  (Rule 

xxxTi«),  embedd'-ing  (Rule  L),  embed'-ment 

Old  English  bed  or  bctd,  with  em-,  "  to  collect  into"  [a  bed]. 

EmbelliBh,   em.belV.ish,  to    beautify;    embell'ished    (3    syl.^, 

embell'ish-ing,  embell'ish-ment,  embell'ish-er. 

Frendi em5ettir, em&eUiwettr,  embdlisaemtint  i  Latin  heUuSf  "pretty," 
with  em-,  "to  make"  [pretty]. 

Ember  days,  Wednesday,  Friday,  and  Saturday  of  Ember  weeks. 
Emb^  Weeki,  corruption  of  German  quatember,  a  contrac- 
tion of  qtLatfuor  tem'pora  {quaV-  tempor%  foirr  times  [a 
year],  Quadragesima  Sunday,  Whit  Sunday,  Holyrood 
Day  in  September,  and  St.  Lucia's  Day  in  December, 

EmbezB  (no  sing,)^  em',herzy  cinders  or  ashes  still  hot. 

Old  Ens^h  dmyris,  hot  ashes. 
Embezzle,    em,be3!'a%   to   pilfer;     embezzled.    em,b&s\g*ld; 
embezzling;  embcB'zle-ment,  embezzler, 
Korman  embeasUer  or  beseiery  to' filch. 
Embitter,  em,Mt^.ter,  to  make  bitter  or  sad ;   embittered,  ?m.. 
bif.terd;  embitter-ing.     (Not  tm&itt^,  seeEm-.^ 

Old  English  Mter,  bitter,  with  em-,*' to  make "  Cbltterl.  J 

r 


290  ERRORS  OF  SPEECn 

Enablazon,  emJblay^ .zon  (not  emMcLz' .on)^   to    make   heraldic 

designs,  to  deck  in  gorgeous  colours,  to  land,  to  reveal ; 

embla'zoned    (3    syl.),    embla'zon-ing,    embla'zon-er, 

embla'zon-ment,  embla^zon-ry. 

French  hUu&nnerf  hloBon  (Oerman  hUum^  to  prooUim  by  henld,  who 
announced  the  coat  armour  of  each  knight,  hence  called  Uowmry). 

Emblem,  ^m'.bUm,  a  type;  emblematio  or  emblematical, 
hn\hVi.mdif'Xk,  i^m\bVi.mat",i.kdl;  emblemat'ical-ly. 

Emblemise,    em'.hle.mizey    to    represent    emblematically ; 

em'hlemised  (3  syL),  em'blemis-ing  (Bule  xix.) 

French  emhlime^  emblimatique;  Latin  emblema;  Greek  ^mbUmtk. 
(There  is  no  siLch  Greek  word  as  emblemizo,  Kule  xzziL) 

Embody,  emMd'.y,  to  incorporate;   embod'y-ing;    embodied, 
enU)6d'.id  (Rule  xi.);  embodl-ment. 
Old  English  bodig,  a  "  body,"  with  em-  "  to  ooUect  into  "  [a  body). 
Embolden,  em.bowV.den,  to  make  bold ;  emboldened,  em.b&wV- 
dend;  emborden-ing,  embol'den-er. 
Old  English  b^d,  with  em-  "  to  make  **  [bold]. 
Embonpoint  (French),  an.bo'n,pwoin't  in  good  plight. 

Emborder,  em.bo7^.dert  to  adorn  with  a  border  (not  emboarder); 
embor'dered  (3  syl.),  embor'der-ing. 
C' Border"  should  be  bordure.    It  is  not  an  agent,) 
Old  English  bord,  a  border ;  French  bordure^  with  emr,  **  to  make." 

Emboeom,  em.booz\um  (not  em.buz\um  nor  em.boze\um)f  to  snr- 

round  with  trees ;   embos'^omed  (3  syL),  emboB'om-iag. 

More  correctly  imbod'om,  imbos'omed,  imbos'oming. 

Old  English  bdsm,  the  bosom,  with  im-  for  in,  [to  hold]  in  the  boflom. 
To  "  embosom  "  means  to  "  collect  into  the  bosom,**  of  "  to  make  a 
bosom."  A  charch  is  imboMmed  in  trees,  but  children  en^bosom 
flowers ;  i.e.,  collect  them  into  their  bosom. 

Emboss',  to  ornament  with  stamped  patterns  in  relief;  embowed^ 
(2  syl.),  emboss'-ing,  emboss'er,  emboss'-ment.  (Not im-.) 
French  bosu,  a  "knob"  or  "protuberance,"  with  em-,  "to  make.** 

Embonchnre,  em\boo,shure'  (in  French  an' .boo\shiii^,  (As  the 
word  is  quite  naturalised,  it  is  mere  affectation  as  well  as 
wrong  to  call  it  arrn-  or  an^-boo-shoor^.)  The  month  of 
a  river,  the  opening  of  a  chimney,  &c. 

Embow  (not  imbow)  ("  bow"  to  rhyme  with  grow\  to  make  into 
a  bow;  embowed'  (2  syl.),  embow'-ing. 

Old  English  bedh,  anything  made  into  a  ring,  hence  a  "bow,"  rASk 
em-,  "  to  make"  [a  bow  or  bay]. 

Embowel,  enubSw^U  ("  bow  "  to  rhyme  with  now),  to  take  ont  tlie 
bowele ;  embow'eled  (3  syl.),  embow'el-ing,  embow'el-er, 
embow'el-ment,  evisceration. 

▲n  ill-formed  word,  from  Latin  e  [to  take]  "ont,**  sad  fba 
boel,  a  boweL  Debowel  (de  privatlye)  wuald  be  bettw,  tor  i 
can  only  mean  "  to  put  bowels  in,"  and  not  to  "  take  theni  ««<.' 


AND  OF  SPELLING.  Ml 


Embowar,  ewLbiSw'.^  ("l»ow"  to  rhyme  with  now\  to  shelter 
with  a  bower ;  emhow'ered  (3  syl.),  embow^er-ing. 
Old  English  6tir,  "  a  bower/'  with  ei»-,  **  to  niAke"  [a  bower]. 
Embrace'  (2  syl.).  to  hug,  to  clasp  in  the  arms ;   embraced' 
(2  syL),  embrae'-ing  (R.  xix.),  embrac'-er,  embrace'-ment. 
French  Mvt&roMer,  embroMtemeid  Qmu,  the  arm,  Latin  JtrdcKium). 
Xmliraoery,  emJtrac€^.e.ry,  an  attempt  to  bias  a  trial  by  bribery. 
LawLat.  embraccaJtor ;  Law Fr.  embrOMmr,  one  goilty  of  8nboroati>>n. 
EmbrMnire,  em.hray' .zhur,  an  opening  in  a  wall  designed  for 
men  to  shoot  through  at  persons  outside. 
Frenidk  «m5fKU«re,  t.  embrouer,  to  fire  from. 
Embrocatioii,  em\bro.kay''^hun,  a  fomentation,  a  lotion. 

Fr.  tmbrocatUm;  Gk.  em  hridio,  to  foment  (brieho,  to  wet  the  toffaoe). 
Emlxoider,  em.hnnj^.der^  to  ornament  with  needlework;   em- 
broidered, em.hroy\derd ;  embrdy^der-ingjemfarosr'der-er, 
embroi'dery,  ornamental  needlework. 

French  broder,  broderie;  Welsh  brodio^  to  embroider;  brodiog,  em- 
tooidttred;  brodiad,  embroidery.    Em^  "to  make"  [broderie]. 

Embroil  (2  syl.),  to  involve  in  a  quarrel;  embroiled'  (2  syl.), 

embioil''-ing,  embroil'-er,  embroil'-ment,  disturbance. 
Fr.  tmJbrotnlltrf  embroviUement  {brouillerf  to  throw  into  confusion). 
Embrown^  to  make  brown ;  embrowned',  embrown'-ing. 

Old  "BiweUfch  briknj  *' brown,"  with  em-  "  to  make"  [brown]. 
Embrae,  enuhru'  (not  imbrue),  to  stain  with  blood ;  embm'-ing 

(Rule  xix.);  embmed,  eM.brude\    (See  Em-.) 
Graek  &rtf[tos],  "  gore,"  with  etiir  *•  to  make  "  [gory]. 
Embryo,  plu.  embryos,  em\hn,oze  (Rule  xlii.),  the  rudiments  of 

organic  bodies,  a  crude  foi-m,  {adj.)  rudimentary;  em- 

bzyonio,  em'.hriMWky  relating  lo  embryos ;  embryology, 

em\bri.oV\o.gy,  the  science   which  treats  of  embryos; 

embriologist,  emf,bri.oV\o.gist,  one  skilled  in  embriology. 
Gk»ek  embriixni  IdgdSj  a  discourse  about  embryos. 
Embryotomy,  em*.bri.ot".o.my,  a  Csesarian  operation. 
Oreek  embrSum  tdnU,  a  cutting  out  of  an  embryo  or  fcetus. 
Emliryo-flac,  the  cellular  bag  which  contains  aD  embryo. 

(The  "y  "  shows  that  these  words  are  from  the  Greek,  hut 

embryon  would  be  mme  correct  than  " embryo"  which  is 

a  phonetic  spelling  of  the  French  word.) 
Frenob,  Spanish,  Latin  embryon;  Italian  em&ryone;  Greek  embr&dn. 
EmendatioB,  e\m^i.day^'^huny  correction  of  faults;  emendator, 

e.ml&n.da\tor ;  emen'datory, 
Amend',  to  correct  faults ;  amend'-ed  ( R.  xxxvi.),  amend'-ing, 

amend'- ment,  amend'-able,  amen'datory. 
This  double  form  of  prefix  is  to  be  regretted,  the  "  e'^Jbrm  is  Latin, 

the  "a"  form  French.      A  menda  means  "without  fault"  or 

"  faultless : "   e  menda  means  "  purged  of  faults. " 
lAttn  enMndS/TBt  to  purge  of  faults ;    French  amender,  om^ncf ement,  ^ 

amendabU.    The  Latin  prefix  is  to  be  preierxed.  ^M 


m  ERRORS  OF  SPEECH 

Emerald,  (im\esuld  (not  (im\e,ra,l),  a  precious  stona  (green); 
Emerald  Me,  Ireland,  noted  for  its  verdure. 
Ok.  smaragdiis:  Lat.  miaragdtu;  ItaL  tmeraldo;  Span.  e$mamldo. 
Emerge,  e.merge\  to  rise  np  to  the  surface,  to  issue  from ; 
Immerge'  or  immerse'  (2  syL),  to  plunge  under  water. 
Emerge'^    emerged'    (2    syl.),    emerg'-lng    (Rule    xix.), 
emerg'ent,  emer'gent-ly ;   emerg'-ence. 

Emer'genqy,  plu.  emergencies,  e.met^^gen^iz  (Rule  zliy.>,  a 
special  case  unexpectedly  "merging  out  of"  the  usual 
routine,  a  pressing  necessity  (not  imnUrgency), 

Emersio